Phychological Science 5th Edition by Michael Gazzaniga -Test Bank

<< Mosby Essentials for Nursing Assistants, 5th Edition by Sheila A. Sorrentino Leighann Remmert -Test bank Microeconomics 14Th Canadian Edition by Ragan Test Bank >>
Product Code: 222
Availability: In Stock
Price: $24.99
Qty:     - OR -   Add to Wish List
Add to Compare

Phychological Science 5th Edition by Michael Gazzaniga -Test Bank

Description

WITH ANSWERS

Phychological Science 5th Edition by Michael Gazzaniga -Test Bank

CHAPTER 02: Research Methodology

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Based on your texts discussion of scientific inquiry, the goals of psychological science include each of the following EXCEPT ________ behavior and mental processes.
A. explaining C. synthesizing
B. controlling the causes of D. predicting

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   2.1 Science Has Four Primary Goals

OBJ:   2.1A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. A researcher studying attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is gathering information on how many children receive an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis each year. Which of the four primary goals of science is she addressing?
A. description C. prediction
B. control D. explanation

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 Science Has Four Primary Goals

OBJ:   2.1A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Dr. Meyers is investigating the relationship between stress and obesity. In his latest study, he found that stress often leads to obesity because it causes overeating and has slowing effects on metabolism. Which of the four primary goals of science is he addressing with his most recent work?
A. description C. prediction
B. control D. explanation

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 Science Has Four Primary Goals

OBJ:   2.1A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. A group of policymakers are working to address issues of public safety in a residential neighborhood by increasing police presence. Which of the four primary goals of science are they addressing?
A. description C. prediction
B. control D. explanation

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 Science Has Four Primary Goals

OBJ:   2.1A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Dr. Sherman is studying marital relationships and wants to be able to determine which types of couples are at the highest risk for divorce. Which of the four primary goals of science is he addressing?
A. description C. prediction
B. control D. explanation

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 Science Has Four Primary Goals

OBJ:   2.1A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. One of the four main goals of science is prediction. The main goal of scientists addressing this goal is to predict:
A. what might control a behavior.
B. how many scientific studies are needed to study a phenomenon.
C. when a phenomenon will occur.
D. which type of researchers will investigate a phenomenon.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 Science Has Four Primary Goals

OBJ:   2.1A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. One of the four main goals of science is description. The main goal of scientists addressing this goal is to describe:
A. what laws are needed to reduce dangerous behaviors.
B. what measures to use to assess a phenomenon.
C. which types of research studies would best address the phenomenon.
D. what a phenomenon is.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 Science Has Four Primary Goals

OBJ:   2.1A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. One of the four main goals of science is control. The main goal of scientists addressing this goal is to control:
A. the causes of a phenomenon.
B. access to publications about a phenomenon.
C. the institutions that research a phenomenon.
D. the literature on a certain phenomenon.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.1 Science Has Four Primary Goals

OBJ:   2.1A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. One of the four main goals of science is explanation. The main goal of scientists addressing this goal is to explain:
A. why a behavior occurs.
B. the steps of the scientific method.
C. how data collection works.
D. why a researcher wants to study a behavior.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.1 Science Has Four Primary Goals

OBJ:   2.1A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. How are the scientific goals of description and explanation different?
A. Description aims to identify the state of a research field; explanation aims to discuss the future of a research field.
B. Description aims to characterize what a phenomenon is; explanation aims to illustrate why a phenomenon occurs.
C. Explanation aims to identify the state of a research field; description aims to discuss the future of a research field.
D. Explanation aims to characterize what a phenomenon is; description aims to illustrate why a phenomenon occurs.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.1 Science Has Four Primary Goals

OBJ:   2.1A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Clara is working on a study to examine shy childrens behavior with peers they have not met before. She is developing theories, forming hypotheses, and conducting research to determine if her theory is supported by the data. In what process is she engaged?
A. random selection C. directionality
B. correlational studies D. the scientific method

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. According to your textbook, which of the following lists the steps of the scientific method in the correct order?
A. conduct literature review, design study, conduct study, analyze data, form hypothesis, report results
B. form hypothesis, conduct literature review, design study, conduct study, analyze data, report results
C. design study, conduct study, conduct literature review, form hypothesis, report results, analyze data
D. conduct study, analyze data, form hypothesis, report results, design study, conduct literature review

