Organizational Development The Process of Leading Organizational Change 4th Edition By Donal L. Test Bank

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Organizational Development The Process of Leading Organizational Change 4th Edition By Donal L. Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Organizational Development The Process of Leading Organizational Change 4th Edition By Donal L. Test Bank

Chapter 2: History of Organization Development

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

  1. The National Training Laboratory (NTL) in Group Development was founded by Kenneth Benne, Leland Bradford, and Ronald Lippitt, who were inspired by which scholar?
  2. Douglas Beckhard
  3. Kurt Lewin
  4. Herbert Shepard
  5. Wendell French

Ans: B

AACSB: Thinking creatively

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Laboratory Training and T-Groups
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which researchers work was an effort to understand and create personal and social change, with the objective of building and growing democracy in society?
  2. Rensis Likert
  3. Fred Emery
  4. Kurt Lewin
  5. Douglas MacGregor

Ans: C

AACSB: Group and individual behaviors

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Laboratory Training and T-Groups
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following phrases did Lewin invent?
  2. group dynamics
  3. group leadership
  4. group behavior
  5. group patterns

Ans: A

AACSB: Group and individual behaviors

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Laboratory Training and T-Groups
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. As a result to the research with the Connecticut Interracial Commission, ______ were born.
  2. lab groups
  3. leadership groups
  4. sociotechnical groups
  5. T-groups

Ans: D

AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Laboratory Training and T-Groups
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. There was common objective of each T-group, regardless of the process the groups followed
  2. to demonstrate understanding by the group leaders being active in posing questions and suggesting activities that participants should automatically involve themselves with.
  3. to have trainers serve as leaders and demonstrate to the group what processes to follow so that participants would continue those behaviors when returned home.
  4. to create interpersonal change by allowing individuals to learn about their own and others behavior so that the education could be translated into more effective behavior when the participants returned home.
  5. to have participants engage in discussion with the researchers so that they could share what actually occurred within the various interactions so that researchers were more informed.

Ans: C

AACSB: Interpersonal relations and teamwork

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Laboratory Training and T-Groups
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. What is considered as one of the earliest fads in the field of management occurred as a result of ______ .
  2. lab groups
  3. leadership groups
  4. sociotechnical groups
  5. T-groups

Ans: D

AACSB: Integrating knowledge across fields

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Laboratory Training and T-Groups
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What is referred to now as a commonly used form of scale for measurement?
  2. Rensis Scale
  3. Likert Scale
  4. Survey Scale
  5. Research Scale

Ans: B

AACSB: Integrating knowledge across fields

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Survey Feedback
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Lewin referred to ______ as a model to capture the idea that the research projects at their core always had both pragmatic and theoretical components, and that rigorous scientific methods could be used to gather data about groups and to intervene in their processes.
  2. laboratory training
  3. action research
  4. survey feedback
  5. management practices

Ans: B

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Action Research, Survey Feedback, and Sociotechnical Systems
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Two criteria, addressing questions of larger significance and making the results known to other researchers and practitioners, formed the core of the action research process. One initial project that met this criteria was at ______.
  2. Survey Research Center
  3. Connecticut Interracial Commission
  4. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
  5. Detroit Edison

Ans: D

AACSB: Statistics/quantitative methods

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Survey Feedback
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following was not an objective of the research project at Detroit Edison?
  2. To develop through first-hand experience an understanding of the problems of producing change
  3. To improve relationships
  4. To insinuate factors related to change
  5. To develop working hypotheses for later, more directed research

Ans: C

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Survey Feedback
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which of the following was not reported by the employees in the experimental accounting departments at Detroit Edison?
  2. How well the supervisors in their department got along together
  3. How often their supervisors held meetings and how effective the meetings were
  4. How much their supervisor understood the way employees look at and felt about things
  5. How well supervisors linked pay for performance with employees

Ans: D

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Survey Feedback
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. In STS, which two systems are focused heavily on?
  2. social and technological
  3. social and environmental
  4. technological and environmental
  5. environmental and cultural

