Organic Chemistry 7th Edition by L. G. Wade Jr test bank

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Organic Chemistry 7th Edition by L. G. Wade Jr test bank

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Organic Chemistry, 7e (Wade)
Chapter 7 Structure and Synthesis of Alkenes

1) Which of the following statements best describes the relative bond dissociation energies of the sigma and pi bonds present in the carbon-carbon double bond of an alkene?
A) sigma > pi
B) pi > sigma
C) sigma = pi
D) cannot be estimated
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 7.1

2) Carbon-carbon single bonds tend to be __________ and __________ than carbon-carbon double bonds.
A) shorter, stronger
B) longer, stronger
C) shorter, weaker
D) longer, weaker
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Section: 7.2

3) Which of the following best approximates the CCC bond angle of propene?
A) 90
B) 109
C) 120
D) 150
E) 180
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Section: 7.2

4) What two atomic orbitals or hybrid atomic orbitals overlap to form the CH bond in ethylene?
A) C sp3 + H s
B) C sp2 + H s
C) C sp + H s
D) C p + H s
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Section: 7.2

5) What two atomic orbitals or hybrid atomic orbitals overlap to form the CC bond in ethylene?
A) C sp3 + C sp3
B) C sp3 + C sp2
C) C sp2 + C sp2
D) C sp3 + C p
E) C sp2 + C p
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Section: 7.2

6) What two atomic orbitals or hybrid atomic orbitals overlap to form the CC bond in ethylene?
A) C sp3 + C sp3
B) C sp3 + C sp2
C) C sp2 + C sp2
D) C sp2 + C p
E) C p + C p
Answer: E
Diff: 3
Section: 7.2

7) Circle all atoms that are coplanar in the molecule below.

Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.2

8) Draw the line energy orbital diagram for the outer shell of an sp2 hybridized carbon atom and explain how a carbon/carbon double is formed.
Answer:

If we follow Hunds rule and fill each orbital with one electron and then promote one to the lone atomic p orbital, there are single electrons in the three sp hybrid orbitals that can form sigma overlaps with 2-H orbitals and one other sp2 hybridized carbon orbital. The atomic p obital with one electron can then form a pi bond by a side to side overlap with the other p orbital from the other sp2 hybridized carbon atom.
Diff: 2
Section: 7.2

9) Why is rotation about the carbon-carbon double bond in alkenes prohibited while relatively free rotation can occur about the carbon-carbon single bond in alkanes?
Answer: Rotation about the CC single bond in alkanes can occur without breaking the bond or disrupting the orbital overlap. For rotation to occur about a C=C, the bond would have to be broken since the p orbital overlap from which the bond is formed is disrupted by rotation.
Diff: 2
Section: 7.2

10) Consider molecules with the formula C10H16. Which of the following structural features are not possible within this set of molecules?
A) 2 triple bonds
B) 1 ring and 1 triple bond
C) 2 rings and 1 double bond
D) 2 double bonds and 1 ring
E) 3 double bonds
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Section: 7.3

11) How many elements of unsaturation are implied by the molecular formula C6H12?
A) 0
B) 1
C) 2
D) 3
E) 4
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Section: 7.3

12) How many elements of unsaturation do molecules with a molecular formula of C6H6Cl6 have?
A) 0
B) 1
C) 2
D) 3
E) 4
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Section: 7.3

13) How many elements of unsaturation do molecules with a molecular formula of C8H4N2 have?
A) 2
B) 4
C) 6
D) 8
E) 10
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Section: 7.3

14) Which of the following molecular formulas corresponds to a monocyclic saturated compound?
A) C6H6
B) C3H7Br
C) C3H7N
D) C3H8O
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Section: 7.3

15) How many elements of unsaturation are implied by the molecular formula C5H8O?
A) 0
B) 1
C) 2
D) 3
E) 4
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Section: 7.3
16) How many elements of unsaturation are implied by the molecular formula C7H11Cl?
A) 0
B) 1
C) 2
D) 3
E) 4
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Section: 7.3

17) A newly isolated natural product was found to have the molecular formula C15H28O2. By hydrogenating a sample of the compound, it was determined to possess one p bond. How many rings are present in the compound?
A) 0
B) 1
C) 2
D) 3
E) 4
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Section: 7.3

18) How many elements of unsaturation are implied by the molecular formula C5H5NO2?
A) 0
B) 1
C) 2
D) 3
E) 4
Answer: E
Diff: 3
Section: 7.3

