Organization Theory And Design 3rd Edition by Ann Armstrong Test Bank

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Organization Theory And Design 3rd Edition by Ann Armstrong Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS

Organization Theory And Design 3rd Edition by Ann Armstrong Test Bank

Chapter 6

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

 

1. The global product structure works best when pressure for decision-making balances the interests of both product standardization and geographical localization, and when coordination to share resources is important.

  a. True
  b. False

 

2. The not invented here syndrome makes some managers reluctant to tap into the know-how and expertise of other units.

  a. True
  b. False

 

3. In many instances, companies will need to respond to both global and local opportunities simultaneously, in which case the global matrix structure can be used.

  a. True
  b. False

 

4. Deal-focused individuals believe in building close personal relationships as the appropriate way to conduct business.

  a. True
  b. False

 

5. As companies begin to explore international opportunities, they typically start with an international division that grows into an export department.

  a. True
  b. False

 

6. With a global geographical structure, each divisions manager is responsible for planning, organizing, and controlling all functions for the production and distribution of its products for any market around the world.

  a. True
  b. False

 

7. The transnational model reflects the ultimate in both organizational complexity, with many diverse units, and organizational coordination, with mechanisms for integrating the varied parts.

  a. True
  b. False

 

8. Network coordinators would enable a manufacturing organization to provide knowledge and integrated solutions across multiple businesses, divisions, and countries for a large customer.

  a. True
  b. False

 

9. The GLOBE findings are notably different from Hofstedes.

  a. True
  b. False

 

10. High uncertainty avoidance means that people accept inequality in power among institutions, organizations, and people.

  a. True
  b. False

 

11. An organization in the second stage of international evolution (international stage) will usually have a domestic structure with an export department.

  a. True
  b. False

 

12. In the third stage (multinational stage) of international development, a company typically shifts its interest from domestic activity to exporting.

  a. True
  b. False

 

13. To meet new competitive threats, many manufacturing firms are emphasizing their ability to customize their products to meet specific needs, which requires a greater emphasis on global responsiveness.

  a. True
  b. False

 

14. A joint venture is a separate entity created with two or more active firms as sponsors.

  a. True
  b. False

 

15. The management philosophy of a transnational model is based on interdependence rather than either full divisional independence or total divisional dependence on headquarters for decision making and control.

  a. True
  b. False

 

16. A growing number of global consumers are rejecting the notion of homogenized products and services, and calling for greater response to local preferences.

  a. True
  b. False

 

17. Low uncertainty avoidance means that people have a high tolerance for the unstructured, the unclear, and the unpredictable.

  a. True
  b. False

 

18. The globalization strategy means that product design, manufacturing, and marketing strategy are standardized throughout the world, whereas a multidomestic strategy means that competition in each country is handled independently of competition in other countries.

  a. True
  b. False

 

19. The international stage of international development means that exporting is taken seriously and that the company deals with the competitive issues of each country separately.

  a. True
  b. False

 

20. A transnational team is a work group comprising multinational members whose activities span multiple countries.

  a. True
  b. False

 

21. The product-based structure works best when a division handles products that are technologically similar and can be standardized for marketing around the world.

  a. True
  b. False

 

22. Functional structures are found more frequently in a worldwide business than in a domestic business.

  a. True
  b. False

 

23. The global geographical structure divides the world into geographical regions, with each geographical division reporting to the CEO.

  a. True
  b. False

 

24. In parts of Mexico, laundry detergent is used to wash dishes, not clothes, which is an example of the need for a multidomestic strategy.

  a. True
  b. False

 

25. Building a global presence expands an organizations scale of operations, enabling it to realize economies of scale.

  a. True
  b. False

 

26. Functional managers coordinate across functions, whereas country managers coordinate among countries.

  a. True
  b. False

 

27. Managers and organizations all over the world are very reluctant to cooperate to achieve competitive advantage on a global scale.

  a. True
  b. False

 

28. European companies tend to have international units that have a high level of independence.

  a. True
  b. False

 

29. Hybrid structures are typical in highly volatile environments.

  a. True
  b. False

 

30. Informal cultures place a low value on status and power differences.

  a. True
  b. False

 

31. Having a presence in multiple countries provides firms with more marketing power and synergy compared to the same-size firm that has a presence in fewer countries.

  a. True
  b. False

 

Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

32. What type of organization operates with the entire world as their marketplace?

  a. multidomestic firms
  b. international organizations
  c. governmental agencies
  d. global companies

 

33. Which of the following is a characteristic of the global matrix organizational structure?

  a. It increases horizontal coordination, but decreases vertical coordination.
  b. It balances the interests of both product standardization and regional customization
  c. It commonly utilizes matrix bosses as functional and product heads.
  d. It divides the world into regions with each division reporting to the CEO.

