Organizational Behavior 17th Edition by Stephen P. Robbins Test Bank

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Organizational Behavior 17th Edition by Stephen P. Robbins Test Bank

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COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS
Organizational Behavior 17th Edition by Stephen P. Robbins  Test Bank 
 
SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

Organizational Behavior, 17e (Robbins)

Chapter 2   Diversity in Organizations

 

1) Kimberly Ortiz strongly believes in working for a company that promotes diversity. She believes that such organizations are respectful of differences and allow employees more exposure. She recently attended an interview where she was told that the company follows policies that focus on organizational diversity. However, when she finally joined the company, she had a strong feeling that the companys claim was not true. Which of the following, if true, weakens Kimberlys belief that the company does not encourage diversity?

  1. A) Eighty-five percent of the top management positions in the company are held by men.
  2. B) She is the only African-American member in the entire workforce.
  3. C) The workforce is not dominated by any specific ethnic or racial group.
  4. D) The previous company she worked for made a conscious effort to employ an equal number of men and women.
  5. E) Her team members believe that they are treated equally in spite of differences in performance.

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The fact that the workforce is not dominated by any one ethnic or racial group indicates that the workplace has a mix of all ethnicities and races and does not discriminate. The fact that 85 percent of the top management positions of the company are held by men works against the argument because it shows that the company is biased toward men. In addition, if Kimberly is the only African-American member in the entire workforce, it shows that the company is biased toward other racial groups. Kimberlys previously working for a company that believes in gender equality is irrelevant to this argument. Her team members being treated equally in spite of differences in performance represents unfair discrimination. It works against the argument.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Critical Thinking

 

2) ________ diversity refers to diversity in observable attributes such as race, ethnicity, sex, and age.

  1. A) Psychographic
  2. B) Additive
  3. C) Surface-level
  4. D) Disjunctive
  5. E) Conjunctive

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Surface-level diversity refers to differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, and disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but that may activate certain stereotypes.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

3) Which of the following is true with respect to surface-level diversity?

  1. A) It refers to psychographic characteristics of the members of a group.
  2. B) People with surface-level diversity will also share deep-level diversity.
  3. C) It indicates differences of values, emotions and personality traits between people.
  4. D) It refers to differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender and race.
  5. E) It represents a persons or groups thought processes and feelings.

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Surface-level diversity refers to differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, and disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but that may activate certain stereotypes.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

4) Differences in ________ indicate surface-level diversity.

  1. A) personality
  2. B) values
  3. C) style of work
  4. D) ethnicity
  5. E) attitudes

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Surface-level diversity refers to differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, and disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but that may activate certain stereotypes.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

5) Which of the following most likely indicates surface-level similarity?

  1. A) Tim and Jake are colleagues who take risks and are quick decision makers.
  2. B) The employees at GenSys prefer teamwork over individual assignments.
  3. C) Nina and Chuck are colleagues who share similar views on corporate social responsibility.
  4. D) Jane and Sara grew up in the same town and went to school together.
  5. E) Hannah and Nate are both introspective and tend to be slow to reach decisions.

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Surface-level diversity refers to differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, and disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but that may activate certain stereotypes.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

6) ________ diversity refers to diversity with respect to attributes that are less easy to observe initially but that can be inferred after more direct experience.

  1. A) Surface-level
  2. B) Additive
  3. C) Demographic
  4. D) Deep-level
  5. E) Conjunctive

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) As people get to know one another, they become less concerned about demographic differences if they see themselves as sharing more important characteristics, such as personality and values, that represent deep-level diversity.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

7) Which of the following best represents deep-level similarity?

  1. A) colleagues who both hail from the same neighborhood in Alabama
  2. B) employees who are college graduates with a degree in business management
  3. C) employees who speak Spanish and share similar religious values
  4. D) employees who seek challenges in assignments and like to work collaboratively
  5. E) employees in their mid-thirties with 10 years work experience in the publishing industry

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Demographics mostly reflect surface-level diversity, not thoughts and feelings, and can lead employees to perceive one another through stereotypes and assumptions. However, evidence has shown that as people get to know one another, they become less concerned about demographic differences if they see themselves as sharing more important characteristics, such as personality and values, that represent deep-level diversity.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

8) Malcolm Industries recently hired a large number of workers for the companys new construction factory in Colorado. During the hiring process, the management made a clear effort to recruit physically strong individuals because the work at the factory involves manual labor. The jobs need to be performed by individuals who have the energy and physical stamina to work for long hours. Which of the following surface-level characteristics did the company most likely concentrate on when selecting the new workers?