19) How many elements of unsaturation are implied by the molecular formula C8H11N?
A) 0
B) 1
C) 2
D) 3
E) 4
Answer: E
Diff: 3
Section: 7.3
20) A chemist has isolated a new natural product and determined its molecular fromula to be C24H40O4. In hydrogenation experiments the chemist found that each mole of the natural product reacted with two moles of H2. How many rings are present in the structure of the new natural product?
A) 2
B) 3
C) 4
D) 5
E) 6
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Section: 7.3

21) Provide an acceptable name for (CH3)2CHCH=C(CH3)CH2CH3.
Answer: 2,4-dimethyl-3-hexene or 2,4-dimethylhex-3-ene
Diff: 2
Section: 7.4

22) Provide an acceptable name for (CH3CH2)2CHCH2CH=CH2.
Answer: 4-ethyl-1-hexene or 4-ethylhex-1-ene
Diff: 2
Section: 7.4

23) Which of the following alkenes can show geometric isomerism: 2,3-dichloro-2-pentene, 4-chloro-3-ethyl-3-hexene, 3-chloro-2-methyl-2-butene, and 3-chloro-2-methyl-1-butene?
Answer: 2,3-dichloro-2-pentene
Diff: 2
Section: 7.4

24) Name the compound shown below.

Answer: 2-propyl-1,3-cyclopentadiene or 2-propylcyclopenta-1,3-diene
Diff: 2
Section: 7.4

25) Provide a correct IUPAC name for the structure below.

Answer: 5-bromo-2-methyl-1,3-cyclopentadiene
Diff: 3
Section: 7.4
26) Provide the proper IUPAC name for the alkene shown below.

CH2CHCH2CH2CH2CH3
Answer: hex-1-ene
Diff: 1
Section: 7.4

27) Provide the proper IUPAC name for the alkene shown below.

Answer: cyclopentene
Diff: 1
Section: 7.4

28) Draw an acceptable structure for 4-ethylhept-1-ene.
Answer:

Diff: 1
Section: 7.4

29) Provide the proper IUPAC name for the alkene shown below.

Answer: 6-bromo-1-methylcyclohexene
Diff: 2
Section: 7.4

30) Provide the proper IUPAC name for the alkene shown below.

Answer: (R)-3-ethyl-3-methylcyclohexene
Diff: 2
Section: 7.4

31) Draw an acceptable structure for 4-phenylbut-1-ene.
Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.4
32) Draw an acceptable structure for 1,2-dimethylcyclohexene.
Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.4

33) Draw and name all alkenes which have the molecular formula C4H8.
Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.4

34) Draw and name the six alkenes which have the molecular formula C5H10.
Answer:

Diff: 3
Section: 7.4

35) For which of the following alkenes will cis- and trans- isomers not exist?

A) a) only
B) b) only
C) both a) and c)
D) d) only
E) both c) and d)
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Section: 7.5
36) Which of the following best describes the geometry about the carbon-carbon double bond in the alkene below?

A) E
B) Z
C) neither E nor Z
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Section: 7.5

37) Which of the following best describes the geometry about the carbon-carbon double bond in the alkene below?

A) E
B) Z
C) neither E nor Z
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Section: 7.5

38) Which of the following best describes the geometry about the carbon-carbon double bond in the alkene below?

A) E
B) Z
C) neither E nor Z
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 7.5
39) Which of the following best describes the geometry about the carbon-carbon double bond in the alkene below?

A) E
B) Z
C) neither E nor Z
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 7.5

40) Which of the following best describes the geometry about the carbon-carbon double bond in the alkene below?

A) E
B) Z
C) neither E nor Z
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Section: 7.5

41) Provide a structure for (Z)-4-bromo-3-heptene.
Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.5

42) Provide the structure of (Z)-1-chloro-1-fluoro-1-butene.
Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.5
43) Provide the proper IUPAC name for the alkene shown below.

Answer: (E)-3,5-dimethylhex-2-ene
Diff: 1
Section: 7.5

44) Provide the proper IUPAC name for the alkene shown below.

Answer: (E)-3,4-dimethylhept-3-ene
Diff: 2
Section: 7.5

45) Provide the proper IUPAC name for the alkene shown below.

Answer: (Z)-5-chloropent-2-ene
Diff: 2
Section: 7.5

46) Provide the proper IUPAC name for the alkene shown below.