 

34. Which of the following is a characteristic of the global geographical organizational structure?

  a. It is most useful for new product lines.
  b. It works well for products with rapidly changing technologies.
  c. It works best if there are similar needs for the product across countries.
  d. It may make product planning on a global scale challenging.

 

35. Which of the following characteristics distinguishes the transnational organization from other forms of global organizations?

  a. Assets and resources are dispersed worldwide into highly specialized operations that are linked through interdependent relationships.
  b. Structures are stable.
  c. Subsidiary managers initiate strategy and innovations that become strategy for the corporation as a whole.
  d. Unification and coordination are achieved primarily through corporate culture, shared vision and values, and management style rather than through formal structures and systems.

 

36. In what stage of the international evolution of a company are the worldwide geographic or product structures most likely to appear?

  a. domestic
  b. international
  c. multinational
  d. global

 

37. Which statement best describes Mandel-Campbells description of Canadas approach to competing globally?

  a. Canada has competed effectively internationally.
  b. Canada needs policies to encourage entrepreneurial action.
  c. Canada needs to do more research to understand and address globalization.
  d. Canadian companies have not had the gumption necessary for international success.

 

38. What kind of major challenge do managers face as organizations become more differentiated, with multiple products, divisions, departments, and positions scattered across numerous countries?

  a. knowledge transfer
  b. differentiation
  c. integration
  d. development

 

39. What type of strategy is being followed when a company such as Coca-Cola decides to use the same product design and advertising strategy throughout the world?

  a. multidomestic
  b. consortia
  c. focused
  d. globalization

 

40. In what stage does a specific division replace the export department, requiring the need to hire specialists to handle sales, service, and warehousing abroad?

  a. domestic
  b. international
  c. global
  d. multinational

 

41. Which term refers to groups of independent companies that come together to share skills, resources, costs, and access to one anothers markets?

  a. joint ventures
  b. cartels
  c. alliances
  d. consortia

 

42. Which term refers to the number and variety of products and services a company offers, as well as the number and variety of regions, countries, and markets it serves?

  a. economies of scale
  b. market potential
  c. scope
  d. development stage

 

43. Which component of the global organizational challenge is being faced by an organization that has to create a structure to operate in numerous countries that differ in economic development, language, political systems and government regulations, cultural norms and values, and infrastructure?

  a. the problem of transferring knowledge across a global firm
  b. dealing with greater complexity and differentiation
  c. the need for integration
  d. the need for KSAs

 

44. Which of the following characterizes the transnational model?

  a. using shared vision and values to achieve coordination in this horizontal structure
  b. being one step short of the matrix in exploiting both global and local advantages for the corporation as well as multiple interrelated competitive issues
  c. having a single headquarter and a single centre of control for each country and for each product line
  d. not having a single corporate headquarter, but a clear hierarchical responsibility

 

45. What does building a global presence enable an organizations operations to achieve?

  a. economies of scale
  b. economies of scope
  c. factors of production
  d. its international development stage

 

46. Which of the following, if present to a high degree, means that people accept inequality among institutions, organizations, and people?

  a. uncertainty avoidance
  b. power distance
  c. employee empowerment
  d. integration

 

47. Which factor motivates companies to expand internationally and is related to labour and raw materials?

  a. cheaper production
  b. smaller number of distribution channels
  c. economies of scale
  d. economies of scope

 

48. What is a popular approach to sharing development and production costs and penetrating new markets?

  a. consortia
  b. licensing
  c. joint ventures
  d. franchising

 

49. Which type of strategy would encourage production design, assembly, and marketing tailored to the needs of each country?

  a. focused
  b. multidomestic
  c. globalization
  d. joint venture

 

50. Which term refers to a new entity that is created when two or more separate firms come together to share development and/or production costs?

