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Chapter 3 Lipids
Answer, K/A, page(s) K = knowledge question; A = application question
F K 62 1. A triglyceride must contain specific combinations of fatty acids.
F K 66 2. High intakes of saturated and trans fat increase the risk of heart disease by lowering LDL and raising HDL cholesterol.
T K 66-68 3. Not all fatty acids have the same cholesterol-raising effect.
T K 72 4. Foods that are thought of as protein-rich foods may actually contain more fat energy than protein energy.
T K 74 5. It is possible to consume too little fat.
F K 76 6. Research has shown that fat substitutes are always effective at promoting weight loss.
a K 60 1. Fat functions in the body to:
a. provide energy.
b. regulate body processes.
c. build muscle tissue.
d. synthesize enzymes.
b K 60 2. The body fuel that can be stored in unlimited amounts is:
c K 60-61 3. Which of the following does not describe a function of fat?
a. It provides insulation to the body.
b. It is an essential constituent of cell membranes.
c. It is the best source of energy for the brain.
d. It is a storage form of energy.
a K 61 4. Which of the following fats predominates in the diet and in the body?
a K 61 5. The compound that forms the backbone of triglycerides is called:
b. fatty acid.
c. acetic acid.
a K 61 6. Fatty acids are packaged with _____ to make a triglyceride.
c K 62 7. The term unsaturated fat means that:
a. its carbon chains contain fewer than ten carbons.
b. the fat lacks glycerol.
c. hydrogens are missing in the fatty acid chains.
d. the fat is solid at room temperature.
b K 62 8. A fatty acid with two or more double bonds is described as:
b K 62 9. Which of the following contains the softest fat?
a. pork fat
b. chicken fat
c. beef tallow
c K 62 10. When exposed to oxygen, fats can become _____.
d. trans fats
b K 63 11. Food producers hydrogenate unsaturated fatty acids in order to:
a. make them softer.
b. give foods a longer shelf life.
c. make them more healthy.
d. reduce the kcalories in a food.
a K 63 12. Trans-fatty acids are:
a. naturally found in some foods.
b. beneficial to health.
c. created by an oxidation reaction.
c K 63 13. Trans fatty acids are found in the greatest amounts in:
a. animal foods.
b. plant foods.
c. foods made with partially hydrogenated oils.
d. the essential fatty acids.
c K 63-64 14. Which of the following compounds cannot be synthesized in the body in amounts sufficient to meet physiological needs?
c. linoleic acid
c K 63 15. An essential fatty acid is one which:
a. is necessary and made by the body in large quantities.
b. comes only from plant foods.
c. is necessary and must be supplied by food.
d. comes only from animal sources.
b K 63 16. Linolenic acid is classified as an essential fatty acid because it:
a. neutralizes cholesterol.
b. cannot be made from other substances in the body.
c. is a monounsaturated fatty acid.
d. is found in both animal and plant foods.
d K 63 17. Linoleic and linolenic fatty acids are both:
b. trans fats.
c. monounsaturated fatty acids.
d. essential fatty acids.
a K 64 18. Linoleic acid is found primarily in:
a. plant oils.
b. fish oils.
c. fast foods.
d. refined grains.
d K 64 19. All of the following are examples of omega-3 fatty acids except:
b K 64 20. EPA and DHA are:
a. omega-6 fatty acids.
b. omega-3 fatty acids.
c. found primarily in plant oils and seeds.
d. made from linoleic acid.
c K 64 21. _____ fatty acids are essential for normal growth and development and appear to play an important role in the prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases.
a K 64 22. The phosphate group on a phospholipid:
a. enables phospholipids to dissolve in water.
b. makes the phospholipid saturated.
c. prevents the digestion of lecithin supplements.
d. competes with fatty acids.
c K 64 23. The lecithin needed for building cell membranes and other functions:
a. should be consumed as a supplement.
b. must be furnished in the diet.
c. is made from scratch by the liver.
d. is an essential nutrient.
b K 65 24. Which of the following is not a sterol?
c. vitamin D
d. sex hormones
d K 65 25. Which of the following foods does not contain cholesterol?
d. peanut butter
c K 65 26. Which of the following is not true regarding plant sterols?
a. They are structurally similar to cholesterol.
b. They interfere with cholesterol absorption.
c. They raise blood cholesterol levels.
d. They help to reduce blood cholesterol levels.
a K 65 27. The liver can make cholesterol from:
a. carbohydrate or fat.
b. carbohydrate or protein.
c. phospholipids or bile.
d. phospholipids or protein.
c K 65 28. The main route for excretion of cholesterol from the body is:
a. via the lungs.
b. in the urine.
c. in the feces.
d. through the skin.
d A 66 29. Excessive consumption of saturated fat or trans fat may result in:
a. weight loss due to extra digestive involvement.