Ans: A

AACSB: Integrating knowledge across fields

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Sociotechnical Systems
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following was identified as a notable research program within management practices?
  2. MacGregors Theory X and Y
  3. Blake and Moutons managerial grid
  4. Herzbergs studies of worker motivation
  5. all the above

Ans: D

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Management Practices
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following theories is a more optimistic view of people and work?
  2. Theory X
  3. Theory V
  4. Theory Y
  5. Theory Z

Ans: D

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Management practices
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following of Likerts four systems of management relates to managers using rewards occasionally, but also punishment, information flow is mostly downward, and most decisions are made at the highest levels?
  2. System 1
  3. System 2
  4. System 3
  5. System 4

Ans: C

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Management Practices
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following of Likerts four systems of management relates to managers involving groups in setting and measuring goals, information flows in all directions, and decisions making is done throughout the organization?
  2. System 1
  3. System 2
  4. System 3
  5. System 4

Ans: D

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Management Practices
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The Managerial Grid mapped scores related to concern for production and concern for people; the scores ranged from ______ to ______.
  2. 1; 5
  3. 1; 7
  4. 1; 9
  5. 1;11

Ans: C

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Management Practices
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Herzbergs research suspected that ______ was not the opposite of ______ .
  2. motivation; job satisfaction
  3. job satisfaction; job dissatisfaction
  4. job dissatisfaction; motivation
  5. job satisfaction; hygiene factors

Ans: B

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Management Practices
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following is not a key motivator that contributes to job enrichment?
  2. Achievement and quality performance
  3. Responsibility
  4. Advancement, growth, and learning
  5. Company policies and administrative practices

Ans: D

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Management Practices
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following is not a hygiene factor, which can cause job dissatisfaction?
  2. Recognition for achievement
  3. Supervision
  4. Physical working conditions
  5. Job security

Ans: A

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Management Practices
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. As firms realized that the ______ of a product strongly impacted the profitability and competitiveness of the organization, they began to pay attention to management styles that would increase workers ability and motivation.
  2. ROI
  3. quality
  4. defects
  5. capabilities

Ans: B

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Quality and Employee Involvement
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Juran argued that quality had two main characteristics: fitness for use and ______.
  2. improved instrumentation
  3. acceptable defects
  4. control for quality
  5. freedom from defects

Ans: D

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Quality and Employee Involvement
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Juran popularized the ______, the idea that explains 80 percent of quality defects by 20 percent of the causes.
  2. Peter Principle
  3. Pareto Principle
  4. Popular Principle
  5. TQM Principle

Ans: B

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Quality and Employee Involvement
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following terms can be defined as  the shared attitudes, values, beliefs, and customs of members of a social unit or organization ?
  2. organization
  3. intervention
  4. culture
  5. employee involvement

Ans: C

AACSB: Interpersonal relations and teamwork

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Organizational Culture
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Cultures perpetuate themselves through ______, particularly when new members to the culture are reprimanded for violating cultural norms or rewarded for assimilation.
  2. socialization
  3. employee involvement
  4. supervision
  5. experimentation

Ans: A

AACSB: Group and individual behaviors

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Organizational Culture
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. OD practice continued to grow in the 1980s and 1990s. Which of the following labels was utilized?
  2. strategic change
  3. change management
  4. reengineering
  5. all the above

Ans: D

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Change Management, Strategic Change, and Reengineering
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Chris Argyris is noted as being a major contributor to the field of ______.
  2. organizational change
  3. organizational learning
  4. organizational leading
  5. organizational behavior

Ans: B

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Organizational Learning
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which process of learning refers to correcting mistakes as they occur?
  2. single-loop learning
  3. double-loop learning
  4. deutero-learning
  5. triple-loop learning

Ans: A

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Organizational Learning
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which process of learning occurs when organizational members understand how and when they learn and develop an environment in which learning can occur?
  2. single-loop learning
  3. double-loop learning
  4. deutero-learning
  5. triple-loop learning

