Physiology of Behavior 11th Edition by Carlson Test Bank

<< Maternity and Pediatric Nursing 2nd Edition by Susan , Theresa Kyle Test Bank Pharmacotherapeutics for Advanced Practice Nurse Prescribers 4th Edition by Teri Moser Woo Test Bank >>
Product Code: 222
Availability: In Stock
Price: $24.99
Qty:     - OR -   Add to Wish List
Add to Compare

Physiology of Behavior 11th Edition by Carlson Test Bank

Description

WITH ANSWERS
Physiology of Behavior 11th Edition by Carlson Test Bank

Chapter 2: Structure and Function of Cells of the Nervous System

 

 

Topic Question Type Factual Conceptual Application
Introduction Multiple Choice

 

 

1-5    
Fill-In 1-4    
Essay      
Cells of the Nervous System Multiple Choice

 

 

8-11,15-24,28,29,33,36-40 6,7,12,13,25-27,30-32, 35,38,41-43 14,34,44
Fill-In 5-8    
Essay      
Communication Within a Neuron Multiple Choice

 

 

45,50,51,54-64,67,70,71,73 46-49, 52,53,65,66,68,69,72,74-80  
Fill-In 9-13    
Essay 1-4,6 5,7  
Communication Between Neurons Multiple Choice

 

 

81,87,88,91,93,96,97,100,103, 105-109 82-86,90,92,94,95,98,99,104 89,101,102
Fill-In 14-20    
Essay 9 8,10,11  

 

 

 


Multiple-Choice Questions

 

2.1-1.  The primary symptom shown by Kathryn D. was

  1. severe nausea.
  2. inability to sleep.
  3. muscle weakness.
  4. distortions of memory.
  5. difficulty in recognizing facial displays of emotion.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID:  2.1-1

Page Ref:  28

Topic:  Opening Vignette

Skill:  Factual

Answer: c. muscle weakness.

Rationale:  Muscle weakness associated with a muscle disorder was the primary symptom shown by Kathryn D.

 

2.1-2.  _______ neurons gather information from the environment related to light, odors, and contact of our skin with objects.

  1. Sensory
  2. Motor
  3. Inter-
  4. Relay inter-
  5. Local inter-

Difficulty:  2

Question ID: 2.1-2

Page Ref: 28

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Sensory

Rationale:  Sensory neurons gather information from the environment.

 

2.1-3. _______ neurons function to contract muscles.

  1. Sensory
  2. Motor
  3. Inter-
  4. Relay
  5. Local

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-3

Page Ref:  28

Topic:  Introduction

Skill:  Factual

Answer: b. Motor

Rationale:  Motor neurons function to contract body muscles.

 

2.1-4. _______ are located only within the central nervous system.

  1. Sensory
  2. Motor
  3. Relay interneurons
  4. Projection neurons
  5. Schwann cells

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-4

Page Ref: 28

Topic:    Introduction

Skill: Factual

Answer:  c. Relay interneurons

Rationale:  Relay interneurons are located only within the central nervous system.

 

2.1-5.  Which of the following is correct regarding neurons?

  1. All neurons are sensory neurons.
  2. Motor neurons gather sensory information from the environment.
  3. The number of neurons in the human nervous system is estimated at more than 100 billion.
  4. The term motor refers to a mechanical engine.
  5. Interneurons are found outside the brain and spinal cord.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-5

Page Ref: 28-29

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. The number of neurons in the human nervous system is estimated at more than 100 billion.

Rationale: The number of neurons in the human nervous system is estimated at more than 100 billion.

 

2.1-6.  The _______ system is defined as comprised of the brain and spinal cord.

  1. peripheral nervous
  2. central nervous
  3. enteric nervous
  4. human nervous
  5. local circuit

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-6

Page Ref: 29

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. central nervous

Rationale:  The brain and spinal cord comprise the central nervous system.

 

2.1-7.  The  _______ system is that portion of the nervous system that lies outside of the brain and spinal cord.

