Operating Systems 6th Edition William S. Davis Test Bank

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Operating Systems 6th Edition William S. Davis Test Bank

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Chapter 3
Software and Data

True/False Questions

1. A computer is a machine (hardware) that processes data under control of a stored program (software).

2. A program is a series of instructions that guides a computer through a process.

3. A typical instruction contains an operand that specifies the function to be performed and one or more operation codes that specify the memory locations or registers that hold the data to be manipulated.

4. A program stored in memory must be in source code form.

5. Hardware works with relative addresses, fetching and storing the contents of individual bytes by referencing their byte numbers.

6. A relative address is an address expressed relative to some base location.

7. The process of converting a relative address to an absolute address is called dynamic address translation.

8. An assembler program reads a programmers source code, translates the source statements to binary, and produces a load module.

9. Assembly language programmers write object code.

10. An assembler language programmer writes one mnemonic instruction for each machine-level instruction.

11. There are no computers that can directly execute assembly language instructions.

12. With a compiler, a given source statement may be converted to any number of machine-level instructions.

13. A compiler reads a single source statement, translates it, and immediately executes the resulting machine-level code.

14. An interpreter works with one source statement at a time, reading it, translating it to machine-level, executing the resulting binary instructions, and then moving on to the next source statement.

15. In a compiled application, a programmer error might add a bug to the source code or the compiler might introduce an error by misinterpreting a source statement, but once the code is translated to binary, electronic hardware error never happen.

16. An object-oriented program consists of a series of logical modules linked by a control structure

17. The basic idea of the object-oriented approach to software development is to design and write the software as a set of independent objects linked by signals.

18. Object-oriented software is another name for structured software.

19. An object contains both data and methods.

20. Objects communicate by transmitting and responding to messages, where a message might contain a signal (information about an event or occurrence) or data.

21. In the object-oriented approach, messages are sent and received by entities called methods.

22. Object modules generated by different source languages cannot be stored on the same library.

23. A linkage editor prepares a complete load module and immediately executes it.

24. A reentrant program is one whose main control module is a repetitive loop.

25. An application program sits between the user and the operating system and communicates with the user through an application programming interface or API.

26. A data element is a single, meaningful unit of data, such as a name, a social security number, or a temperature reading.

27. Most computers can store and manipulate pure binary integers, floating-point numbers, decimal numbers, and character or string data.

28. If the data elements are stored according to a consistent and well understood structure, it is possible to retrieve them by remembering that data structure.

29. In a linked list, each node contains only data.

30. A stack is a type of linked list in which all insertions and deletions occur at the end or bottom. Access to the stack is controlled by a single pointer.

31. Access to a queue is controlled by a single pointer

32. Data elements are called fields, a group of related fields forms a file, and a record is a set of related files.

33. When an image file or an MP3 file is loaded from disk into memory, the entire file is transferred.

34. Normally, the contents of a traditional data file are processed multiple records at a time.

35. Often, the key to finding the correct record in a direct access file is the relative record number.

36. Given a relative record number, it is possible to compute a physical disk address.

37. Accessing data directly involves little more than counting.

38. Redundant data are difficult to maintain.

39. When a programs logic is tied to its physical data structure, changing that structure rarely requires changing the program.

40. A key part of the solution to both the data redundancy and data dependency problems is organizing the data as a single, integrated database.

Answers:
1. T; 2. T; 3. F; 4. F; 5. F; 6. T; 7. T; 8. F; 9. F; 10. T;
11. T; 12. T; 13. F; 14. T; 15. F; 16. F; 17. T; 18. F; 19. T; 20. T;
21. F; 22. F; 23. F; 24. F; 25. F; 26. T; 27. T; 28. T; 29. F; 30. F;
31. F; 32. F; 33. T; 34. F; 35. T; 36. T; 37. F; 38. T; 39. F; 40. T.

Multiple Choice Questions

Note: Most of the multiple choice questions can be converted to fill-in questions by simply deleting the suggested answers.

1. A computer is a machine that processes __________ under control of __________.
a. a stored program/data
b. bits/bytes
c. The premise of this question is false.
d. data/a stored program

2. In a program, each __________ tells the computer to perform one of its basic functions.
a. instruction
b. machine cycle
c. source statement
d. operand

3. A typical instruction contains an __________ that specifies the function to be performed and one or more __________ that specify the memory locations or registers that hold the data to be manipulated.
a. operation code/relative addresses
b. operation code/words
c. operand/operation codes
d. operation code/operands

4. A program stored in memory must be in __________ form.
a. source
b. byte
c. binary
d. word

5. Hardware works with __________ addresses, fetching and storing the contents of individual bytes by referencing their byte numbers.
a. relative
b. source
c. absolute
d. objective

6. A(n) __________ address is an address expressed relative to some base location.
a. absolute
b. byte
c. word
d. relative

7. The process of converting a relative address to an absolute address is called __________.
a. compilation
b. interpretation
c. dynamic address translation
d. none of the above

8. An assembler program reads a programmers __________ and produces a(n) __________.
a. code/program
b. object code/source module
c. source code/load module
d. source code/object module

9. A(n) __________ language programmer writes one mnemonic instruction for each machine-level instruction.
a. assembler
b. compiler
c. interpretative
d. non-procedural

