Nutrition for Health and Healthcare 6th Edition DeBruyne Pinna Test bank

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Nutrition for Health and Healthcare 6th Edition DeBruyne Pinna Test bank

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True / False

1. Fat can be made from an excess of any energy-yielding nutrient.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

2. The body metabolically recognizes the difference between fasting and starving.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

3. Ketones can meet some of the nervous systems energy needs.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

4. Normally, the nervous system consumes less than 10% of the total glucose used each day.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

5. The bodys adaptations to fasting are sufficient to maintain life for only a very short period.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

6. Basal metabolic needs are large compared to energy needs for activities.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True
REFERENCES: 6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a persons BMR, and the factors that influence a persons energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Understand

7. Voluntary activities normally require less energy in a day than basal metabolism does.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True
REFERENCES: 6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a persons BMR, and the factors that influence a persons energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Understand

8. People can change their voluntary actions to spend more or less energy in a day, but they cannot change their basal metabolic rate.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False
REFERENCES: 6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a persons BMR, and the factors that influence a persons energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

9. A smoker may weigh less than a non-smoker, but will likely have more visceral fat.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: True
REFERENCES: 6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Understand

10. Skinfold measurements provide an inaccurate estimate of total body fat.
a. True
b. False
ANSWER: False
REFERENCES: 6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Understand

Multiple Choice

11. Glycogen is stored in the liver and muscles when:
a. excessive fat is present in the blood.
b. vigorous muscular activity has just ended.
c. excessive glucose is present in the blood.
d. excessive cholesterol is present in the blood.
e. starvation conditions are present.
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

12. Surplus dietary carbohydrate is first stored as:
a. glycogen.
b. protein.
c. fat.
d. triglycerides.
e. cholesterol.
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

13. When carbohydrate consumption exceeds body needs, the excess glucose is:
a. not absorbed from the small intestine.
b. excreted in the feces.
c. stored as glucose.
d. stored as glycogen only.
e. stored as glycogen and fat.
ANSWER: e
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

14. Alcohol contributes to obesity because it:
a. diminishes the bodys use of fat for fuel.
b. has as many kcalories as fat.
c. increases appetite.
d. encourages storage of body protein.
e. reduces activity levels.
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

15. Which of the following statements is true regarding the effect of alcohol on body weight?
a. Alcohol yields no energy so it does not affect body weight.
b. Alcohol is low in kcalories and has very little effect on body weight.
c. Alcohol slows down the bodys use of fat, causing more fat to be stored.
d. Alcohol speeds up the bodys metabolism and discourages the storage of body fat.
e. Alcohol contains enzymes that convert protein to fat, encouraging the storage of body fat.
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Understand

16. Of all the nutrients, which is the easiest for the body to store as fat?
a. protein
b. carbohydrates
c. fat
d. vitamins
e. minerals
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

17. When protein consumption exceeds body needs and energy needs are met, the excess amino acids are metabolized and:
a. stored as fat.
b. excreted in the feces.
c. stored as amino acids.
d. stored as glycogen and fat.
e. stored in the gallbladder as bile.
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

18. Energy is stored in the body for future use as:
a. nitrogen.
b. glycerol.
c. fatty acids.
d. lecithin.
e. body fat.
ANSWER: e
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

19. Within a day of beginning a fast, most of the bodys stores of which of the following are depleted?
a. glycogen
b. amino acids
c. fatty acids
d. glycerol
e. protein
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

20. In the first few days of a fast, what percentage of needed glucose is supplied by protein breakdown?
a. 25
b. 50
c. 75
d. 90
e. 100
ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Apply

21. The part of a triglyceride that can be made into glucose is:
a. the saturated fatty acids.
b. the medium-chain fatty acids.
c. the unsaturated fatty acids.
d. the long-chain fatty acids.
e. the glycerol backbone.
ANSWER: e
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

22. In the first few days of fasting, body protein is used primarily to:
a. rebuild tissue.
b. replace worn out cells.
c. provide glucose.
d. stabilize fluid balance.
e. provide immunity to infection.
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

23. Which of the following are acidic, water-soluble compounds formed from the incomplete breakdown of fat when carbohydrate is not available?
a. amino acids
b. pyruvate molecules
c. carbon dioxide
d. ketone bodies
e. ammonia and urea
ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

24. As the body shifts to partial dependence on ketones for energy during prolonged fasting:
a. the body increases its energy output.
b. the body conserves its lean tissue.
c. the body increases its metabolism.
d. the bodys loss of lean tissue increases.
e. the bodys fat stores increase.
ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Understand

25. Your client, Samantha, has been fasting to lose weight. Which of the following changes in her body would be least likely?
a. loss of lean tissue.
b. disturbances of fluid and electrolyte balance.
c. impairment of disease resistance.
d. increased body temperature.
e. increased metabolic rate.
ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Apply