  1. A) age
  2. B) values
  3. C) beliefs
  4. D) religion
  5. E) personality

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Surface-level diversity refers to differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, and disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but that may activate certain stereotypes.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

9) A difference in ________ would indicate deep-level diversity.

  1. A) gender
  2. B) age
  3. C) ethnicity
  4. D) disability
  5. E) values

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Deep-level diversity comprises differences in values, personality, and work preferences that become progressively more important for determining similarity as people get to know one another better.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

10) ________ differences between people represent deep-level diversity.

  1. A) Race
  2. B) Age
  3. C) Ethnicity
  4. D) Gender
  5. E) Personality

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Deep-level diversity comprises differences in values, personality, and work preferences that become progressively more important for determining similarity as people get to know one another better.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

11) The management at Climate Action Development needs to recruit campaign managers for its Renewable Energy Project. They are looking for candidates who are assertive, extroverted, and who can tackle challenges head-on. Which of the following deep-level characteristics should they focus on to best help them recruit the right candidate for the job?

  1. A) race
  2. B) age
  3. C) ethnicity
  4. D) values
  5. E) personality

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Deep-level diversity comprises differences in values, personality, and work preferences that become progressively more important for determining similarity as people get to know one another better.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

12) Over the past 50 years, the earnings gap between whites and other racial and ethnic groups has decreased significantly.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Over the past 50 years, the earnings gap between whites and other racial and ethnic groups has decreased significantly.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

13) Demographics mostly reflect deep-level rather than surface-level diversity.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Demographics mostly reflect surface-level diversity, not thoughts and feelings, and can lead employees to perceive one another through stereotypes and assumptions. However, evidence has shown that as people get to know one another, they become less concerned about demographic differences if they see themselves as sharing more important characteristics, such as personality and values, that represent deep-level diversity.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

14) Two colleagues who bond over similarities of growing up in a French-speaking locality can be said to have deep-level similarities rather than surface-level similarities.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, and disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but that may activate certain stereotypes are known as surface-level diversity.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Application

15) Differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, and disability, give rise to surface-level diversity. The Atalissa scandal serves as a reminder that true fairness is not just a warm feeling toward the disabled, but the ethical responsibility of us all.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, and disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but that may activate certain stereotypes are known as surface-level diversity. The exploitation of the disabled men in the opening story is a tragic example of mistreating people for the ways in which they are different. Not only were the men abused by their supposed caretakers, but they also suffered workplace discrimination that kept them in debilitating roles without regard to their abilities and needs. In this chapter, we look at how organizations should work to maximize the potential contributions of a diverse workforce.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Application

 

 

16) List some of the concerns that HR managers are likely to face with a changing workforce.

Answer:  The aging of the workforce is the most significant concern of HR managers. The loss of skills resulting from the retirement of many baby boomers, increased medical costs due to an aging workforce, and many employees needs to care for elderly relatives will also gain prominence. Other issues include developing multilingual training materials and providing work-life benefits for dual-career couples. In addition, managers will have to encourage diversity in age, race, gender, ethnicity, religion, and disability status and deal with the challenges that it brings.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

17) Explain the play of surface-level similarity and deep-level diversity in a workplace environment with the help of an example.

Answer:  Yoko and Kishi who work in a finance firm both hail from Miyagi. They speak Japanese fluently and easily bonded over their shared culture and love for karaoke. Such similarities refer to surface-level similarities. However, a few months later, when they had to work on an account together, they faced several disagreements due to differences in their work styles and personalities. Yoko was more impulsive and liked to make quick decisions. On the other hand, Kishi liked to deliberate over decisions and implementation processes. In addition, Yoko was optimistic about situations whereas Kishi was overly critical and skeptical about most processes. These fundamental differences in beliefs and thought processes resulted in clashes between them. Such differences represent deep-level diversity.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Synthesis

18) Define surface-level diversity and deep-level diversity.