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. According to the text, how do hypotheses relate to theories?
A. Hypotheses are specific predictions used to test a theorys prediction.
B. Hypotheses are formulated after a research study and later made into theories.
C. Theories are specific predictions used to test a theorys prediction.
D. Hypotheses always become theories after a study is complete.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of theories in science?
A. Good theories lead to a number of testable hypotheses.
B. A good hypothesis will support a number of different theories.
C. Good theories are likely to be supported by research findings.
D. Both A and C are true.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. How do theories reflect the law of parsimony?
A. Good theories should be based on the smallest amount of data possible.
B. Theories should be supported by several researchers.
C. Theories usually do not need to be tested if they are concise.
D. Good theories tend to be the simplest explanations that fit the data.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Another word for a theory is a/an:
A. explanation or model. C. prediction or guess.
B. experiment or study. D. data point or finding.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. How are a theory and a hypothesis different?
A. A hypothesis is more specific than a theory.
B. A hypothesis and a theory are the same thing.
C. A theory can only be used for one study while a hypothesis can be used for several.
D. A theory is unchanging while a hypothesis can be altered.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following formal elements of the scientific method consists of a set of interconnected ideas or concepts?
A. a theory C. an experiment
B. a hypothesis D. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Psychologist Jean Piaget observed children to see how they solved problems. Over the course of many studies, he was able to spot general patterns of behavior. This led him to connect different concepts and behaviors within a single:
A. theory. C. experiment.
B. hypothesis. D. sample.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Another word for a hypothesis is a/an:
A. theory. C. outcome.
B. prediction. D. naturalistic observation.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. A researcher believes that presenting possible suspects in a lineup one at a time instead of in a group would lead to more accurate identification of the true suspect. This belief represents a(n):
A. hypothesis. C. response performance.
B. independent variable. D. theory.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. What does it mean for a theory to be falsifiable?
A. It should not be necessary to collect data to address the theory.
B. It should be based on an extensive literature review.
C. It should be the simplest of competing theories.
D. It should be possible to prove the theory incorrect.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. According to some psychologists, Sigmund Freuds theory of the meaning of dreams was not a successful theory because:
A. it was too socially controversial.
B. he developed the theory from previous ideas.
C. it did not lead to many testable hypotheses.
D. it was based on research later shown to be invalid.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. A(n) ________ is a specific, testable prediction about the result that, if the theory is correct, will support the theory.
A. replication C. experiment
B. hypothesis D. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. George is looking for a research project. He could make use of theory because:
A. theories are shown to be true, so subsequent research is successful.
B. one of the benefits of theories is that they lead to testable hypotheses.
C. a theory can be successfully replicated by researchers.
D. theories are likely to result in serendipity, which leads to successful research.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Dr. Henderson wants to conduct research to test her theory that there is an association between sleep patterns and depressive thoughts. What must she do to test this theory?
A. conduct naturalistic observation
B. use self-report methods
C. collect data systematically
D. rely on positive correlations rather than negative correlations

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. Scientists conduct ________, which involves the careful and systematic collection of data.
A. hypotheses C. research
B. replication D. reliability

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. Another word for replication is:
A. reviewing. C. repeating.
B. generalizing. D. analyzing.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Dr. Smith reads about a research study investigating whether a reading intervention has a positive effect on childrens performances in school. She decides to repeat the same study to see if she obtains similar results. She is engaging in:
A. meta-analysis. C. replication.
B. experience sampling. D. correlational research.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. Psychologists have greater confidence in research results when:
A. the data involve stimulus judgments.
B. the research has used participant observation.
C. the results are replicated.
D. there is an experimenter expectancy effect.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking

OBJ:   2.1B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. According to your text, physiologists David Hubel and Torsten Wiesels Nobel Prizewinning research on the function of visual cells in cats brains illustrates the value of ________ in scientific research.
A. serendipity C. objectivity
B. replication D. abstraction

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   2.1 Unexpected Findings Can Be Valuable

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of serendipity in science?
A. Serendipity plays no important role in science because unexpected findings have always been unimportant.
B. Serendipity has led to groundbreaking discoveries that immediately resulted in the Nobel Prize for researchers.
C. Serendipitous findings in science illustrate that research does not always proceed in an orderly fashion.
D. None of the above are true.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 Unexpected Findings Can Be Valuable

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following alternatives is the closest meaning to the term serendipitous?
A. erratic C. significant
B. unexpected D. systematic

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   2.1 Unexpected Findings Can Be Valuable

OBJ:   2.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. According to your text, variables, by definition, can:
A. have no operational definition. C. involve random assignment.
B. be changed or evaluated. D. be constants.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 What Types of Studies Are Used in Psychological Research?

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Something that can be measured or manipulated by an experimenter is considered:
A. a descriptive statistic. C. a confound.
B. data. D. a variable.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 What Types of Studies Are Used in Psychological Research?

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. The precise way a researcher measures and defines a variable is known as the:
A. operational definition. C. stimulus judgment.
B. response accuracy. D. central tendency.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 What Types of Studies Are Used in Psychological Research?

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of variables in studies?
A. A variable is something that can change but is not measured in a study.
B. A variable is something that can be measured but rarely changes.
C. A variable is that aspect of a study that is unchanging.
D. A variable is something that can change and be measured.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 What Types of Studies Are Used in Psychological Research?