26. Fasting results in:
a. degradation of lean body tissue.
b. safe, quick, and easy loss of fat tissue.
c. immediate loss of energy and mental alertness.
d. cleansing of toxins from the body.
e. improved resistance to infections.
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

27. The amount of fat a persons body stores when excess food is consumed:
a. is directly proportional to weight.
b. is not influenced by GI functioning.
c. always equals 1 pound per 3500 kcal.
d. varies widely among individuals.
e. cannot exceed 200,000 kcalories.
ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: 6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a persons BMR, and the factors that influence a persons energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

28. BMR is lowest during:
a. pregnancy.
b. physical activity.
c. sleep.
d. sedentary activity.
e. exercise.
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 6.2 Energy Balance.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a persons BMR, and the factors that influence a persons energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

29. The energy needed to maintain life when a person is at complete digestive, physical, and emotional rest is termed:
a. basal metabolism.
b. the kcalorie.
c. physiological fuel value.
d. the Estimated Energy Requirement.
e. body composition.
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a persons BMR, and the factors that influence a persons energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

30. Basal metabolic rate is lowered by:
a. bodybuilding.
b. stress or fever.
c. high thyroid gland activity.
d. an increase in lean body mass.
e. loss of lean body mass.
ANSWER: e
REFERENCES: 6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a persons BMR, and the factors that influence a persons energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Apply

31. Which of the following individuals would have the lowest basal metabolic rate?
a. a pregnant woman
b. a tall, thin person
c. a malnourished person
d. a person with a fever
e. a bodybuilder
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a persons BMR, and the factors that influence a persons energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Apply

32. Which of the following individuals would have the slowest basal metabolic rate?
a. a 51-year-old male
b. a 20-year-old inactive woman
c. a 25-year-old pregnant woman
d. a 3-year-old child
e. a 32-year-old hyperthyroid woman
ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: 6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a persons BMR, and the factors that influence a persons energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Apply

33. An individual can most easily alter his/her energy output by altering:
a. the time of day he/she exercises.
b. the intensity, duration, and frequency of exercise.
c. his/her eating patterns.
d. the combination of foods eaten at a meal.
e. sleep patterns.
ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: 6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a persons BMR, and the factors that influence a persons energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Apply

34. The thermic effect of food represents about what percentage of the total food energy taken in?
a. 4
b. 10
c. 16
d. 25
e. 50
ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: 6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a persons BMR, and the factors that influence a persons energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Apply

35. Men generally have a higher BMR than women do because:
a. women have less lean body mass.
b. women tend to eat less.
c. men tend to eat more.
d. men have less lean body mass.
e. testosterone reduces BMR.
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a persons BMR, and the factors that influence a persons energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Understand

36. Which of the following statements would you be least likely to tell your client regarding metabolic rate?
a. BMR is measured after a 12-hour fast.
b. RMR is higher than BMR.
c. RMR represents only that energy needed for life-sustaining processes.
d. BMR is increased during growth.
e. BMR is typically expressed as kcalories per kilogram of body weight per hour.
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a persons BMR, and the factors that influence a persons energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Apply

37. The basal metabolic rate slows with increasing age because:
a. the elderly are malnourished.
b. fat mass in the body decreases.
c. digestive efficiency declines.
d. lean body mass diminishes.
e. kidney function decreases.
ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: 6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a persons BMR, and the factors that influence a persons energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Understand

38. You are discussing energy requirements with your client. Which of the following would you be least likely to mention to her regarding variability of energy needs between individuals?
a. gender
b. age
c. physical activity
d. body composition
e. food preferences
ANSWER: e
REFERENCES: 6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a persons BMR, and the factors that influence a persons energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Apply

39. What body component has the greatest variability in quantity and quality?
a. bone mass
b. muscle mass
c. fluid
d. fat mass
e. nervous tissue
ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: 6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

40. Which of the following individuals would be classified as being very active?
a. a carpenter
b. a teacher
c. a football player
d. a gardener
e. a golfer
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a persons BMR, and the factors that influence a persons energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Apply

41. Given that EER for women = [354 (6.91 age)] + PA [(9.36 wt) + (726 ht)], estimate the energy requirements for Anne, an active 27 year old (PA = 1.27) who is 5 feet 4 inches tall and weighs 130 pounds.
a. 1700-1800
b. 2300-2400
c. 2600-2700
d. 3200-3300
e. 3500-3700
ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: 6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a persons BMR, and the factors that influence a persons energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Analyze