Answer:  Surface-level diversity refers to differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, and disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but that may activate certain stereotypes. On the other hand, differences in values, personality, and work preferences that become progressively more important for determining similarity as people get to know one another better are categorized under deep-level diversity.

LO:  2.1: Describe the two major forms of workplace diversity.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

19) The human resources department of Orbit Bank believes in being unbiased toward all employees and treating them fairly. They believe it is crucial that the company treat all their employees equally. However Susan Daniels, an employee at the bank, recently filed a lawsuit against the company, claiming that she was discriminated against. Which of the following, if true, best justifies Susans action?

  1. A) The company did not give her preferential treatment even though she was from the host country.
  2. B) She was asked whether she was over eighteen during the first round in the interview process.
  3. C) Her colleagues expressed their dissatisfaction over their pay and severance packages.
  4. D) She had faced a similar situation of discrimination in her previous company.
  5. E) She was given the same incentives as her colleagues in spite of performing better than them.

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) Orbit Bank discriminated against Susan by giving her the same incentives as her colleagues even though she performed better than them. If the company gave her preferential treatment because she was from the host country, the company would then be discriminating against the other employees. Asking whether she is over eighteen years of age is a question that interviewers are allowed to ask during the interview process to ensure the candidate is legally allowed to gain employment. Whether Susan faced a similar situation in the previous company is irrelevant to the argument. Susans colleagues stating their unhappiness about their pay and severance package is not related to Susan filing a lawsuit against the company for discriminating against her.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Critical Thinking

20) In a workplace, ________ involves overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees.

  1. A) intimidation
  2. B) risk aversion
  3. C) inequity aversion
  4. D) optimism bias
  5. E) ambiguity aversion

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) In a workplace, intimidation involves overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoning

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

21) Aprils colleague Nathan has consistently pestered her to go out on a date with him. Though she has refused his offer several times, he keeps persisting. She found an envelope on her desk from Nathan with inappropriate pictures and cartoons, which left her infuriated. She now intends to go discuss the matter with the human resource department of her company. Which of the following forms of discrimination is April most likely to cite?

  1. A) sexual harassment
  2. B) cyberstalking
  3. C) mobbing
  4. D) exclusion
  5. E) electronic harassment

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Sexual harassment refers to unwanted sexual advances and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that create a hostile or offensive work environment.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

22) Which of the following refers to a kind of discrimination that refers to overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees?

  1. A) intimidation
  2. B) impact bias
  3. C) inequity aversion
  4. D) framing effect
  5. E) benefaction

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Intimidation is a kind of discrimination which refers to overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoning

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

23) Which of the following is the best example of the use of intimidation?

  1. A) Anyas boss, Kira, sets difficult targets and hints that Anya may lose her job if she doesnt meet them.
  2. B) Jills manager, Steve, rarely considers her business ideas, but he consistently praises the contributions of Jills colleague, Emily.
  3. C) Natashas colleagues often make jokes using cultural or ethnic stereotypes.
  4. D) Although Kathleen had spent a longer time in the organization, her colleague Gary was promoted to a management position.
  5. E) Janes colleagues recently forgot to invite her to a team lunch, a fact that caused her great distress.

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Intimidation is a kind of discrimination which refers to overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

24) Hazel Samuels has been working at her company for the past two years and consistently gets yelled at by her manager even when she is not at fault. He often makes derogatory references to her ethnicity. In addition, during team meetings, she is his target for practical jokes and nasty pranks. She is extremely upset and decides not to be subjected to such treatment any longer. Which of the following kinds of discrimination is she most likely to report to the human resource department in such a situation?

  1. A) intimidation
  2. B) sexual harassment
  3. C) hazing
  4. D) mobbing
  5. E) whistle-blowing

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Intimidation is a kind of discrimination which refers to overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

25) Which of the following is the best example of mockery as a tool of discriminatory treatment in organizations?

  1. A) Rifkas supervisor often stereotypes Rifka because of her ethnic heritage and makes jokes about her ethnicity.
  2. B) Because she is considerably older than the rest of her team, Hannahs colleagues often do not invite her to team lunches or informal team get-togethers.
  3. C) Joans boss sets impossible targets and reprimands her in front of her colleagues if she fails to complete them on time.
  4. D) Sheena is the only African-American employee in her department and often feels left out of office jokes and gossip.
  5. E) Most of Leannes co-workers are male and share inappropriate jokes at the office.