Ans: D

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Organizational Learning
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which process of learning occurs in which we question or modify policies, objectives, or practices to prevent errors the next time?
  2. single-loop learning
  3. double-loop learning
  4. deutero-learning
  5. triple-loop learning

Ans: B

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Organizational Learning
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Senge indicated organizations needed to build capacity in several areas, one of which relates to the leadership ability and responsibility to rally organizational members around a single vision that motivates them:
  2. systems thinking
  3. personal mastery
  4. building shared vision
  5. team learning

Ans: C

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Organizational Learning
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Senge indicated organizations needed to build capacity in several areas, one of which relates to the choice to engage in and commit to a personal vision, goals, and development:
  2. systems thinking
  3. personal mastery
  4. building shared vision
  5. mental models

Ans: B

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Organizational Learning
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. ______ has now become both an evaluation mechanism of OD effectiveness and an intervention in itself.
  2. Organizational engagement
  3. Change management
  4. Organizational learning
  5. Employee engagement

Ans: C

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Organizational Learning
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Many OD practitioners are now exchanging the term organizational development instead with ______.
  2. organizational effectiveness
  3. organizational learning
  4. organizational management
  5. organizational engagement

Ans: A

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Organizational Effectiveness and Employee Engagement
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following terms refers to  the individuals involvement and satisfaction with as well as enthusiasm for work ?
  2. organizational effectiveness
  3. employee satisfaction
  4. employee engagement
  5. organizational learning

Ans: C

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Organizational Effectiveness and Employee Engagement
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which well-known organization presently conducts an employee engagement survey called the Q12?
  2. MIT
  3. University of Michigan
  4. Forbes
  5. Gallup

Ans: D

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Organizational Effectiveness and Employee Engagement
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following strands of OD influenced appreciative inquiry?
  2. Action research
  3. Quality and employee involvement
  4. Organizational culture
  5. Organizational learning

Ans: D

AACSB: Integrating knowledge across fields

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Table 2.1
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which of the following strands of OD is presently utilized, specifically in mergers and acquisitions?
  2. Action research
  3. Quality and employee involvement
  4. Organizational culture
  5. Organizational learning

Ans: C

AACSB: Integrating knowledge across fields

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Table 2.1
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which of the following strands of OD influenced programs such as Six Sigma?
  2. Laboratory training and T-groups
  3. Management practices
  4. Quality and employee involvement
  5. Organizational effectiveness and employee engagement

Ans: C

AACSB: Integrating knowledge across fields

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Table 2.1
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. OD is
  2. multiple methods, perspectives, approaches, and values that influence how it is practiced.
  3. a methodical set of rigid practices.
  4. is focused on solely individual growth regarding how individuals influence organizations decisions.
  5. a one-size-fits-all approach.

Ans: A

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Summary
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

True/False

  1. The practice of OD is just in its second decade.

Ans: F

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: History of Organization Development
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Chapter 2 identifies six strands of OD research and practice.

Ans: F

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: History of Organization Development
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. In the earlier recognized laboratory/T-group training/workshops, organization members were not invited to participate in discussion and to share their own interpretations.

Ans: F

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Laboratory Training and T-Groups
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. In the further research conducted at Detroit Edison, specifically with the eight accounting departments, there was no reported difference among the groups that had taken action compared to the groups that had taken no action.

Ans: F

AACSB: Interpersonal relations and teamwork

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Survey Feedback
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. MacGregor, Likert, Blake and Mouton, and Herzberg sought to persuade the practitioner community that there was a more optimistic and humanistic alternative to management.

Ans: T

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Management Practices
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Demings quality control method is often referred to now as total quality management.

Ans: T

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Quality and Employee Involvement
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Quality circles do not involve employees in improving the work environment and the quality of the output by making suggestions to upper management for areas of improvement.