Answer: (E)-2-ethylhexa-1,4-diene
Diff: 2
Section: 7.5

47) Draw an acceptable structure for (Z)-2-chloro-4-ethylhex-2-ene.
Answer:

Diff: 3
Section: 7.5
48) Provide the structure of the monomer from which PVC or poly(vinyl chloride) is made.
Answer: H2CCHCl
Diff: 1
Section: 7.6

49) Draw the structure of polyethylene.
Answer: -[CH2CH2]n-
Diff: 2
Section: 7.6

50) Draw the structure of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) or Teflon.
Answer: -[CF2CF2]n-
Diff: 2
Section: 7.6

51) Using Zaitsevs rule, choose the most stable alkene among the following.
A) 1-methylcyclohexene
B) 3-methylcyclohexene
C) 4-methylcyclohexene
D) They are all of equal stability according to Zaitsevs rule.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 7.7

52) Using Zaitsevs rule, choose the most stable alkene among the following.
A) hex-1-ene
B) (E)-hex-2-ene
C) (Z)-hex-2-ene
D) They are all of equal stability according to Zaitsevs rule.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Section: 7.7

53) Using Zaitsevs rule, choose the most stable alkene among the following.
A) 1,2-dimethylcyclohexene
B) 1,6-dimethylcyclohexene
C) cis-3,4-dimethylcyclohexene
D) They are all of equal stability according to Zaitsevs rule.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 7.7
54) Consider the constitutional isomers 2-methylbut-1-ene, 2-methylbut-2-ene, and 3-methylbut-1-ene. When each of these alkenes is subjected to catalytic hydrogenation (H2, Pt), a single product results. Which of the following best describes the structural relationship among these products?
A) The products are cis-trans isomers.
B) The products are identical.
C) The products are constitutional isomers.
D) The products are enantiomers.
E) The products are diastereomers.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Section: 7.7

55) Which of the following alkenes has the largest molar heat of hydrogenation (ie, releases the most heat upon hydrogenation)?
A) 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene
B) 2-methyl-2-butene
C) trans-2-butene
D) cis-2-butene
E) 1-hexene
Answer: E
Diff: 2
Section: 7.7

56) Which of the following alkenes has the smallest molar heat of hydrogenation (ie, releases the least heat upon hydrogenation)?
A) 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene
B) 2-methyl-2-butene
C) trans-2-butene
D) cis-2-butene
E) 1-hexene
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 7.7

57) Which of the following cycloalkenes would be expected to be stable?

A) 1 & 2
B) 2 & 3
C) 2
D) 1 & 3
E) none are stable
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Section: 7.7
58) The compound produced when 3-methylpent-2-ene undergoes hydrogenation in the presence of a platinum catalyst is __________.
Answer: 3-methylpentane
Diff: 1
Section: 7.7

59) The trans isomers of cycloalkenes with rings containing fewer than __________ atoms are unstable at room temperature.
Answer: 8
Diff: 2
Section: 7.7

60) Circle the most stable alkene in the set of isomers below.

Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.7

61) Circle the alkene below which has the smallest heat of hydrogenation.

Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.7
62) Which has the smaller heat of hydrogenation, (E)-2-pentene or (Z)-2-pentene? What is the structural origin of this difference?
Answer: (E)-2-pentene has the smaller heat of hydrogenation. There is less steric strain between the alkyl substituents in the (E)-isomer than in the (Z)-isomer.
Diff: 2
Section: 7.7

63) There are three isomeric methylbutene structures. Draw each of them and then circle the isomer with the highest heat of hydrogenation.
Answer:

Diff: 3
Section: 7.7

64) Draw the alkene of formula C5H10 which evolves the most heat per mole upon hydrogenation.
Answer: CH2CHCH2CH2CH3
Diff: 2
Section: 7.7

65) Does the alkene shown below violate Bredts rule?

Answer: No
Diff: 2
Section: 7.7

66) Does the alkene shown below violate Bredts rule?

Answer: No
Diff: 2
Section: 7.7

67) Does the alkene shown below violate Bredts rule?

Answer: Yes
Diff: 2
Section: 7.7
68) Does the alkene shown below violate Bredts rule?

Answer: No
Diff: 2
Section: 7.7

69) Draw all likely alkene products in the following reaction and circle the product you expect to predominate.