b. reduced serum cholesterol levels.
c. storage of the essential fatty acid, linoleic acid.
d. an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
b K 66 30. Which of the following statements about cholesterol is not true?
a. Cholesterol in food is not the main factor in raising blood cholesterol.
b. High blood levels of HDL cholesterol raise the risk of heart disease.
c. Cholesterol is found only in animal foods.
d. Some vegetable fats can contribute to high blood levels of cholesterol.
a K 66-67 31. Which of the following statements is true?
a. Saturated fatty acids elevate LDL blood cholesterol.
b. Polyunsaturated fatty acids elevate LDL blood cholesterol.
c. Monounsaturated fatty acids elevate LDL blood cholesterol.
d. Trans fatty acids lower LDL blood cholesterol.
a K 67 32. Trans-fatty acids contribute to heart disease by:
a. producing inflammation in the arteries.
b. contributing to high blood pressure.
c. causing blood clots.
d. causing irregular heartbeats.
c A 67 33. Jack is confused about whether to use margarine or butter. Which of the following is the best advice for him?
a. Use margarine instead of butter because it contains no cholesterol and protects against heart disease.
b. Use butter instead of margarine since margarine contains trans-fatty acids, which are harmful.
c. Choose soft or liquid margarine that contains 0 grams of trans fat instead of hard margarine or butter.
d. Eliminate both butter and margarine from your diet.
a K 67 34. Since 2006, food manufacturers have been required to list the amount of _____ fatty acids on the food label.
a K 68 35. Which of the following fats is mostly monounsaturated?
a. canola oil
b. corn oil
c. soybean oil
a K 68 36. Which of the following is a rich source of monounsaturated fat?
a. olive oil
b. coconut oil
c. sunflower oil
d. corn oil
b K 68 37. People who live in the Mediterranean area have lower rates of heart disease. This is often attributed to:
a. the fact that food manufacturers are not allowed to use trans fats.
b. the liberal use of olive oil.
c. decreased sodium intake.
d. the liberal use of safflower oil.
c K 68 38. Vegetable oils contain large amounts of:
a. short-chain fatty acids.
b. saturated fatty acids.
c. polyunsaturated fatty acids.
d. medium-chain fatty acids.
d A 68 39. Rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids are found in:
b. egg yolk.
d. sunflower oil.
a K 68 40. Polyunsaturated fats:
a. are more abundant in plant foods than in animal products.
b. are more solid than saturated fats.
c. dont spoil as easily as saturated fats.
d. do not have any health benefits.
a K 69 41. Due to the increased production and use of vegetable cooking oils by food manufacturers, Americans need to consume more:
a. omega-3 fatty acids.
b. omega-6 fatty acids.
c. monounsaturated fatty acids.
d. essential fatty acids.
a K 69 42. Which of the following would be the best way to increase your intake of omega-3 fatty acids?
a. Eat more fish.
b. Eat more seed oils.
c. Take supplements.
d. Eat more plants.
b K 69 43. The American Heart Association recommends that individuals consume at least _____ serving(s) of fatty fish each week.
d K 69 44. Which fish would be most likely to contain high levels of mercury?
c A 69 45. Connie wants to increase her intake of omega-3 fatty acids in an effort to prevent heart disease, hypertension, and cancer. Which of the following would you recommend to Connie?
a. increase consumption of vegetable oils
b. take omega-3 supplements
c. eat a variety of different types of fatty fish
d. increase consumption of nuts
c A 72 46. A 2000-kcalorie diet that provides 25% of kcalories from fat would contain _____ grams of fat.
d K 70 47. Current dietary guidelines regarding fat include all of the following except:
a. total fat intake should not exceed 35% of kcalories.
b. saturated fats should contribute less than 10% of kcalories.
c. an upper limit of 300 milligrams cholesterol daily.
d. polyunsaturated fats should provide at least 10% of kcalories.
b K 71-72 48. Compared to carbohydrate, fat is:
a. not useful for providing energy.
b. a more concentrated form of energy.
c. a faster source of energy.
d. a less concentrated form of energy.
b A 71 49. Approximately how many grams of fat do three tablespoons of salad dressing add to a salad?
b K 71 50. Invisible fats include the fats in:
b. fried foods.
d. sour cream.
a A 71 51. A change from whole milk to skim milk would:
a. decrease the amount of saturated fat.
b. increase the number of kcalories.
c. decrease the amount of calcium.
d. increase vitamin consumption.
c A 72 52. Five grams of fat provide _____ kcalories.
c K 72-73 53. Which of the following food groups always contains fat?
a A 71 54. Which of the following spreads would add the least amount of fat to a bagel?