42. When calculating a persons EER, which of the following is required?
a. height, weight in kg, and physical activity factor
b. height, weight in kg, and percent body fat
c. weight in kg, physical activity factor, and percent body fat
d. weight in kg, gender, and percent body fat
e. height, daily fiber intake in grams, and physical activity factor
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a persons BMR, and the factors that influence a persons energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Apply

43. Calculate the BMI of a male who is 511 tall and weighs 210 pounds.
a. 18
b. 23
c. 27
d. 29
e. 33
ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: 6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Apply

44. According to BMI criteria, a person with a BMI of 24 would be considered:
a. underweight.
b. overweight.
c. obese.
d. normal weight.
e. physically fit.
ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: 6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Understand

45. A weakness in using BMI to assess body weight is:
a. it doesnt distinguish between male and female.
b. it doesnt distinguish between young and old.
c. it doesnt indicate where excess fat is located on the body.
d. it doesnt indicate the ideal weight for a given height.
e. it distinguishes between muscle weight and fat weight.
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

46. Which type of fat poses the greatest risk to health?
a. visceral fat
b. dietary fat
c. subcutaneous fat
d. lower body fat
e. fat accumulated due to alcohol consumption
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Analyze

47. The health risk associated with central obesity has to do with:
a. an imbalance in adipokines.
b. the proximity of the excess fat to the gallbladder.
c. an imbalance in cytokines.
d. the proximity of excess fat to the small intestine.
e. an imbalance in estrogen.
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

48. A good indicator of fat distribution on an individual is:
a. BMI.
b. body weight.
c. hip circumference.
d. visual assessment.
e. waist circumference.
ANSWER: e
REFERENCES: 6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Apply

49. Which of the following people would be at lowest risk for the accumulation of abdominal fat?
a. a smoker
b. a postmenopausal woman
c. a middle-aged man
d. a premenopausal woman
e. a 15-year-old male football player
ANSWER: e
REFERENCES: 6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Analyze

50. The recommended range of body fat for a woman is:
a. 13-21%.
b. 15-23%.
c. 23-31%.
d. 27-35%.
e. 30-40%
ANSWER: c
REFERENCES: 6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Understand

51. A lack of body fat can result in:
a. infertility in women.
b. depression.
c. abnormal hunger regulation.
d. insomnia.
e. increased blood pressure.
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 6.4 Health Risks of Underweight and Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.4 Identify relationships between body weight and the risk of health problems and summarize the guidelines for identifying and evaluating the risks to health from overweight and obesity.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

52. Approximately what percentage of U.S. adults are overweight or obese?
a. 33
b. 42
c. 57
d. 69
e. 100
ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: 6.4 Health Risks of Underweight and Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.4 Identify relationships between body weight and the risk of health problems and summarize the guidelines for identifying and evaluating the risks to health from overweight and obesity.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Understand

53. Obesity is officially defined as a BMI of equal to or greater than which of the following?
a. 25
b. 30
c. 35
d. 40
e. 43
ANSWER: b
REFERENCES: 6.4 Health Risks of Underweight and Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.4 Identify relationships between body weight and the risk of health problems and summarize the guidelines for identifying and evaluating the risks to health from overweight and obesity.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

54. You are discussing the health risks of obesity with a middle school class. Which of the following would you be least likely to mention?
a. hypertension.
b. diabetes.
c. sleep apnea.
d. tuberculosis.
e. lowered self-esteem.
ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: 6.4 Health Risks of Underweight and Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.4 Identify relationships between body weight and the risk of health problems and summarize the guidelines for identifying and evaluating the risks to health from overweight and obesity.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Apply

55. Which person is at the greatest health risk?
a. a 27-year-old woman with a waist circumference of 40 inches
b. a 25-year-old athlete with a BMI of 33
c. a 50-year-old male with a BMI of 29 who works out every day
d. a 42-year-old woman with a waist circumference of 34 inches
e. a 20-year-old woman with a BMI of 18.
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 6.4 Health Risks of Underweight and Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.4 Identify relationships between body weight and the risk of health problems and summarize the guidelines for identifying and evaluating the risks to health from overweight and obesity.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Apply

56. Which of the following are the three indicators established by obesity experts for evaluating health risks from overweight and obesity?
a. disease risk profile, body fat percentage, and blood pressure
b. BMI, waist circumference, and blood pressure
c. waist circumference, blood pressure, and body fat percentage
d. diet history, BMI, and disease risk profile
e. disease risk profile, BMI, and waist circumference
ANSWER: e
REFERENCES: 6.4 Health Risks of Underweight and Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.4 Identify relationships between body weight and the risk of health problems and summarize the guidelines for identifying and evaluating the risks to health from overweight and obesity.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Understand