10. With a(n) __________, a given source statement may be converted to any number of machine-level instructions.
a. compiler
b. assembler
c. both A and B
d. neither A nor B

11. A(n) __________ reads source statements, translates each one into one or more machine-level instructions, and generates a complete object module.
a. compiler
b. assembler
c. interpreter
d. linkage editor

12. The linkage editor combines __________ modules to form a(n) __________ module.
a. object/load
b. source/object
c. source/load
d. load/object

13. A(n) __________ works with one source statement at a time, reading it, translating it to machine-level, executing the resulting binary instructions, and then moving on to the next source statement.
a. compiler
b. non-procedural language
c. interpreter
d. none of the above

14. Which of the following is NOT a possible source of error in a compiled application?
a. a programmer error might add a bug to the source code
b. All three (A, C, and D) are all possible sources of error.
c. the compiler might introduce an error by misinterpreting a source statement
d. an electronic error of some kind might change a few object code bits

15. A(n) __________ program consists of a series of logical modules linked by a control structure
a. object-oriented
b. structured
c. assembled
d. compiled

16. The basic idea of the object-oriented approach to software development is to design and write the software as a set of independent __________ linked by __________.
a. objects/signals
b. modules/a control structure
c. procedures/calls
d. none of the above

17. An object is composed of __________ and __________.
a. data/a control structure
b. data/methods
c. instructions/data
d. source code/object code

18. In the object-oriented approach, a __________ is a process that accesses and manipulates the objects data.
a. method
b. module
c. procedure
d. routine

19. The only way other objects can access a given objects data is through one of the target objects __________.
a. methods
b. parameters
c. procedures
d. signals

20. Objects communicate by transmitting and responding to messages, where a message might contain __________ (information about an event or occurrence) or __________.
a. data/logic
b. a signal/data
c. either A or B
d. neither A nor B

21. In the object-oriented approach, a(n) __________ is an external view of the object that can be accessed by other objects.
a. method
b. signal
c. data structure
d. operation

22. A __________ prepares a complete load module and copies it to a load module library for immediate or eventual loading and execution.
a. compiler
b. linkage editor
c. interpreter
d. all of the above

23. A(n) __________ program or program module does NOT modify itself.
a. structured
b. reentrant
c. object-oriented
d. interpreted

24. Often, the programmers interface with the operating system is implemented through __________.
a. an application programming interface or API
b. the user interface
c. direct calls to operating system routines
d. none of the above

25. A __________ is a single, meaningful unit of data, such as a name, a social security number, or a temperature reading.
a. record
b. data element
c. file
d. byte string

26. To simplify retrieving specific data elements, they are typically stored according to a consistent and well understood __________.
a. list structure
b. data structure
c. pattern
d. indexing scheme

27. In a __________, each node contains data plus a pointer to the next node.
a. simple list
b. linked list
c. array
d. table

28. A(n) __________ is a special type of linked list in which insertions occur at the rear and deletions occur at the front of the list.
a. queue
b. stack
c. array
d. file

29. A(n) __________ is a type of linked list in which all insertions and deletions occur at the top. Access is controlled by a single pointer.
a. queue
b. array
c. table
d. stack

30. In a file, groups of characters form meaningful data elements called __________.
a. fields
b. lists
c. records
d. none of the above

31. The data in a file are normally accessed one __________ at a time.
a. field
b. character
c. record
d. data element

32. In a traditional file data structure, __________ are combined to form __________ which are combined to form the ____________.
a. records/fields/file
b. fields/files/record
c. fields/records/file
d. none of the above

33. When an image file or an MP3 file is loaded from disk into memory, __________ is transferred.
a. the first record
b. one record at a time
c. the entire file
d. none of the above

34. The contents of a(n) __________ file are normally processed in fixed order.
a. direct access
b. random access
c. indexed
d. sequential

35. Often, the key to finding the correct record on a traditional file is the __________.
a. disk directory
b. index
c. relative record number
d. none of the above

36. The way you use a telephone book is a good example of __________ access.
a. sequential
b. direct, or random, access
c. database
d. file

37. When the same data are recorded in two or more independent files, those data are said to be _________.
a. redundant
b. wrong
c. inefficient
d. reentrant

38. __________ data are difficult to maintain.
a. Object-oriented
b. Structured
c. Non-numeric
d. Redundant

39. When a programs logic is tied to its physical data structure, changing that structure will almost certainly require changing the program, a problem called data __________.
a. redundancy
b. structuring
c. dependency
d. The premise of this question is false.

40. A key part of the solution to both the data redundancy and data dependency problems is organizing the data as a single, integrated __________.
a. object
b. database
c. structure
d. file

Answers:
1. D; 2. A; 3. D; 4. C; 5. C; 6. D; 7. C; 8. D; 9. A; 10. A;
11. A; 12. A; 13. C; 14. B; 15. B; 16. A; 17. B; 18. A; 19. A; 20. B;
21. D; 22. B; 23. B; 24. A; 25. B; 26. B; 27. B; 28. A; 29. D; 30. A;
31. C; 32. C; 33. C; 34. D; 35. C; 36. B; 37. A; 38. D; 39. C; 40. B.

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