  a. wholly owned subsidiaries
  b. joint ventures
  c. consortia
  d. licensing agreements

 

51. Lawrence Incorporated used global teams as part of its internationalization, enabling them to be more locally responsive to different regional markets, consumer preferences, and political and legal systems. Which issue did this structure address?

  a. the differentiation challenge
  b. units gaining influence within the global firm
  c. codification of organizational knowledge throughout the global firm
  d. lack of ability to gain economies of scope

 

52. Which of the following is a characteristic of the global product organizational structure?

  a. It uses country managers who are accountable for profit and loss of every product.
  b. It fits well with customization of production or marketing.
  c. It may result in competition among product divisions.
  d. It will ensure that all countries are covered well.

 

Chart 6.2

 

53. Refer to Chart 6.2. What structure is shown?

  a. global functional
  b. domestic hybrid
  c. global matrix
  d. global product

 

54. Refer to Chart 6.2. How would you relate the structure diagrammed in Chart 6.2 to a global geographic structure?

  a. The firm shown above is not as far along in developing opportunities for multidomestic strategy as the global geographic structure would be.
  b. Product managers differ in that, in the chart above, the product heads are line managers primarily accountable for their product domestically, whereas, in the global geographic structure, product heads are staff advisers.
  c. The structure shown is better than the global geographic structure.
  d. The global geographic structure is more domestically oriented than the one above.

 

Chart 6.1

 

55. Refer to Chart 6.1. Which statement best describes the organization depicted in Chart 6.1?

  a. Law, engineering, and finance are considered to be product groups.
  b. The regional directors are also responsible for product groups.
  c. Global product heads fulfill the function of full-time staff integrators.
  d. Global product heads are usually accountable for profit and loss of their product in worldwide sales.

 

56. With what kind of products does the global product structure work best?

  a. products that are technologically dissimilar
  b. products that can be standardized for marketing worldwide
  c. products that are obsolete in one country, but not in another
  d. products that are cheap and easy to produce

 

57. What kind of formal positions do organizations create to coordinate information and activities related to key customer accounts?

  a. functional manager
  b. transnational team
  c. network coordinator
  d. division network

 

Chart 6.1

 

58. Refer to Chart 6.1. What structure is shown?

  a. global geographic
  b. global matrix
  c. global product
  d. global functional

 

59. Which model reflects the ultimate in both organizational complexity, with many diverse units, and organizational coordination, with mechanisms for integrating the varied parts?

  a. transformative
  b. transnational
  c. global
  d. multidomestic

 

 

 

Case 6.0
It was reported in the Wall Street Journal that Ford Motor Co. was reorganizing to place its functions such as product development, sales, and engine/transmissions under their own executives with global authority. Alexander Trotman, chairman and CEO, wanted to create a structure that would avoid costly duplication in different parts of the world and that would foster Fords development of models such as its Mondeo (Europe) and Contour (U.S.), which could sell worldwide with few modifications. Trotman wanted a company that was strong internationally in product development, manufacturing, and purchasing and that could take advantage of Fords geographical strengths throughout the world.

The company had been organized geographically into three relatively independent divisionsFord North America, Ford of Europe, and Ford Asia/Pacific. The new products cited above, Mondeo and Contour, sapped $6 billion in development costs because of expensive coordination time between the sometimes-conflicting European and North American divisions. Elimination of duplication was a goal of the new structure.

Simultaneously a new program team facility was being constructed so that all of Fords new product development would be by teams. The new coupe Mustang was born from an experimental cross-functional team that designed the product in less than three years compared to Fords normal four-to-five-year development cycle. Trotman emphasized that he wanted to change the process, not just the structure, by which new products were developed. Ford apparently found the team process convincing because the Mustang was developed on a budget about 30% lower than budgets for comparable projects.

SOURCE: Summarized from Ford to Realign with a System of Global Chiefs, The Wall Street Journal, March 31, 1994, pp. A3A4.

 

60. Refer to Case 6.0. Comment on any difficulties Ford might encounter in adopting the philosophy and behaviour of a horizontal corporation as the company made the structural change CEO Trotman outlined.

 

61. Discuss the global matrix structure. Give an example.

 

62. List the reasons most organizations tap only a fraction of the potential available from the cross-border transfer of knowledge.

 

63. Discuss the three primary approaches to coordination and control as represented by Japanese, North American, and European companies.