Answer: No alkene product likely.
Diff: 2
Section: 7.7

70) Compare the relative heats of hydrogenation of cyclobutene and cyclopentene and explain the difference in magnitude.
Answer: Cyclobutenes heat of hydrogenation is larger in magnitude than cyclopentenes by about 4 kcal/mol. This is due to additional ring strain introduced into the smaller ring by sp2 centers.
Diff: 3
Section: 7.7

71) Alkenes __________.
A) are relatively polar compounds
B) have lower boiling points than alcohols of similar molecular weight
C) are reasonably soluble in water
D) both A and B
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Section: 7.8

72) Which has the higher boiling point, cis- or trans-hex-3-ene? Briefly explain your choice.
Answer: Cis-Hex-3-ene has the higher boiling point since it has a net molecular dipole moment while the trans-isomer does not. The presence of a permanent molecular dipole allows for stronger intermolecular attractions.
Diff: 2
Section: 7.8
73) Which of the alkyl chlorides listed below undergoes dehydrohalogenation in the presence of a strong base to give pent-2-ene as the only alkene product?
A) 1-chloropentane
B) 2-chloropentane
C) 3-chloropentane
D) 1-chloro-2-methylbutane
E) 1-chloro-3-methylbutane
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Section: 7.9

74) Dehydrohalogenation of 2-bromobutane in the presence of a strong base proceeds via which of the following mechanistic pathways?
A) SN1
B) SN2
C) E1
D) E2
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Section: 7.9

75) Dehydrohalogenation of an alkyl halide by treating it with a strong base to yield an alkene product typically occurs by what reaction mechanism?
A) SN1
B) SN2
C) E1
D) E2
E) free radical
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Section: 7.9

76) Which of the following alkenes is the major product when 2-bromo-2-methylpentane is treated with sodium ethoxide in ethanol?
A) 2-methylpent-1-ene
B) 2-methylpent-2-ene
C) (E)-4-methylpent-2-ene
D) (Z)-4-methylpent-2-ene
E) 4-methylpent-1-ene
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Section: 7.9
77) Which of the following alkenes is the major product when 2-bromo-2-methylpentane is treated with potassium tert-butoxide in tert-butanol?
A) 2-methylpent-1-ene
B) 2-methylpent-2-ene
C) (E)-4-methylpent-2-ene
D) (Z)-4-methylpent-2-ene
E) 4-methylpent-1-ene
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 7.9

78) Which of the following statements applies to the E2 mechanism?
A) It occurs with inversion of stereochemistry.
B) It occurs with racemization of stereochemistry.
C) It proceeds through the more stable carbocation intermediate.
D) The C-H and C-X bonds that break must be anti.
E) Use of a bulky base gives the more highly substituted alkene product.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Section: 7.9

79) Identify the major product of the reaction below.

A)

B)

C)

D)

Answer: D
Diff: 3
Section: 7.9
80) Provide the structure of the major organic product of the reaction below.

Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.9

81) Provide the structure of the major organic product of the reaction below.

Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.9
82) Provide the structure of the major organic product of the reaction below.

Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.9

83) Provide the structure of the major organic product of the reaction below.

Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.9
84) Provide the structure of the major organic product of the reaction below.

Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.9

85) Provide the structure of the major organic product of the reaction below.

Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.9
86) Provide the major organic product in the reaction shown below.

Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.9

87) Provide the major organic product in the reaction shown below.

Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.9

88) Provide the major organic product in the reaction shown below.

Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.9
89) Describe the major products of the following reaction and predict which of the products would predominate. Explain and defend your answer.

Answer: Possible products:

The Hofmann product would most likely predominate due to the coplanar cis configuration of the Br and H across the bridge. The E2 mechanism favors anti alignment of the H with the halogen leaving group. There are two possible anti-aligned H atoms that would lead to the Hofmann product.
Diff: 2
Section: 7.9

90) Provide the name of the major alkene product that results when (2S,3S)-2-bromo-3-methylpentane is treated with sodium methoxide in methanol.
Answer: (E)-3-methyl-2-pentene
Diff: 3
Section: 7.9

91) Provide the name of the major alkene product that results when (2S,3R)-2-bromo-3-methylpentane is treated with sodium methoxide in methanol.
Answer: (Z)-3-methyl-2-pentene
Diff: 3
Section: 7.9

92) Provide the name of the major alkene product that results when (2R,3R)-2,3-dibromopentane is treated with zinc in acetic acid.
Answer: (Z)-2-pentene
Diff: 3
Section: 7.9

93) Provide the name of the major alkene product that results when (2S,3R)-2,3-dibromopentane is treated with zinc in acetic acid.
Answer: (E)-2-pentene
Diff: 3
Section: 7.9
94) Describe the major elimination products of the following reaction, including any stereochemistry, and indicate which structure will predominate. Explain and defend your answer.