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Mockery often refers to jokes or jokes about negative stereotypes.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

26) A person who is made fun of because he is an Arab-American is being subjected to ________, a kind of discrimination in work environments.

  1. A) mockery
  2. B) vandalism
  3. C) cyberstalking
  4. D) gaslighting
  5. E) monomania

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Mockery often refers to jokes or jokes about negative stereotypes. For instance, Arab-Americans have been asked at work whether they were carrying bombs or were members of terrorist organizations. This is an example of mockery.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoning

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

27) Stacy Hanes is an African-American woman who has recently taken her first job and does not seem to like the work environment at all. Her colleagues put down her ideas at team meetings and refer to them as stupid. In addition, they make fun of her race and often ask her if she is educated enough to work for the company. Which of the following kinds of discrimination is Hanes most likely subject to?

  1. A) mockery
  2. B) sexual harassment
  3. C) stalking
  4. D) deception
  5. E) subterfuge

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Jokes or negative stereotypes, which are sometimes the result of jokes taken too far, refer to mockery and insults.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

28) ________, which may occur intentionally or unintentionally, refers to keeping certain people in a work place away from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring.

  1. A) Exclusion
  2. B) Mockery
  3. C) Stalking
  4. D) Ragging
  5. E) Bullying

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Exclusion of certain people from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring may occur unintentionally. For instance, many women in finance claim they are assigned to marginal job roles or are given light workloads that do not lead to promotion.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoning

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

 

29) Jill Ivey has been working as a sales executive at Orbit Bank for the last two years. However, she has noticed that she is often not given an opportunity to attend training programs that her team members attend every quarter. She also is disappointed about the fact that she never gets to handle corporate clients, which provides better chances of a promotion. Which of the following kinds of discrimination is she most likely to have been subjected to?

  1. A) exclusion
  2. B) mockery
  3. C) gaslighting
  4. D) destabilization
  5. E) mobbing

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Exclusion of certain people from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring may occur unintentionally. For instance, many women in finance claim they are assigned to marginal job roles or are given light workloads that do not lead to promotion.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Analytical thinking

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

30) Women being assigned marginal job roles that do not lead to promotion is an example of the ________ form of discrimination.

  1. A) hazing
  2. B) gaslighting
  3. C) coercion
  4. D) exclusion
  5. E) battery

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) The exclusion of certain people from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring may occur unintentionally. For instance, many women in finance claim they are assigned to marginal job roles or are given light workloads that do not lead to promotion.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoning

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

31) Which of the following is true with respect to workplace discrimination?

  1. A) Discrimination occurs more at lower levels in the organization than higher levels.
  2. B) It may lead to reduced productivity and citizenship behavior.
  3. C) Only intentional discrimination is addressed by diversity management efforts.
  4. D) Forms of discrimination like exclusion are easy to root out.
  5. E) The discriminators are invariably aware of their action toward the victim.

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Discrimination can occur in many ways, and its effects can be just as varied depending on the organizational context and the personal biases of its members. Discrimination can lead to serious negative consequences for employers, including reduced productivity and citizenship behavior, negative conflicts, and increased turnover.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoning

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

32) Unfair discrimination involves noticing and being aware of individual characteristics among people in a group.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Unfair discrimination involves overlooking individual characteristics and assuming everyone in a group is the same. This discrimination is often very harmful to organizations and employees.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

33) Effective diversity management involves eliminating unfair discrimination.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Effective diversity management involves eliminating unfair discrimination. Unfair discrimination involves overlooking individual characteristics and assuming everyone in a group is the same.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

34) Women being passed over for promotion even when they are performing better than men is an example of a discriminatory practice.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Actions taken by representatives of an organization that deny equal opportunity to perform or unequal rewards for performance are known as discriminatory policies or practices.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoning

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

35) Denying overseas assignments to certain deserving employees over others is a form of exclusion, a kind of workplace discrimination.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Exclusion of certain people from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring, which can occur unintentionally, refers to exclusion, a form of workplace discrimination.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoning

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Application

 

36) Explain how surface-level similarity can lead to unfair discrimination. Substantiate your answer with the help of a scenario.