 

Case 6.0
It was reported in the Wall Street Journal that Ford Motor Co. was reorganizing to place its functions such as product development, sales, and engine/transmissions under their own executives with global authority. Alexander Trotman, chairman and CEO, wanted to create a structure that would avoid costly duplication in different parts of the world and that would foster Fords development of models such as its Mondeo (Europe) and Contour (U.S.), which could sell worldwide with few modifications. Trotman wanted a company that was strong internationally in product development, manufacturing, and purchasing and that could take advantage of Fords geographical strengths throughout the world.

The company had been organized geographically into three relatively independent divisionsFord North America, Ford of Europe, and Ford Asia/Pacific. The new products cited above, Mondeo and Contour, sapped $6 billion in development costs because of expensive coordination time between the sometimes-conflicting European and North American divisions. Elimination of duplication was a goal of the new structure.

Simultaneously a new program team facility was being constructed so that all of Fords new product development would be by teams. The new coupe Mustang was born from an experimental cross-functional team that designed the product in less than three years compared to Fords normal four-to-five-year development cycle. Trotman emphasized that he wanted to change the process, not just the structure, by which new products were developed. Ford apparently found the team process convincing because the Mustang was developed on a budget about 30% lower than budgets for comparable projects.

SOURCE: Summarized from Ford to Realign with a System of Global Chiefs, The Wall Street Journal, March 31, 1994, pp. A3A4.

 

64. Refer to Case 6.0. Identify the strategy in the textbook that Ford appears to be adopting. Describe advantages and disadvantages of that strategy for Ford. Why do you think CEO Trotman moved to that strategy?

 

65. Compare and contrast the global product division structure and global matrix structure.

 

66. Discuss the national value systems.

 

67. Select any organization with which you are familiaryour college or university, the car dealership down the road, an organization where you work, etc. Analyze the global forces that influence the organization you selected. How should the organization respond to those global forces in order to gain international competitive advantage?

 

68. What are the three primary segments of the global organizational challenge? Discuss each.

 

69. What are the international strategic alliances that companies can choose from to expand globally? Discuss and give an example of each.

 

70. Under what conditions should an organization consider a global geographical structure as opposed to a global product structure?

 

Case 6.0
It was reported in the Wall Street Journal that Ford Motor Co. was reorganizing to place its functions such as product development, sales, and engine/transmissions under their own executives with global authority. Alexander Trotman, chairman and CEO, wanted to create a structure that would avoid costly duplication in different parts of the world and that would foster Fords development of models such as its Mondeo (Europe) and Contour (U.S.), which could sell worldwide with few modifications. Trotman wanted a company that was strong internationally in product development, manufacturing, and purchasing and that could take advantage of Fords geographical strengths throughout the world.

The company had been organized geographically into three relatively independent divisionsFord North America, Ford of Europe, and Ford Asia/Pacific. The new products cited above, Mondeo and Contour, sapped $6 billion in development costs because of expensive coordination time between the sometimes-conflicting European and North American divisions. Elimination of duplication was a goal of the new structure.

Simultaneously a new program team facility was being constructed so that all of Fords new product development would be by teams. The new coupe Mustang was born from an experimental cross-functional team that designed the product in less than three years compared to Fords normal four-to-five-year development cycle. Trotman emphasized that he wanted to change the process, not just the structure, by which new products were developed. Ford apparently found the team process convincing because the Mustang was developed on a budget about 30% lower than budgets for comparable projects.

SOURCE: Summarized from Ford to Realign with a System of Global Chiefs, The Wall Street Journal, March 31, 1994, pp. A3A4.

 

71. Refer to Case 6.0. What sort of structure was Ford using before the proposed change?

 

72. Discuss each of the motivations for global expansion.

 

73. The most advanced and competitive use of global teams involves simultaneous contributions in three strategic areas. List these three areas.

 

74. Describe the stages of international evolution in terms of their strategic orientation.

 

75. When should a company begin using an international division? What problems are likely to be solved by adopting this structure? As the company progresses in its international development, what problems will likely not be solved by this structure?