Ans: F

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Quality and Employee Involvement
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Organizational cultures also exist within local or national cultures that have their own influence on the behaviors of organizational members.

Ans: T

AACSB: Group and individual behaviors

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Organizational Culture
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The ability to effectively adopt change became the difference between successful and mediocre organizations.

Ans: T

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Change Management, Strategic Change, and Reengineering
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. To illustrate why organizations often succeed at learning, Argyris developed two models of managerial thinking: Model I and Model II.

Ans: F

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Organizational Learning
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

Essay

 

  1. Summarize the eight strands of OD that Chapter 2 discussed. How have each of these strands influenced OD today?

Ans: Table 2.1 provides key details that should be included within the response.

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Table 2.1
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Discuss the relevance or importance of participants being included within the discussions during laboratory training/T-groups.

Ans: When this first occurred, it led to a promising new pattern in which researchers reported on their observations and the participants listened, reflected, and shared their own interpretations of their own behavior. The following conclusion has been noted: Group members, if they were confronted more or less objectively with data concerned their own behavior and its effects and if they came to participate nondefensively in thinking about these data, might achieve highly meaningful learnings about themselves, about the responses of others to them, and about group behavior and group development in general.

AACSB: Group and individual behaviors

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Laboratory Training and T-Groups
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. How would you define and describe action research?

Ans: Responses may vary. Information should include mention of using research findings and translate them into practical, actionable knowledge that could be used by practitioners to improve groups and solve their problems. Presently, action research is the foundation and underlying philosophy of the majority of OD work, particularly survey feedback methodologies.

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Action Research, Survey Feedback, and Sociotechnical Systems
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Distinguish between Theory X and Theory Y.

Ans: Responses should include characteristics of each Theory, specifically regarding Theory X having more negative assumptions of people and their work, whereas Theory Y articulates a more optimistic view of people and their work.

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Management Practices
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Thoroughly detail the components within Herzbergs motivation-hygiene theory.

Ans: Various responses will be submitted. Key components should include hygiene factors, motivating factors, and how they relate to job satisfaction and/or job dissatisfaction.

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Management practices
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

Chapter 4: Foundations of Organizational Change

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

  1. Changes can occur at the ______ level when people learn new skills or develop new ways of working through mentoring or education and training.
  2. individual
  3. suprasystem
  4. team
  5. organization

Ans: A

AACSB: Group and individual behaviors

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Levels and Characteristics of Organizational Change
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Changes can occur at the ______ level as new ways of working with one another and ways of addressing conflict are learned.
  2. individual
  3. suprasystem
  4. team
  5. organization

Ans: C

AACSB: Interpersonal relations and teamwork

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Levels and Characteristics of Organizational Change
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Changes can occur at the ______ level through the development of new strategies and processes and visions for a new desired future.
  2. individual
  3. suprasystem
  4. team
  5. organization

Ans: D

AACSB: Interpersonal relations and teamwork

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Levels and Characteristics of Organizational Change
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Changes can occur at the ______ level when multiple organizations are involved, such as with mergers and acquisitions.
  2. individual
  3. suprasystem
  4. team
  5. organization

Ans: B

AACSB: Contexts of organizations in a global society

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels and Characteristics of Organizational Change
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. When organizational members are consious and intentional about the changes to be made, this is considered _____ change.
  2. planned
  3. unplanned
  4. first-order
  5. second-order

Ans: A

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Levels and Characteristics of Organizational Change
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ change consists of incremental modifications that make sense within an established framework or method of operating.
  2. Planned
  3. Unplanned
  4. First-order
  5. Second-order

Ans: C

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels and Characteristics of Organizational Change
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Rethinking how the entire organization uses a computer system, redefining roles, processes, values, and implicit meanings would be considered a _____ change.
  2. planned
  3. unplanned
  4. first-order
  5. second-order

Ans: D

AACSB: System and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Levels and Characteristics of Organizational Change
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Systems thinking is about analyzing the organization on certain levels. Which of the following levels is described as single occurrences of an episode?
  2. events
  3. patterns
  4. structure
  5. theory