Answer:  Regina works as a sales manager in Rhode Islands Corporation Bank. She strongly believes that as a manager, she plays an important role to ensure that all employees are treated equally in the company. She notices that one of her sales teams comprises Teresa, Gloria, and Antonio, who all hail from Madrid. All three graduated from the same university and began their careers with Alliance Bank. In the last few months, Regina has had a chance to review Teresas work and notices that she has made an exceptional number of sales in the past year, way above her set targets. When it comes to giving bonuses, she assumes that since Teresa, Gloria, and Antonio have such similar educational and professional backgrounds, they are bound to have similar productivity standards. She offers all three of them the same bonus without analyzing individual performances, assuming they performed equally well. Reginas behavior in this scenario can be characterized as unfair discrimination. A person who undertakes unfair discrimination rather than looking at individual characteristics assumes everyone in a group is the same. She is stereotyping all three employees because they have surface-level similarities of similar educational and professional backgrounds.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Synthesis

 

37) Compare and contrast unfair discrimination and diversity management.

Answer:  Unfair discrimination assumes everyone in a group is the same. This discrimination is often very harmful to organizations and employees. Diversity management, on the other hand, makes everyone more aware of and sensitive to the needs and differences of others. This definition highlights the fact that diversity programs include and are meant for everyone. For instance, if a manager promotes all employees in a team when only one employee deserves a promotion, the manager is engaging in unfair discrimination. If the manager, on the other hand, makes his/her team recognize and respect differences between team members, the manager is undertaking diversity management.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Synthesis

 

38) Explain three different kinds of workplace discrimination.

Answer:  Sexual harassment refers to verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that creates a hostile or offensive work environment. Intimidation refers to overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees. Exclusion is another kind of workplace discrimination where certain people are excluded from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring, and it can occur unintentionally.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

39) Compare and contrast exclusion and intimidation at workplaces with the help of an example.

Answer:  Ally Beal has been working in a law firm for the last two years and has been bullied by her manager ever since she joined. She is given targets that are impossible to complete within the given time frame. When she is unable to complete her work, her manager admonishes her in front of everyone. Intimidation may be defined as overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees. In contrast, exclusion involves certain people being excluded from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring. If Beal is excluded from discussions that involve making decisions about clients accounts, which are being attended by all other team members, she is being subjected to exclusion.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Synthesis

 

40) With the help of an example, explain incivility as a form of indiscrimination at workplaces.

Answer:  Incivility refers to disrespectful treatment, including behaving in an aggressive manner, interrupting a person, or ignoring his/her opinions. For instance, if Marks colleagues never listen to his ideas or suggestions, he is experiencing incivility. In addition, incivility may also involve his colleagues behaving in a hostile or threatening manner. This form of discrimination is especially hard to root out because it is impossible to observe and may occur simply because the actor is not aware of the effects of his/her actions.

LO:  2.2: Demonstrate how workplace discrimination undermines organizational effectiveness.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Application

 

 

41) Which of the following is a biographical characteristic of an employee?

  1. A) length of tenure
  2. B) work preferences
  3. C) personality
  4. D) values
  5. E) beliefs

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Biographical characteristics refer to personal characteristics such as age, gender, race, and length of tenure that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records. These characteristics are representative of surface-level diversity.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

42) Which of the following is true with respect to biographical characteristics?

  1. A) They are non-objective in nature and cannot be observed.
  2. B) They represent characteristics such as personality and work ethics.
  3. C) They cannot be obtained from personnel records.
  4. D) They are representative of surface-level diversity.
  5. E) They comprise features such as motivation and commitment.

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Biographical characteristics refer to personal characteristics such as age, gender, race, and length of tenure that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records. These characteristics are representative of surface-level diversity.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

43) Which of the following explains why the relationship between age and job performance is likely to be of increasing importance during the next decade?

  1. A) The workforce is shrinking, and older workers are compelled to work beyond retirement.
  2. B) A decline in immigration has opened up more entry-level positions for older workers.
  3. C) Increasing job opportunities are opening up in the domestic sector, resulting in a dearth of employees.
  4. D) U.S. legislation, in effect, outlaws mandatory retirement.
  5. E) A majority of people believe that productivity rises as a person grows older.