 

Case 6.0
It was reported in the Wall Street Journal that Ford Motor Co. was reorganizing to place its functions such as product development, sales, and engine/transmissions under their own executives with global authority. Alexander Trotman, chairman and CEO, wanted to create a structure that would avoid costly duplication in different parts of the world and that would foster Fords development of models such as its Mondeo (Europe) and Contour (U.S.), which could sell worldwide with few modifications. Trotman wanted a company that was strong internationally in product development, manufacturing, and purchasing and that could take advantage of Fords geographical strengths throughout the world.

The company had been organized geographically into three relatively independent divisionsFord North America, Ford of Europe, and Ford Asia/Pacific. The new products cited above, Mondeo and Contour, sapped $6 billion in development costs because of expensive coordination time between the sometimes-conflicting European and North American divisions. Elimination of duplication was a goal of the new structure.

Simultaneously a new program team facility was being constructed so that all of Fords new product development would be by teams. The new coupe Mustang was born from an experimental cross-functional team that designed the product in less than three years compared to Fords normal four-to-five-year development cycle. Trotman emphasized that he wanted to change the process, not just the structure, by which new products were developed. Ford apparently found the team process convincing because the Mustang was developed on a budget about 30% lower than budgets for comparable projects.

SOURCE: Summarized from Ford to Realign with a System of Global Chiefs, The Wall Street Journal, March 31, 1994, pp. A3A4.

 

76. Refer to Case 6.0. Describe how Fords proposed structural changes are different from the usual progression through the stages resulting from international development. Describe how Fords proposed structural changes parallel the new designs for domestic and global advantage.

 

77. Why are global companies sometimes described as stateless corporations?

 

78. List and discuss the characteristics that distinguish the transnational organization from other global organization forms.

 

79. Compare and contrast the globalization strategy and the multidomestic strategy. Give an example of effective use of each strategy.

 

80. Discuss the global geographical structure.

 

81. Which type of international strategic alliance, if any, would you recommend for a business that wanted to gain entry into China? Explain the reasons behind your choice.

 

Answer Key

1. False

 

2. True

 

3. True

 

4. False

 

5. False

 

6. False

 

7. True

 

8. True

 

9. False

 

10. False

 

11. False

 

12. False

 

13. False

 

14. True

 

15. True

 

16. True

 

17. True

 

18. True

 

19. True

 

20. True

 

21. True

 

22. False

 

23. True

 

24. True

 

25. True

 

26. False

 

27. False

 

28. True

 

29. True

 

30. True

 

31. True

 

32. d

 

33. b

 

34. d

 

35. b

 

36. c

 

37. d

 

38. c

 

39. d

 

40. b

 

41. d

 

42. c

 

43. b

 

44. a

 

45. a

 

46. b

 

47. a

 

48. c

 

49. b

 

50. b

 

51. a

 

52. c

 

53. b

 

54. a

 

55. d

 

56. b

 

57. c

 

58. c

 

59. b

 

60. The organizational structure is very complex to manage and the change may have been too abrupt for Ford to implement effectively.

 

61. The global matrix is like a domestic matrix but the degree of coordination and communication are greater and more complex. It works best when the pressure for decision making balances the interests of both product standardization and geographical localization. ABB, described on page 228 of the textbook, is an excellent example.

 

62. There are four main reasons organizations tap only a fraction of the potential. They are (1) knowledge often remains hidden because of language and other differences, (2) some divisions will want to hold on to their knowledge, as they see knowledge as power, (3) the not invented here syndrome, and (4) much of the knowledge is either tacit or in the employees minds, and the organization does not have the resources to capture the knowledge.

 

63.

  Japan North America European
Coordination and Control Systems Rely on centralization Use formalization Use decentralized approach

 

64. Ford seems to be moving to a globalization strategy. Such a strategy could help Ford get the benefits of economies of scale by standardizing product design and manufacturing, using common suppliers, introducing product globally more quickly, and coordinating prices and manufacturing standards. However, product design, assembly, and marketing would be less tailored to the needs of individual countries.

 

65.

  Global Product Global Matrix
Structural Characteristics Product division takes responsibility for global operation in its product area. Like a domestic matrix but the degree of coordination and communication are greater and more complex.
Advantages Fairly straightforward design; managers at headquarters have broad perspective; standardizing production and sales globally Works best when the pressure for decision-making balances the interests of both product standardization and geographical localization

 

66. National value systems are thought to distinguish one country from another. The most popular research on such differences was conducted by Hofstede, who identified five dimensions on which countries differ: power distance, long-term orientation, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, and individualism.