Ans: A

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Organizations as Systems
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Systems thinking is about analyzing the organization on certain levels. Which of the following levels is described as the multiple and repetitive archetypes that allow events to happen in the same way time after time?
  2. events
  3. patterns
  4. structure
  5. theory

Ans: B

AACSB: Systems and processes in organiazations

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Organizations as Systems
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which systems theory model of organizational behavior and change discusses the concepts of unfreezing, moving, and refreezing?
  2. Lewins three-phase model
  3. Nadler-Tushman congruence model
  4. Burke-Litwin model
  5. Weisbord Six-Box Model

Ans: A

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Lewins Three-Phase Model of Change and Force Field Analysis
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which systems theory model of organizational behavior and change discusses the concepts of inputs, transformation processes, outputs, and feedback?
  2. Lewins three-phase model
  3. Nadler-Tushman congruence model
  4. Burke-Litwin model
  5. Weisbord Six-Box Model

Ans: B

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which systems theory model of organizational behavior and change takes into account both first-order and second-order change?
  2. Lewins three-phase model
  3. Nadler-Tushman congruence model
  4. Burke-Litwin model
  5. Weisbord Six-Box Model

Ans: C

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizaitonal Performance and Change
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which systems theory model of organizational behavior and change discusses six common problem areas: purposes, structure, rewards, relationships, helpful mechanisms, and leadership?
  2. Lewins three-phase model
  3. Nadler-Tushman congruence model
  4. Burke-Litwin model
  5. Weisbord Six-Box Model

Ans: D

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Weisbords Six-Box Model
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which systems theory model explains that to embrace something new, something else must be left behind?
  2. Lewins three-phase model
  3. Nadler-Tushman congruence model
  4. Burke-Litwin model
  5. Wiesbord Six-Box Model

Ans: A

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Lewins Three-Phrase Model of Change and Force Field Analysis
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. A popular adaptation of which systems theory model refers to an organizations current state, a transition state, and a desired state?
  2. Lewins three-phrase model
  3. Nadler-Tushman congruence model
  4. Burke-Litwin model
  5. Wiesbord Six-Box Model

Ans: A

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Lewins Three-Phrase Model of Change and Force Field Analysis
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which tool can help organizational members understand what factors would support a given change effort and what resistance might prevent the change from being adopted?
  2. Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model
  3. Force Field Analysis
  4. Weisbords Six-Box Model
  5. Gap Analysis

Ans: B

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Lewins Three-Phrase Model of Change and Force Field Analysis
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which of the following components within the Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model includes environment, resources, market demands, human resources, and prior patterns?
  2. inputs
  3. transformation processes
  4. outputs
  5. feedback

Ans: A

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following components within the Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model includes performance, job satisfaction, and stress?
  2. inputs
  3. transformation processes
  4. outputs
  5. feedback

Ans: C

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following components within the Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model includes task, individual, and formal and informal organizational arrangements?
  2. inputs
  3. transformation processes
  4. outputs
  5. feedback

Ans: B

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which systems theory model was developed as a causal model that could be empirically tested, that would specify the variables that would be affected by a given change, and that would take into account transactional and transformational change?
  2. Lewins three-phrase model
  3. Nadler-Tushman congruence model
  4. Burke-Litwin model
  5. Weisbords Six-Box Model

Ans: C

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which component within the Burke-Litwin model is defined as executive behavior that provides direction and encourages others to take needed action?
  2. External enviornment
  3. Leadership
  4. Management practices
  5. Task requirements and individual skills/abilities

Ans: B

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which component within the Burke-Litwin model is defined as standardized policies and mechanisms that are designed to facilitate work?
  2. External environment
  3. Culture
  4. Structure
  5. Systems

Ans: D

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which component within the Burke-Litwin model is defined as the collective current impressions, expectations, and feelings of the members of local work units?
  2. Mission and strategy
  3. Culture
  4. Structure
  5. Climate