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) U.S. legislation, for all intents and purposes, outlaws mandatory retirement. Most U.S. workers today no longer have to retire at age 70.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

44) Raylon Inc. is in the process of recruiting a new operations manager. The human resources team has narrowed the candidate list down to two candidates but cannot come to an agreement about whom to hire. Though both candidates have the relevant qualifications for the post, one will soon be 60 years old. The other candidate is in his early thirties. Rachel, a member of the HR team, recommends hiring the older candidate, citing his years of experience and leadership ability. Tim, on the other hand, strongly recommends that the company hire the younger candidate, as he is likely to be more flexible when it comes to working. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens Rachels argument?

  1. A) The job requires frequent travel around the companys six factories located across the country.
  2. B) Most of the employees the operations manager will be supervising are under 30 years of age.
  3. C) Research has shown that older workers are more prone to absenteeism for health-related issues.
  4. D) Almost half of the companys top managers are in the 45-65 age bracket.
  5. E) The company recently instituted a new production system that cuts waste by 30 percent.

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) The fact that most of the employees the operations manager will supervise are under 30 indicates that the leadership ability of the older candidate will be a valuable asset. The frequent travel requirements favor the younger candidate and work against the argument. The statistics of higher absenteeism rates for older employees favor the younger candidate. The ages of the companys top managers are irrelevant to the argument. The new technology might make the older candidates experience worthless and would favor the younger candidate.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Critical Thinking

 

45) Which of the following is the most likely reason why employers should employ older workers?

  1. A) They adjust to new technology promptly.
  2. B) Older workers have extensive work experience.
  3. C) Older workers are flexible and learn quickly.
  4. D) They have shorter tenures and hence lower pension benefits than younger workers.
  5. E) The rates of unavoidable absences are lower than those of younger workers.

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Employers in the United States see a number of positive qualities older workers bring to their jobs, such as experience, judgment, a strong work ethic, and commitment to quality. But older workers are also perceived as lacking flexibility and resisting new technology.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

46) Thurman Inc., a manufacturing company in Vermont, needs to hire employees for its new office in the city. The positions require the employees to travel across the country regularly. The management has specified that they are looking for employees below the age of 40 who are young and dynamic. Which of the following beliefs is the management most likely to hold?

  1. A) Younger workers make stronger judgments.
  2. B) Younger workers are more flexible to change.
  3. C) Younger workers have more experience.
  4. D) Younger workers have stronger work ethics.
  5. E) Younger workers are more committed to quality.

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) When organizations are actively seeking individuals who are adaptable and open to change, the negatives associated with age clearly hinder the initial hiring of older workers and increase the likelihood they will be let go during cutbacks.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

47) Angela Wells recently applied for a job at Spiga, a lounge in Paris. Having worked in several restaurants and lounges in and across France, she was confident that she would get the job. However, soon after the interview, she was informed that another candidate was offered the job, even though the other candidate had limited experience in comparison to her. Angela feels that she was discriminated against. Which of the following, if true, would best justify Angelas assumption?

  1. A) The woman who was selected over her could speak French fluently.
  2. B) Angela is a single mother with two young children.
  3. C) Angela does not have a degree in hospitality management.
  4. D) The lounge caters to elite business clientele in Paris.
  5. E) Angela learned of the position through a friend working at the lounge.

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) The fact that Angela has two young children may bias the employer against her because working mothers are often known to be inflexible when it comes to work schedules. The fact that the other candidate could speak French fluently weakens Angelas assumption because it will help the candidate communicate better if she knows the local language. The fact that Angela does not have a degree in hospitality management weakens her assumption. The lounge catering to an elite clientele is irrelevant to this argument. In addition, Angela getting to know of the position through a friend who works at the lounge plays no role in this argument.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Critical Thinking

 

48) Raylon Inc. needs to hire a new floor supervisor. As the company has recently made an effort to increase diversity within the organization, the HR team wants to hire a qualified female candidate for the role instead of adequately qualified male candidates. However, top management insists that optimal performance is the top priority and that the candidate hired should be the person best suited for the job. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen HRs case for hiring the female candidate?