 

67. Students will have a range of responses, depending on the type of organization they use for the analysis. It is important for the students to be clear about the extent of the possible influence of global forces and then address the suitable structures as presented in Exhibit 6.1 on page 218.

 

68. They are the following: (1) when organizations go international, they encounter greater internal and external complexity, and so they face the challenge of increased complexity and the need for greater differentiation. (2) As a result, they face the challenge of the need for greater integration. (3) They also face the challenge of the transfer of innovation and knowledge, which can be limited by political forces and resource inadequacy in the organization.

 

69. Typical alliances include (a) licensing, (b) joint ventures, and (c) consortia. To illustrate each, (a) pharmaceutical companies will often cross-license their new drugs to encourage innovation in drug development; (b) Nortel Networks had joint ventures with Chinese firms to get access to Chinas enormous markets; and (c) Airbus Industries is a consortium of French, German, and British aerospace firms.

 

70. Companies that want to emphasize adaptation to regional or local market needs would do well to adopt a global geographical structure.

 

71. Ford was using a multidomestic strategy by region.

 

72. Organizations are motivated to expand globally for three reasons: (1) to get economies of scale, (2) to achieve economies of scope, and (3) to find low-cost production locations.

 

73. First, global teams help companies address the differentiation challenge. Second, teams provide the necessary integration. Third, they contribute to learning and knowledge transfer and adaptation on a global level.

 

74.

  1. Domestic 2. International 3. Multinational 4. Global
Strategic Orientation Domestically- oriented Export-oriented
multidomestic
Multinational Global

 

75. A company should use an international division as its starts to explore international opportunities. The organization will have resources dedicated to its international customers. However, the structure does not permit the company to be particularly close to its customers, so many organizations move on to the global product structure or the global geographical structure.

 

76. It seems that Ford is going from the international stage directly to the global stage without going through the multinational stage. Ford is trying not to be just a collection of different domestic entities but to be truly global with the competitive position in one country affecting the organization as a whole.

 

77. Such companies do not see themselves as belonging to a single home country.

 

78. Transnational organizations are the most advanced type of international organization. They create an integrated network of individual operations that are linked together to achieve the various goals of the organization. They are characterized by (1) assets and resources being dispersed worldwide into highly specialized linked operations; (2) flexible and changing structures; (3) subsidiary managers ability to initiate strategy; and (4) coordination being achieved primarily through organizational culture, shared visions and values, and management style.

 

79.

Globalization Strategy Multidomestic Strategy
Product design, manufacturing, and marketing strategies are standardized around the world. Competition in different countries is handled differently.
Example: Coca-Cola Company Example: P&G

 

80. The global geographical structure divides the world into geographical regions, with each geographical region reporting directly to the CEO. Each region has complete control of the functional activities in its region.

 

81. You would recommend joint ventures, because then the non-Chinese company could learn from its Chinese partners about the special characteristics of the market. However, its important to note that there may be time-consuming cross-cultural challenges to manage. The goal is to achieve a global relationship.

 

 

Chapter 7

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

 

1. Intensive technologies refers to the combination in one organization of successive stages of production; each stage of production uses as its inputs the production of the preceding stage and produces inputs for the following stage.

  a. True
  b. False

 

2. Products of different sizes, types, and customer requirements freely intermingling on the assembly line is an advantage of lean manufacturing.

  a. True
  b. False

 

3. Span of control is the number of employees who report to a single manager or supervisor and is normally influenced by departmental technology.

  a. True
  b. False

 

4. E-commerce entails the customers landing on the home page.

  a. True
  b. False

 

5. Perrows study is about organization-level technology, while Woodwards study is classified as pertaining to department-level technology.

  a. True
  b. False

 

6. A company can adopt CAD in one department and/or CAM in another, and make improvements in efficiency and quality, but the results of implementing all three improvements are breathtaking.

  a. True
  b. False

 

7. A baseball team is an example of pooled interdependence.

  a. True
  b. False

 

8. A mediating technology provides products or services that mediate or link clients from the external environment and, in doing so, allows each department to work independently.

  a. True
  b. False

 

9. Routine technologies are characterized by little task variety and the use of objective, computational procedures, whereas en

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