  1. extraspinal
  2. central nervous
  3. enteric nervous
  4. human nervous
  5. peripheral nervous

Difficulty: 2

Question ID:  2.1-7

Page Ref: 29

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: e. peripheral nervous system

Rationale:  The peripheral nervous system lies outside the brain and spinal cord.

 

2.1-8.  The nucleus of the nerve cell is located within the

  1. soma.
  2. axon.
  3. axon terminals.
  4. dendrites.
  5. mitochondria.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-8

Page Ref: 29

Topic: Cells of the Nervous System

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. soma.

Rationale:  The soma of the neuron contains the cell nucleus.

 

2.1-9.  The most common neuron type in the central nervous system is the  _______ neuron.

  1. multipolar
  2. apolar
  3. sensory
  4. bipolar
  5. motor

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-9

Page Ref: 30

Topic: Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. multipolar

Rationale:  The multipolar neuron is the most common neuron in the central nervous system.

 

2.1-10.  The portion of a neuron that carries information toward the cell body is the

  1. dendrite.
  2. axon terminal.
  3. presynaptic membrane.
  4. soma.
  5. glial membrane.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-10

Page Ref: 29

Topic: Neurons

Skill: Factual Answer: a. dendrite.

Rationale: The dendrite carries information from the synapse toward the cell body.

 

2.1-11.  The physical gap that carries a neural message between two nerve cells is the

  1. glial junction.
  2. axon contact
  3. synapse.
  4. dendritic apposition.
  5. neural gap.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-11

Page Ref: 29

Topic: Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. synapse.

Rationale:  The synapse is the physical gap that carries a neural message between two nerve cells.

 

2.1-12.  Synapses are most commonly formed between a(n) _______  and a(n) _______.

  1. axon terminal; dendrite
  2. dendrite; soma
  3. soma; glial
  4. glial; dendrite
  5. dendrite; axon terminal

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-12

Page Ref: 29

Topic: Neurons

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. axon terminal;dendrite

Rationale: Synapses are most commonly formed between an axon terminal and a dendrite.

 

2.1-13.  A key function of the _______  nerve cell is to transmit sensory information.

  1. apolar
  2. multipolar
  3. glial fiber
  4. bipolar
  5. heteropolar

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-13

Page Ref: 30

Topic: Neurons

Skill: Conceptual

Answer:  d:  bipolar

Rationale: An important function of bipolar cells is to transmit sensory information to the brain.

 

2.1-14.  Loss of dendritic branches on  _______ would be expected to impair the ability to sense temperature and touch.

  1. bipolar neurons
  2. multipolar neurons
  3. unipolar neurons
  4. apolar neurons
  5. motor neurons

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-14

Page Ref: 30

Topic:  Neurons

Skill:   Applied

Answer: c. unipolar neurons

Rationale:  Damage to unipolar neurons would be expected to impair touch and temperature sensing.

 

2.1-15.  The membrane of a nerve cell is comprised of

  1. protein molecules.
  2. vesicle remnants.
  3. a double layer of lipid molecules.
  4. cytoplasm.
  5. a single layer of lipid molecules interfaced with a layer of protein molecules.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-15

Page Ref: 31

Topic:  Neurons

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. a double layer of lipid molecules.

Rationale:  The neuron membrane is a comprised of a double layer of lipid molecules.

 

2.1-16.  Neurotransmitter molecules are most commonly secreted from the

  1. glial cell.
  2. dendrite.
  3. axon terminal.
  4. dendritic apposition.
  5. soma.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-16

Page Ref: 31

Topic: Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. axon terminal.

Rationale: The axon terminal secretes neurotransmitter molecules into the synapse.

 

22.1-17. A key function of specialized lipid molecules located in the nerve cell is to

  1. detect the presence of hormones outside the cell.
  2. form the membrane.
  3. form channels to carry ions in and out of the cell.
  4. transport molecules into the cell.
  5. transport vesicles within the neuron.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-17

Page Ref: 31

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. form the membrane.

Rationale: The neuron membrane is formed by specialized lipid molecules.