Ans: D

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the boxes within Weisbords model includes formal goal clarity and informal goal agreement?
  2. Purposes
  3. Structure
  4. Rewards
  5. Relationships

Ans: A

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Weisbords Six-Box Model
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the boxes within Weisbords model includes the degree to which people can work interdependently and manage conflict successfully?
  2. Structure
  3. Rewards
  4. Relationships
  5. Helpful mechanisms

Ans: C

AACSB: Group and individual behaviors

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Weisbords Six-Box Model
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following terms is related to the social construction perspective and is defined as the placement of items into frameworks, comprehending, redressing surprise, constructing meaning, interacting in pursuit of mutual understanding, and patterning?
  2. environment
  3. sensemaking
  4. information
  5. boundary

Ans: B

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Organizations as Socially Constructed
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Kegan and Lahey wrote about a language shift, for example, from the language of complaint to the language of ______.
  2. commitment
  3. personal responsibility
  4. competing commitments
  5. ongoing regard

Ans: A

AACSB: Written and oral communication

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Approaches to Organizational Change Consistent With a Social Construction Perspective
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Kegan and Lahey wrote about a language shift, for example, from the language of rules and policies to the language of ______.
  2. commitment
  3. personal responsibility
  4. ongoing regard
  5. public agreement

Ans: D

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Approaches to Organizational Change Consistent With a Social Construction Perspective
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What is the role of a change agent, as implied by the social construction perspective?
  2. to analyze participation among employees within an organization
  3. to facilitate an appropriate environment for conversation
  4. to create change within the enviornment
  5. to engage employees to perform their roles within an organization

Ans: B

AACSB: Written and oral communication

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Approaches to Organizational Change Consistent With a Social Construction Perspective
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which practical tool was created to analyze and interpret the four kinds of change conversations?
  2. managers handbook
  3. discussion inventory
  4. conversational profile
  5. gap analysis

Ans: C

AACSB: Written and oral communication

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Approaches to Organizational Change Consistent With a Social Construction Perspective
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Creating change within the social construction perspective means
  2. rigidly following the same set of rules through a well-defined process.
  3. being inventive and creative with how change is achieved, negotiating among stakeholders to produce dialogues.
  4. following a traditional model from inputs through processes to outputs.
  5. expressing discontent with current practices in an effort to pressure change.

Ans: B

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Approaches to Organizational Change Consistent With a Social Construction Perspective
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which level of social construction conversation deals with the cognitive frames and schema?
  2. intrapersonal
  3. personal
  4. interpersonal and small group
  5. organizational

Ans: A

AACSB: Written and oral communication

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Approaches to Organizational Change Consistent With a Social Construction Perspective
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which level of social construction conversation deals with ones own language choices?
  2. intrapersonal
  3. personal
  4. interpersonal and small group
  5. organizational

Ans: B

AACSB: Written and oral communication

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Approaches to Organizational Change Consistent With a Social Construction Perspective
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which level of social construction conversation deals with offical discourses and statements of mission and values?
  2. intrapersonal
  3. personal
  4. interpersonal and small group
  5. organizationsl

Ans: D

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Approaches to Organizational Change Consistent With a Social Construction Perspective
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The complex adaptive systems perspective ______ the notion of the organization as a machinelike set of interconnected and systematized parts that form a predictable whole.
  2. accepts
  3. believes
  4. rejects
  5. asserts

Ans: C

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: New Paradigms in OD
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a reason a practitioner may have regarding which model to emphasize?
  2. If the model is right
  3. If the model facilitates additional understanding
  4. If the model is consistent with the practitioners approach
  5. If the model meets the clients needs

Ans: A

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: New Paradigms in OD
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. In which type of environment would a practitioner find it enlightening to examine a teams language during meetings to better understand how the team is arriving at decisions?
  2. stable
  3. structured
  4. uncertain
  5. hierarchical