57. Which of the following describes anorexia nervosa?
a. An eating disorder characterized by a refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight.
b. Recurring episodes of binge eating combined with a morbid fear of becoming fat, often followed by purging.
c. The absence of cessation of menstruation.
d. Energy restriction followed by binging.
e. Use of a cathartic after a binge.
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 6.5 Nutrition in Practice 6: Eating Disorders
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.5 Compare the criteria for diagnosis, characteristics, and treatments of the different eating disorders.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Understand

58. Which of the following is most likely to occur among young competitive athletes with disordered eating?
a. hyperlipidemia
b. fluid retention
c. increased bone density
d. stress fractures
e. weight gain
ANSWER: d
REFERENCES: 6.5 Nutrition in Practice 6: Eating Disorders
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.5 Compare the criteria for diagnosis, characteristics, and treatments of the different eating disorders.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Apply

59. You suspect that your 14-year-old female client may have an eating disorder. What advice would you give her?
a. cut kcalories
b. only eat when hungry
c. monitor blood glucose regularly
d. take a multivitamin
e. establish a reasonable weight goal based on a healthy body composition
ANSWER: e
REFERENCES: 6.5 Nutrition in Practice 6: Eating Disorders
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.5 Compare the criteria for diagnosis, characteristics, and treatments of the different eating disorders.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Apply

60. Sara is a 22-year-old college student with a BMI of 17.5. She is very anxious and stress triggers binge eating episodes followed by self-induced vomiting. From which of the following disorders does Sara most likely suffer?
a. bulimia nervosa
b. anorexia nervosa
c. clinical depression
d. binge eating disorder
e. relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S)
ANSWER: a
REFERENCES: 6.5 Nutrition in Practice 6: Eating Disorders
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.5 Compare the criteria for diagnosis, characteristics, and treatments of the different eating disorders.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Analyze

Matching

Match each range to the appropriate health indicator.
a. normal BMI
b. obese BMI
c. overweight BMI
d. underweight BMI
e. waist size (in inches) indicating risk in men
f. waist size (in inches) indicating risk in women
REFERENCES: 6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

61. less than 18.5
ANSWER: d

62. 18.5-24.9
ANSWER: a

63. 25.0-29.9
ANSWER: c

64. 30.0 or more
ANSWER: b

65. 35.0 or more
ANSWER: f

66. 40.0 or more
ANSWER: e

Essay

67. Describe how fat can be made from an excess of each of the energy nutrientscarbohydrate, protein, or fat.
ANSWER: Surplus carbohydrate can be first stored as glycogen, but when glycogen stores are exceeded, excess glucose is converted to fat. Surplus dietary fat is routed directly to the bodys adipose tissue, where it can be stored until needed for energy. Protein can be converted to body fat, but it is an inefficient process.
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

68. Explain why less fat may be lost during fasting than is lost when at least some food is supplied.
ANSWER: In fasting, muscle and lean tissues give up protein to supply amino acids for conversion to glucose for the brain and nerves. Fasting causes lean tissue to be degraded, rather than fat. A moderately restricted diet promotes primarily fat loss and retention of more lean tissue.
REFERENCES: 6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Understand

69. Define the thermic effect of food and explain its effect on energy expenditure
ANSWER: The thermic effect of food is an estimation of the energy required to process food (digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism, and storage of ingested nutrients). It is thought to represent approximately 10% of the total food energy taken in.
REFERENCES: 6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a persons BMR, and the factors that influence a persons energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

70. Identify and briefly describe five factors that affect a persons basal metabolic rate.
ANSWER: Age- lean body mass diminishes with age; height- greater height=greater BMR; fever- fever increases BMR; stress- increases BMR; fasting- lowers BMR.
REFERENCES: 6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a persons BMR, and the factors that influence a persons energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember

71. Explain the mechanism through which excessive abdominal fat is thought to increase the risk of chronic disease.
ANSWER: Hormones, called adipokines, are released by the adipose tissue, and regulate inflammation and energy metabolism in nearby tissues. In central obesity, the adipokines released favor inflammation and insulin resistance, which may contribute to diabetes, atherosclerosis, and other chronic diseases.
REFERENCES: 6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Understand

72. Discuss three indicators used to identify and evaluate the health risks from overweight and obesity.
ANSWER: 1) BMI- overweight is defined as BMI of 25.0-29.9, and obesity is defined as BMI greater than or equal to 30. 2) Waist circumference- Overweight or obese people whose waist measurement is greater than 35 inches (women) or 40 inches (men) often face a greater risk of heart disease and mortality; 3) Disease risk profile- life-threatening diseases, family history, risk factors for heart disease (blood lipid profile).
REFERENCES: 6.4 Health Risks of Underweight and Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: NHHE.DEBR.17.6.4 Identify relationships between body weight and the risk of health problems and summarize the guidelines for identifying and evaluating the risks to health from overweight and obesity.
KEYWORDS: Blooms: Understand

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