Answer: Possible Products:

This reaction would be predicted to follow an E2 anti-elemination in the formation of 2 Zaitzef products (E and Z) and the 1 Hofmann product. The predicted predominating species would be the Zaitzef (E) structure because E2 favors anti alignemnt of the beta-H and the halogen. When considering 2 -beta H atoms in an E2 elimination, the best alignment would be acheived when the starting material assumes a conformation where the methyl and phenyl groups are aligned anti with respect to each other in a Newman projection.
Diff: 3
Section: 7.9

95) Draw all likely alkene products in the following reaction and circle the product you expect to predominate.

Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.9
96) Draw all likely alkene products in the following reaction and circle the product you expect to predominate.

Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.9

97) Draw all likely alkene products in the following reaction and circle the product you expect to predominate.

Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.9

98) Draw all likely alkene products in the following reaction and circle the product you expect to predominate.

Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.9
99) Draw the alkene product which results when 1-bromopentane is heated in acetone containing NaOH. Give a detailed, step-by-step mechanism for the production of this compound.
Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.9

100) Which base, ammonia (NH3) or triethylamine [(CH3CH2)3N], would be a better choice for use in converting 1-chlorohexane to hex-1-ene? Explain briefly.
Answer: Triethylamine. Amines can serve as both nucleophiles and as bases in reactions with alkyl halides. Increasing the steric bulk about the nitrogen diminishes the nucleophilicity while allowing the amine to continue to function effectively as a base.
Diff: 2
Section: 7.9

101) Provide the reagents necessary for carrying out the transformation of cyclopentane to cyclopentene.
Answer: 1. Br2, h
2. NaOH, acetone
Diff: 2
Section: 7.9

102) Provide the reagents necessary for carrying out the transformation of 2-methylheptane to 2-methylhept-1-ene
Answer: 1. Br2, h
2. (CH3)3CO- K+, (CH3)3COH
Diff: 2
Section: 7.9

103) What reagent could be used to prepare cyclopentene from trans-1,2-dibromocyclopentane?
Answer: Zn/CH3CO2H
Diff: 2
Section: 7.9

104) Provide the reagents necessary for carrying out the transformation of 2-methylheptane to 2-methylhept-2-ene.
Answer: 1. Br2, h
2. NaOH, acetone
Diff: 3
Section: 7.9
105) In the group shown below, which of the following alcohols is (are) likely to yield a product where skeletal rearrangement has occurred when treated with sulfuric acid?

3-methyl-3-pentanol, 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanol, 2,2-dimethylcyclohexanol
A) 3-methyl-3-pentanol only
B) 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanol only
C) 2,2-dimethylcyclohexanol only
D) both 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanol and 2,2-dimethylcyclohexanol
E) None of these three alcohols is prone to rearrangement.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Section: 7.10

106) Dehydration of an unknown alcohol with concentrated H2SO4 results in the formation of all of the following alkene products. What is/are the possible structures of the original alcohol?

A)

B)

C)

D)

E) Both B and C are possible structures for the original alcohol.
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Section: 7.10
107) Predict the major product of the reaction shown below.

A) 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene
B) 2,3-dimethyl-1-butene
C) 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene
D) None of the above
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Section: 7.10

108) Provide the major organic product in the reaction shown below.

Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.10

109) Draw all likely products of the following reaction and circle the product you expect to predominate.

CH3CH(OH)CH2CH2CH3

Answer:

Diff: 2
Section: 7.10
110) Propose a detailed, step-by-step mechanism for the reaction pathway shown below.

Answer:

Diff: 3
Section: 7.10

111) Propose a detailed, step-by-step mechanism for the reaction pathway shown below.

Answer:

Diff: 3
Section: 7.10
112) Draw all likely products of the following reaction and circle the product you expect to predominate.

Answer:

Diff: 3
Section: 7.10

113) Draw all likely products of the following reaction and circle the product you expect to predominate.

Answer:

Diff: 3
Section: 7.10

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