 

2.1-18.  Match up the internal cell structure with the function most closely associated with that structure:

  1. nucleolus; production of cytoplasm
  2. ribosomes; production of DNA
  3. lipid bilayer; production of ribosomes
  4. nucleolus; production of ribosomes
  5. mRNA; production of cytoplasm

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-18

Page Ref: 32

Topic: Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. nucleolus; production of ribosomes

Rationale: The nucleolus is involved in the production of ribosomes.

 

2.1-19.  Which of the following structures is the site of production of proteins?

  1. vesicles
  2. ribosomes
  3. genes
  4. myeline.
  5. the nucleolus

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-19

Page Ref: 32

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. ribosomes

Rationale:  Ribosomes located outside of the nucleus cause protein production.

 

2.1-20.  Which of the following represents a correct match between a neuronal organelle and its function?

  1. mitochondria; extraction of energy
  2. Golgi apparatus; extraction of energy
  3. endoplasmic reticulum; breakdown of proteins
  4. microtubules; transport of chemicals through the cell membrane
  5. mitochondria; formation of vesicles

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-20

Page Ref: 34

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. mitochondria; extraction of energy

Rationale:  Mitochondria within the neuron soma are involved in the extraction of energy for the cell.

 

2.1-21.   Match the correct function with the neuronal organelle:

  1. mitochondria; production of fat-like molecules
  2. mitochondria; formation of vesicles
  3. endoplasmic reticulum; breakdown of proteins
  4. microtubules; transport of molecules between the soma and the axon terminals
  5. Golgi apparatus; extraction of energy for cell use

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-21

Page Ref: 35

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. microtubules; transport of molecules between the soma and the axon terminals

Rationale:  The transport of molecules between the soma and the axon terminals is handled by the microtubules.

 

2.1-22.  Proteins are produced within the neuron cytoplasm by

  1. mitochondria.
  2. ribosomes.
  3. lysosomes.
  4. the cytoskeleton.
  5. nucleoli.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-22

Page Ref: 34

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. ribosomes.

Rationale:  Proteins are produced within the neuron cytoplasm by ribosomes.

 

2.1-23.  Which of the following is true of the human genome?

  1. Humans have about 95,000,000 genes.
  2. Much of the genome contains junk DNA.
  3. Non-coding junk RNA sequences that do not produce protein has no known function.
  4. The human genome has not been fully sequenced.
  5. Nearly 10% of the genes of the human genome code for proteins.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-23

Page Ref: 33

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer:   b:  Much of the human genome contains junk DNA.

Rationale:  Much of the genome contains junk DNA that does not code for specific proteins.

 

2.1.24.  Surplus substances within the cytoplasm are degraded by

  1. mitochondria.
  2. ribosomes.
  3. lysosomes.
  4. the cytoskeleton.
  5. cytoskeletal proteins.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-24

Page Ref: 35

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. lysosomes.

Rationale:  Lysosomes degrade surplus structures within the cell cytoplasm.

 

2.1-25.  A key function of lysosomes is to

  1. move vesicles from the soma to the axon terminal.
  2. produce proteins.
  3. degrade surplus cellular materials.
  4. provide energy to the neuron.
  5. transport vesicles within the neuron.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-25

Page Ref: 35

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. degrade surplus cellular materials.

Rationale: Lysosomes  degrade surplus cellular material  within the neuron cytoplasm.

 

2.1-26. Which of the following is correct regarding axoplasmic transport?

  1. The dynein molecule is involved in anterograde axoplasmic transport.
  2. Retrograde axoplasmic transport involves moving substances from the soma to the axon terminals.
  3. The kinesin molecule is involved in retrograde axoplasmic transport.
  4. Retrograde transport is half as fast as anterograde axoplasmic transport.
  5. Transport of materials occurs only in one direction.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-26

Page Ref: 35

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Retrograde transport is half as fast as anterograde axoplasmic transport.

Rationale:  Retrograde transport is half as fast as anterograde axoplasmic transport for the movement of materials within the neuron.

 

2.1-27.  Which of the following is correct regarding axoplasmic transport?

  1. Dendrograde transport involves moving substances from the dendrites to the soma.
  2. Retrograde transport involves moving substances from the soma to the axon terminals.
  3. The kinesin molecule is involved in anterograde transport.
  4. Retrograde transport is twice as fast as anterograde transport.
  5. The dynein molecule is involved in anterograde transport.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-27

Page Ref: 35

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. The kinesin molecule is involved in anterograde transport.