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Operational definitions make it possible for researchers to:
A. think about abstract qualities of their measures.
B. randomly assign participants to different conditions.
C. identify variables and record their quantities.
D. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 What Types of Studies Are Used in Psychological Research?

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. If a researcher defined happiness based on the number of times a person smiled in a 15-minute period, the number of smiles would be:
A. an open-ended measurement.
B. the operational definition of happiness.
C. a meta-analysis of the variable.
D. a measure of reaction time.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 What Types of Studies Are Used in Psychological Research?

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. It would NOT be possible for a researcher to study creativity in an experiment if the researcher:
A. had to rely on inferential statistics.
B. did not account for the directionality problem.
C. did not create an operational definition to measure creativity.
D. did not measure event-related potential.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 What Types of Studies Are Used in Psychological Research?

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following activities would NOT be considered a descriptive study?
A. taking notes on the behavior of members in a cult
B. measuring the selection of food items in a cafeteria
C. examining the effects of a new medication in alleviating depression
D. counting the number of mating behaviors in baboons in the natural habitat

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. If a psychologists goal is to describe behavior or mental processes, he or she might conduct a(n) ________ study.
A. experimental C. inferential
B. descriptive D. correlational

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. In which of the following types of descriptive studies does a researcher remain separated from the situation and make no attempt to change it?
A. naturalistic observation C. longitudinal study
B. participant observation D. cross-sectional study

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. If a researcher wanted to study the behavior of protesters who were in a closed group and did not easily admit new people, the researcher would probably use which of the following approaches to study them?
A. naturalistic observation C. meta-analysis
B. participant observation D. closed-ended questions

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Understanding

 

  1. When a researcher joins a social group and talks to the members in order to study that group, the approach is referred to as:
A. a self-report method. C. experience sampling.
B. participant observation. D. response performance.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. In which of the following types of descriptive studies do researchers involve themselves in the situation of interest?
A. naturalistic observation C. longitudinal study
B. participant observation D. cross-sectional study

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. Data collection is particularly problematic when a researcher uses participant observation because:
A. the researcher is able to make use of only closed-ended questions.
B. the researcher fails to recognize the third variable problem.
C. random error occurs in the initial stages of observation.
D. the researcher loses objectivity in participating with a group.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. When researchers collect data in a study, if they unconsciously code a persons behavior to match their expectations, we say there is:
A. a directionality problem. C. a sampling error.
B. an observer bias. D. reactivity.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. If a researcher does not have a clear operational definition of the behavior he or she is studying, he or she might experience:
A. observer bias. C. confounds.
B. reactivity. D. a directionality problem.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. When a researchers bias affects the coding of data, there is a problem with:
A. the Hawthorne effect. C. a third variable.
B. experimenter expectancy. D. confounds.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. When a researcher collecting data does NOT know a studys hypothesis, the study is a ________ study.
A. blind C. meta-analytic
B. confounded D. reactivity

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. In scientific research, a researchers expectations about a study can lead to systematic errors in observation. This phenomenon is called:
A. observer bias. C. the third variable problem.
B. critical thinking skills. D. the directionality problem.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. The psychologist Robert Rosenthal told student researchers that some rats in a study would learn a task quickly and others would learn the task slowly. In reality, there was no difference in the rats abilities to learn the task. When the students tested the rats, the animals learning matched what the students were told. These results reflect the:
A. Hawthorne effect. C. directionality problem.
B. experimenter expectancy effect. D. third variable problem.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is likely to be associated with observer bias?
A. reactivity C. experimenter expectancy
B. experience sampling D. the Hawthorne effect

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Gwen is studying the effects of comedic film on depressed participants. She is concerned that the data collectors will produce biased observations if they know the purpose of the study. She addresses this problem by using a(n) ________ study.
A. blind C. experimental
B. correlational D. descriptive

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 Descriptive Research Consists of Case Studies, Observation, and Self-Report Methods

OBJ:   2.2B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. In which of the following types of study do researchers examine the extent to which variables are naturally related in the real world (that is, there is NO attempt by the researcher to influence the relation among the variables)?
A. descriptive C. experimental
B. case D. correlational

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   2.2 Correlational Studies Describe and Predict How Variables Are Related

OBJ:   2.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Remembering

 

  1. Researchers are likely to choose a correlational design when:
A. they are concerned that there will be a third variable problem.
B. the directionality problem is likely.
C. it is impossible to control the variables being studied.
D. they are using psychophysiological assessments.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   2.2 Correlational Studies Describe

Write a review

Your Name:


Your Review: Note: HTML is not translated!

Rating: Bad           Good

Enter the code in the box below:



 

Once the order is placed, the order will be delivered to your email less than 24 hours, mostly within 4 hours. 

If you have questions, you can contact us here