Ans: C

AACSB: Contexts of organizations in a global society

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: New Paradigms in OD
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. In which type of environment would clients be more drawn to systems theory approaches?
  2. rapidly changing
  3. uncertain
  4. evolving
  5. structured

Ans: D

AACSB: Contexts of orgnaizations in a global society

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: New Paradigms in OD
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which approach or new paradigm resonates with observers because it highlights how changes can adapt and spread throughout a system to illustrate how even small changes made to a single project team can have expansive effects across the organization?
  2. complex adaptive systems perspective
  3. dialogic approach
  4. systems theory
  5. social construction approach

Ans: A

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: New Paradigms in OD
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. After Cole Campbell was hired at the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, which of the following did NOT result?
  2. many journalists left the paper
  3. circulation declined
  4. newly formed teams thrived in the new structure
  5. positions were eliminated or restructured

Ans: C

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Foundations of Organizational Change
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

True/False

  1. Achieving change is a simple task.

Ans: F

AACSB: Interpersonal relations and teamwork

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Foundations of Organizational Change
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. As OD has evolved, it is now focused on larger scale and strategic change.

Ans: T

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Foundations of Organizational Change
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. It is important for OD practitioners to be conscious and intentional about the choices they make and to avoid adopting an intervention or model simply because it is fashionable.

Ans: T

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Foundations of Organizational Change
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. OD, as a field, has primarily been concerned with the successful implementation of unplanned change.

Ans: F

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels and Characteristics of Organizational Change
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Legislative or regulatory changes, for example, can cause organizations to adapt to new rules.

Ans: T

AACSB: Contexts of organizations in a global society

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Organizations as Systems
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. When placed in the same system, people, however different, produce very different results.

Ans: F

AACSB: Group and individual behaviors

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Value of Systems Theory for OD Practitioners
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. According to the Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model, change can occur only when forces of change are at equilibrium.

Ans: F

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Lewins Three-Phase Model of Change and Force Field Analysis
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. According to Burke and Litwin, the factors most influential in transactional change are due to environmental causes.

Ans: F

AACSB: Contexts of organizations in a global society

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. The view of organizations as socially constructed differs sharply from the systems theory perspective.

Ans: T

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Organizations and Socially Constructed
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. In a highly structured hierarchical environment or in a stable organization not experiencing rapid change, clients may be more drawn to systems theory approaches.

Ans: T

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: New Paradigms in OD
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

Essay

 

  1. Discuss the various ways in which organizational changes differ.

Ans: Responses will vary. However, discussion regarding the (1) Planning, (2) Magnitude, and (3) Continuity should be addressed.

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels and Characteristics of Organizational Change
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. How do the two models of organizational change, Systems Theory and Social Construction Approaches, differ?

Ans: Responses may vary, but specific examples of models and research can be used to demonstrate and differentiate between the two.

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Models of Organizational Change: Systems Theory and Social Construction Approaches
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Discuss three benefits that systems theory offers OD practitioners.

Ans: (1) It can offer useful explanations for human behavior in organizations with attention to roles and structures rather than individual idiosyncrasies; (2) It gives practitioners a more appropriate place to begin interventions for change; and (3) Practitioners can be more deliberate about changes that are being proposed, and possible negative results can be predicted.

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Value of Systems Theory for OD Practitioners
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Discuss four distinct benefits that the social construction perspective offers OD practitioners.

Ans: (1) It offers a useful explanation for human behavior; (2) It emphasizes the active role that members take in creating the organization; (3) It helps OD practitioners see the importance of communication in creating change; and (4) It stresses that organizational change has as its foundation a change in meaning.

AACSB: Integrating knowledge across fields

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Value of the Social Construction Approach for OD Practitioners
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Discuss some of the new paradigms emerging in OD that were introduced in this chapter.

Ans: Answers may vary. Items that could be discussed include the complex adaptive systems perspective and a dialogic approach to OD.

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: New Paradigms in OD
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

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