Rationale:  The kinesin molecule is involved in anterograde transport for the movement of materials within the neuron.

 

2.1-28.  Movement of cargo from one end of the axon to the other involves _______ along the _______ .

  1. axoplasmic transport; myelin sheath
  2. facilitated diffusion; exterior of the cell membrane
  3. facilitated diffusion; neurofilaments
  4. protein synthesis; microtubules
  5. axoplasmic transport; microtubules

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-28

Page Ref: 35

Topic:  Neurons

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. axoplasmic transport; microtubules

Rationale:  The axoplasmic  transport of molecules between the soma and the axon terminals  is handled by the microtubules.

 

2.1-29.  Neurons of the central nervous system are provided nutrients, oxygen, and physical support by _______ cells.

  1. Schwann
  2. glial or neuroglial
  3. Golgi
  4. stem
  5. microtubule

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-29

Page Ref: 35

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. glial or neuroglial

Rationale:  Neuroglial cells provide nutrients, oxygen, and physical support to neurons.

 

2.1-30.  Which of the following is a key a function of the glial cells?

  1. Protection of the outer surface of the brain.
  2. Removal of physical debris from the brain.
  3. Secretion of CSF in the brain.
  4. Movement of vesicles along the axon.
  5. The conduction of action potentials.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-30

Page Ref: 35

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b:  Removal of physical debris from the brain.

Rationale:  The glial cells aid in the removal of physical debris from the brain.

 

2.1-31.     Which of the following is true of neurons?

  1. Neurons have a high metabolic rate.
  2. The dendrites store nutrients and oxygen for the neuron.
  3. Dead neurons are consumed by other neurons.
  4. Neurons make up 29% of the volume of the brain.
  5. Neurons can survive for hours without oxygen.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-31

Page Ref: 35

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. Neurons have a high metabolic rate.

Rationale:  Neurons have a high metabolic rate, which requires a dedicated source of oxygen and nutrients.

 

2.1-32.  Nerve cells are able to rapidly metabolize fuel because

  1. of their capacity to store glucose in the cytoplasm.
  2. neurons receive lactate from astrocytes.
  3. glial cells can transfer ATP into neurons.
  4. brain blood vessels can convert glucose into lactate for neuron use.
  5. glial cell mitochondria process fuel for the neuron.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-32

Page Ref: 36

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. neurons receive lactate from astrocytes.

Rationale:  Glial cells convert glucose to lactate, which is then supplied to the neuron.

 

2.1-33.  The  _______ are the key supply source of energy for neurons.

  1. phagocytes
  2. Schwann cells
  3. dendrocytes
  4. astrocytes
  5. microtubules

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-33

Page Ref: 36

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. astrocytes

Rationale:  Astrocyes are the key supply source of rapid energy for neurons.

 

2.1-34.  A drug that specifically killed the _______ cells would be expected to alter the physical and nutritional support of brain cells.

  1. phagocyte
  2. Schwann
  3. microglia
  4. astrocyte
  5. microtubule

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-34

Page Ref: 36

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. astrocyte

Rationale:  Damage to astrocytes would be expected to alter the physical and nutritional support of brain cells.

 

2.1-35. The process of phagocytosis involves

  1. the removal of neuronal debris.
  2. the transfer of lactate from a glial cell to a neuron.
  3. the wrapping of fatty material around an axon membrane.
  4. structural support of a nerve cell.
  5. the degradation of transmitter molecules within the synapse.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-35

Page Ref: 36

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. the removal of neuronal debris.

Rationale: Phagocytosis refers to the removal and destruction of debris from a neuron.

 

2.1-36.  The scar tissue generated in the brain by _______ cells acts to impede the regrowth of nerve cells.

  1. astrocytes
  2. microglia
  3. Schwann cells
  4. axon terminals
  5. phagocytes

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-36

Page Ref: 36-37

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. astrocytes

Rationale: Astrocytes form scar tissue in brain that acts to impede the regrowth of nerve cells.