d. reduced-fat cream cheese
b A 73 55. Sally eats meat but wants to reduce her saturated fat and cholesterol intake. Which of the following should Sally do?
a. eliminate dairy foods from her diet
b. eat less meat and include more fruits, vegetables, and grains in her diet
c. eat more eggs and less meat
d. eliminate beef and pork from her diet
b A 71, 73 56. If Ann is watching her weight, which of the following suggestions would be most beneficial to her?
a. Use margarine instead of butter.
b. Switch from whole milk to fat-free milk.
c. Eliminate fat from your diet.
d. Choose processed meats instead of fresh meats.
c K 74-75 57. Food manufacturers use all of the following techniques to reduce the fat and kcalories in food except:
a. adding water to the food.
b. whipping air into the food.
c. rearranging the molecules in the fat.
d. baking foods instead of frying them.
d K 75 58. Characteristics of olestra include all of the following except:
a. it is made with sucrose.
b. it passes through the body unabsorbed.
c. it is used in some snack foods.
d. it can be toxic.
c K 75 59. Which statement is true?
a. The use of sugars and proteins as fat replacers results in higher-kcal products.
b. Unlike a triglyceride, an olestra molecule does not contain fatty acids.
c. Fat replacers made from oats can be beneficial additions to the diet.
d. Since it is not absorbed, olestra does not affect the absorption of nutrients.
b K 76 60. Consumers should keep the following in mind about foods made with fat substitutes:
a. They are a weight loss wonder.
b. They still provide kcalories.
c. They aid in the absorption of certain vitamins.
d. They adversely affect the taste and texture of foods.
Nutrition in Practice Figuring Out Fats
b K 80 61. Recommendations for fat intake have changed over the years due to:
a. poor interpretation of the results of scientific research.
b. increased scientific understanding about types of fat and how they affect health.
c. misinterpretation of recommendations by the media.
d. disagreement between the medical community and government agencies.
c K 80 62. Researchers are steering away from population-wide recommendations for low-fat diets because:
a. most people dont follow them anyway.
b. there have been reports of nutrient deficiencies associated with low-fat diets.
c. some sources of fat are valuable to health and should not be avoided.
d. low-fat diets really arent beneficial after all.
c K 80 63. Todays recommendations for fat intake emphasize:
a. lowering the intake of all types of fat.
b. low-fat diets only for those at risk for heart disease.
c. replacing saturated and trans fats with unsaturated fats.
d. consuming no more than 20 grams of fat per day.
d K 80 64. Which nutrition guidelines emphasize that the human body has no need for saturated fat or trans fat?
d. Dietary Guidelines for Americans
c K 81 65. Which type of nut seems to exert the most favorable effect on blood lipid levels?
a A 81 66. Which snack food (in a reasonable portion size) would be the best choice for a person wanting to decrease his or her risk of heart disease?
b. unsalted crackers
c. baked chips
c A 83 67. Which of the following high-fat foods would be the least desirable to consume if one is concerned about reducing ones risk of heart disease?
c. potato chips
d. canned tuna
c K 81 68. Olive oil helps to protect against heart disease because it:
a. lowers HDL levels.
b. enhances the inflammatory response.
c. lowers total and LDL cholesterol.
d. increases blood clotting factors.
d K 81 69. Nuts may protect against heart disease in all of the following ways except:
a. they are low in saturated fat.
b. they are high in vegetable protein, fiber, and vitamin E.
c. they contain phytochemicals.
d. they are low in monounsaturated fats.
h 60, 61 1. adipose tissue a. the term used to describe fats when they have deteriorated, usually by oxidation.
b. the process of a substance combining with oxygen.
c. as a food additive, preservatives that delay or prevent rancidity of foods and other damage to food caused by oxygen.
d. a chemical process by which hydrogens are added to monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats to reduce the number of double bonds.
e. a type of artery disease characterized by accumulations of lipid-containing material on the inner walls of the arteries.
f. a general term for all diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
g. compounds that interfere with cholesterol absorption.
h. the bodys fat, which consists of masses of fat-storing cells called adipose cells.
c 63 2. antioxidants
e 65 3. atherosclerosis
f 67 4. cardiovascular disease
d 63 5. hydrogenation
b 63 6. oxidation
a 63 7. rancid
g 65 8. plant sterols
60-61 1. Describe the various functions of fat in the human body.
62 2. What is meant by saturation of a fatty acid?
63, 66-67 3. What are trans-fatty acids, and how do they influence health?
68-69 4. Describe the health effects of omega-3 fatty acids, and recommendations regarding their intake.
69 5. Discuss the potential benefits and risks of taking fish oil supplements.
80-84 6. Discuss the concept of good fats and bad fats.
68-9,80-4 7. Make a list of high-fat foods that are beneficial to health and explain why each of these foods is on your list.
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