  1. A) There are nearly as many female employees on the floor as male employees.
  2. B) The company has recently introduced policies that provide greater benefits for working and single mothers.
  3. C) Most of the top-level managers in the company are female.
  4. D) The company policy stipulates that each employee has to work at least one week per month on a night shift.
  5. E) Both candidates have the qualifications required to perform up to expectations.

Answer:  E

Explanation:  E) If both candidates have the potential to perform up to expectations, hiring the female candidate will allow the company to increase diversity while maintaining its performance. The fact that there are almost as many female employees on the floor as male employees would indicate that the workforce was diverse as to gender and would weaken HRs argument. The companys increasing benefits for working mothers would weaken HRs case if the candidate has children but would not affect it if she does not. The fact that most top-level managers are female weakens HRs argument as this would indicate that the company does incorporate gender diversity. The requirement that employees work a night shift one week a month is irrelevant to the argument.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Reflective thinking

Difficulty:  Hard

Quest. Category:  Critical Thinking

 

49) ________ refers to the biological heritage people use to identify themselves.

  1. A) Race
  2. B) Values
  3. C) Beliefs
  4. D) Religion
  5. E) GMA

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Race refers to the biological heritage people use to identify themselves.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

50) Green Planet, an environmental organization, recently opened an office in Indonesia. The organization is currently looking for employees to staff a deforestation project in the country. They need to recruit individuals who understand the intricacies of Jakartas culture and the mindset of the locals and are fluent in the local language. Which of the following are they most likely to consider while they recruit for these positions?

  1. A) race
  2. B) age
  3. C) beliefs
  4. D) gender
  5. E) length of service

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Biographical characteristics such as age, gender, race, disability, and length of service are some of the most obvious ways employees differ. Race refers to the biological heritage people use to identify themselves.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Application

 

51) ________ may be defined as an individuals current capacity to perform the various tasks in a job.

  1. A) Ability
  2. B) Age
  3. C) Duty
  4. D) Role
  5. E) Tenure

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Ability is an individuals current capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. Overall abilities are essentially made up of two sets of factors: intellectual and physical.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

52) Recent U.S. legislation has instituted mandatory retirement at 70 in order to ensure that jobs are available for younger workers.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  A reason that the relationship between age and job performance is likely to be of growing significance in the next decade is that U.S. legislation outlaws mandatory retirement.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

53) Older people are more likely to quit and change jobs than younger employees.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The older a person gets, the less likely he/she is to quit a job, according to studies on the age-turnover relationship. As workers get older, they have fewer job opportunities because their skills have become more specialized to certain types of work.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

54) In general, older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than do younger employees. However, they have equal rates of unavoidable absence, such as sickness absences.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  In general, older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than do younger employees. However, they have equal rates of unavoidable absence, such as sickness absences.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

55) There has been a significant decrease in the female participation in the workforce over the past 40 years.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  There has been a significant increase in the female participation in the workforce over the past 40 years. In addition, rethinking of what constitutes male and female roles, we can assume no significant difference in job productivity between men and women.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

56) Studies show that satisfaction tends to continually increase among nonprofessionals as they age, whereas it falls among professionals during middle age and then rises again in the later years.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Studies show that satisfaction tends to continually increase among professionals as they age, whereas it falls among nonprofessionals during middle age and then rises again in the later years.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

57) The U.S. Bureau of the Census does not allow for classification of individuals by race.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The U.S. Bureau of the Census classifies individuals according to seven broad racial categories: American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, Some Other Race, White, and Two or More Races.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

58) Hispanics can be of any race.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  The U.S. Bureau of the Census classifies individuals according to seven broad racial categories: American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, Some Other Race, White, and Two or More Races. An ethnicity distinction is also made between native English speakers and Hispanics: Hispanics can be of any race.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

59) According to the Americans with Disabilities Act, employers are under no obligation to make accommodations for individuals with physical or mental disabilities.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  With the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990, the representation of individuals with disabilities in the U.S. workforce rapidly increased. According to the ADA, employers are required to make reasonable accommodations so their workplaces will be accessible to individuals with physical or mental disabilities.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

60) A person suffering from alcoholism is not classified as disabled according to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, as alcoholism is self-induced.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission classifies a person as disabled who has any physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities. Examples include alcoholism, diabetes, chronic back pain, missing limbs, among others.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

61) Federal law in the United States prohibits discrimination against employees based on sexual orientation.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Federal law in the United States does not prohibit discrimination against employees based on sexual orientation. However, many states and municipalities do.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

62) The relationship between age and job performance is likely to be an issue of increasing importance during the next decade. Explain.