 

2.1-37.  Myelination of brain nerve axon membranes is accomplished by

  1. oligodendrocytes.
  2. microglia.
  3. astrocytes.
  4. neurocytes.
  5. Schwann cells.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-37

Page Ref: 37

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. oligodendrocytes

Rationale: Oligodendrocytes form the myelin sheath around axons in the brain.

 

2.1-38.  A key feature for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in Dr. C. was

  1. focal damage to a single brain region evident in a CT scan.
  2. diverse neurological symptoms that appeared at different times.
  3. the excess production of myelin in the nervous system.
  4. the occurrence of small strokes that impair brain function.
  5. an autoimmune disease that attacks the myelin found in the peripheral nervous system.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-38

Page Ref: 38

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. diverse neurological symptoms that appeared at different times.

Rationale: The clue that allowed for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in Dr. C was

her display of diverse neurological symptoms that appeared at different times.

 

2.1-39.  The  _______ mediates the inflammatory reaction that follows brain damage.

  1. Schwann cell
  2. phagocyte
  3. dendrocyte
  4. astrocyte
  5. microglia

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-39

Page Ref: 38

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. microglia

Rationale:  The inflammatory reaction that follows brain damage results from the action of microglia.

 

2.1-40.  Which of the following is true of Schwann cells?

  1. Schwann cells provide myelin for peripheral nerve cells.
  2. Schwann cells are found within the brain.
  3. A single Schwann cell wraps multiple segments around a peripheral nerve cell.
  4. A single Schwann cells can myelinate up to 50 segments of axon membrane.
  5. Schwann cells remove the cellular debris left by dead neurons in brain.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-40

Page Ref: 39

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Schwann cells provide myelin for peripheral nerve cells.

Rationale: Schwann cells form myelin sheaths for peripheral axons.

 

2.1-41.  Regrowth of a damaged axon can occur more readily in the peripheral nervous system than in the brain because

  1. Schwann cells form barriers to axon regrowth.
  2. Schwann cells form cylinders through which new axons can grow and reinnervate a target cell nerve cell.
  3. Schwann cells generate a chemical signal that instructs nerve cells to die.
  4. Astrocytes form cylinders through which new axons can grow and reinnervate a target cell nerve cell.
  5. Oligodendroglia form barriers to axon regrowth.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-41

Page Ref: 39

Topic:  Supporting Cells

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. Schwann cells form cylinders through which new axons can grow and reinnervate a target cell nerve cell.

Rationale: Regrowth of a damaged axon can occur more readily in the peripheral nervous system than in the brain because Schwann cells form cylinders through which new axons can grow and reinnervate a target cell nerve cell.

 

2.1-42.  The presence of a barrier between the bloodstream and the brain is suggested by the observation that

  1. all cells of the body are stained by a dye injected into the bloodstream.
  2. injection of dye into the bloodstream stains all cells but those of the brain and spinal cord.
  3. the gut is stained by a dye injected into the brain ventricles.
  4. injection of dye into the spinal cord stains the cells of the gut.
  5. injection of dye into the gut stains the cells of the spinal cord.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-42

Page Ref: 39

Topic:  The Blood-Brain Barrier

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. injection of dye into the bloodstream stains all cells but those of the brain and spinal cord.

Rationale:  The presence of a blood-brain barrier was inferred from the observation injection of dye into the bloodstream stains all cells except those of the brain and spinal cord.

 

2.1-43.   Which of the following is true of the blood-brain barrier?

  1. The barrier is uniform, protecting all brain structures.
  2. The barrier pumps glucose out of the brain into the bloodstream.
  3. The barrier functions to regulate the chemical composition of the extracellular fluid surrounding the brain cells.
  4. The barrier is formed by cells that line the capillaries of the brain.
  5. The ventricles have a blood-brain barrier.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-43

Page Ref: 39-40

Topic:  The Blood-Brain Barrier

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. The barrier functions to regulate the chemical composition of the extracellular fluid surrounding the brain cells.

Rationale: The blood-brain barrier functions to regulate the chemical composition of the extracellular fluid surrounding the brain cells.