Answer:  The relationship between age and job performance is likely to be an issue of increasing importance during the next decade for at least three reasons. First, a widespread belief is that job performance declines with increasing age. Regardless of whether this is true, a lot of people believe it and act on it. Second, the workforce is aging. For instance, many employers recognize that older workers represent a huge potential pool of high-quality applicants. The third reason is U.S. legislation that, for all intents and purposes, outlaws mandatory retirement. For instance, most U.S. workers today no longer have to retire at age 70. This may mean an increased number of older workers in the workforce.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

63) Evaluate the benefits and disadvantages of an older workforce.

Answer:  There are a number of positive qualities older workers bring to their jobs, such as experience, judgment, a strong work ethic, and commitment to quality, but older workers are also perceived as lacking flexibility and resisting new technology. When organizations are actively seeking individuals who are adaptable and open to change, the negatives associated with age clearly hinder the initial hiring of older workers and increase the likelihood they will be let go during cutbacks. As workers get older, they have fewer alternative job opportunities as their skills have become more specialized to certain types of work. Their long tenure also tends to provide them with higher wage rates, longer paid vacations, and more attractive pension benefits. In general, older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than do younger employees. However, they have equal rates of unavoidable absence, such as sickness absences.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

64) Explain how studying individuals with disabilities is an integral part of the study of organizational behavior.

Answer:  With the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990, the representation of individuals with disabilities in the U.S. workforce rapidly increased. According to the ADA, employers are required to make reasonable accommodations so their workplaces will be accessible to individuals with physical or mental disabilities. Making inferences about the relationship between disability and employment outcomes is difficult because the term disability is so broad. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission classifies a person as disabled who has any physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities. Some jobs obviously cannot be accommodated to some disabilities. For example, the law and common sense recognize that a blind person could not be a bus driver. However, the increasing presence of computer technology and other adaptive devices is shattering many traditional barriers to employment, making it easier for the disabled to enter the workforce.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

65) What is the significance of reasonable accommodations for diversity management in workplaces?

Answer:  With the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990, the representation of individuals with disabilities in the U.S. workforce rapidly increased. According to the ADA, employers are required to make reasonable accommodations so their workplaces will be accessible to individuals with physical or mental disabilities. Some jobs obviously cannot be accommodated to some disabilities. For example, the law and common sense recognize that a blind person could not be a bus driver. However, the increasing presence of computer technology and other adaptive devices is shattering many traditional barriers to employment, making it easier for the disabled to enter the workforce.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environments

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

66) Compare and contrast four different kinds of physical abilities.

Answer:  Extent flexibility is the ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible. Dynamic flexibility refers to the ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movement. Both of these physical abilities can be classified under flexibility factors. Explosive strength is the ability to expend a maximum of energy in one or a series of explosive acts. In comparison, the ability to exert force against external objects is known as static strength. Both of these physical abilities can be classified under strength factors.

LO:  2.3: Describe how the key biographical characteristics are relevant to OB.

Difficulty:  Moderate

Quest. Category:  Synthesis

 

67) ________ is a dimension of intellectual ability which refers to the ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other.

  1. A) Lateral masking
  2. B) Verbal comprehension
  3. C) Depth perception
  4. D) Spatial visualization
  5. E) Visual perception

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Verbal comprehension is a dimension of intellectual ability which refers to the ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other.

LO:  2.4: Explain how other differentiating characteristics factor into OB.

Difficulty:  Easy

Quest. Category:  Concept

 

68) ________ refers to a dimension of intellectual ability which involves identifying a logical sequence in a problem and using this logical sequence to solve the problem.

  1. A) Inductive reasoning
  2. B) Spatial visualization
  3. C) Form perception
  4. D) Visual perception
  5. E) Visual prosthesis

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