 

2.1-44. Activation of cells within the _______ by a poison in the blood would be predicted to produce _______.

  1. nucleus accumbens; visual hallucinations
  2. hippocampus; locomotion
  3. hypothalamus; vomiting
  4. area postrema; vomiting
  5. hippocampus; vomiting

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-44

Page Ref: 40

Topic:  The Blood-Brain Barrier

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. area postrema; vomiting

Rationale:  Cells within the area postrema control emesis; blood-borne poisons can thus trigger vomiting which can evacuate the stomach.

 

2.1-45.  The normal order of activation during neuronal transmission is

  1. axon > dendrite > cell body > axon terminals.
  2. axon terminals > cell body > axon > dendrite.
  3. dendrite > cell body > axon > terminal button.
  4. cell body > axon > dendrite > axon terminal.
  5. dendrite > axon terminal > cell body > axon.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-45

Page Ref: 41

Topic:  Neural Communication: An Overview

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. dendrite > cell body > axon > terminal button.

Rationale:  Neuronal transmission starts with the dendrite and in turn involves the cell body, the axon, and then finally the axon  terminal button.

 

2.1-46.  The simplest version of a withdrawal from pain reflex is a

  1. pain receptor that synapses onto an interneuron, which in turn activates a motor neuron in the spinal cord.
  2. pain receptor that projects to the thalamus, which then projects to motor cortex and then back down to the spinal cord.
  3. motor neuron within the spinal cord that is spontaneously active.
  4. sensory neuron in the visual cortex that synapses onto a motor neuron in the spinal cord.
  5. motor neuron that activates sensory fibers.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-46

Page Ref: 41

Topic:  Neural Communication: An Overview

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. pain receptor that synapses onto an interneuron, which in turn activates a motor

neuron in the spinal cord.

Rationale: The simplest reflex involves a pain receptor that synapses onto an interneuron, which in turn activates a motor neuron within the spinal cord.

 

2.1-47.  A key function of the giant squid axon is the

  1. integration of sensory messages regarding the environment.
  2. planning of feeding-related movements.
  3. contraction of the squid mantle, which propels the squid away from danger.
  4. coordination of general sensory-motor function.
  5. contraction of the oral region to produce chewing movements.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-47

Page Ref: 43

Topic:  Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. contraction of the squid mantle, which propels the squid away from danger.

Rationale:  The giant squid axon controls the contraction of the squid mantle, which moves the squid away from sources of danger.

 

2.1-48. The function of a _______ in a giant squid physiology experiment is to  _______.

  1. microelectrode; inject potassium ions into the axon
  2. voltmeter; stimulate the interior of the axon
  3. microelectrode; compare the electric charge of the interior with that of the exterior
  4. voltmeter; compare the electric charge of the interior with that of the exterior
  5. microelectrode; dampen the electric charge within the axon

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-48

Page Ref:        43

Topic:  Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d: voltmeter; compare the electric charge of the interior with that of the exterior

Rationale:  The voltmeter compares the electric charge of the interior with that of the exterior.

 

2.1-49.  The interior of a neuron at rest

  1. has the same ionic concentrations as the outside.
  2. is at the same voltage potential as the outside.
  3. has a higher sodium concentration than outside.
  4. is negatively charged relative to the outside.
  5. has a lower potassium concentration than outside.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-49

Page Ref: 43-44

Topic:  Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. is negatively charged relative to the outside.

Rationale:  The interior of the axon membrane is negatively charged relative to the outside of the membrane.

 

2.1-50.  The difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of the axon membrane is defined as the  _______ potential.

  1. membrane
  2. local
  3. glial
  4. action
  5. axon Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-50

Page Ref: 43

Topic:  Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. membrane

Rationale:  The membrane potential is defined as the difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of the axon membrane.

 

2.1-51.  The  _______ potential is defined as the difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of an undisturbed axon membrane.

  1. resting membrane
  2. local
  3. resting
  4. action
  5. axon

Difficulty: 2

Question ID:  2.1-51

Page Ref:  43

Topic:  Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons

Skill:  Factual

Answer: a. resting membrane

Rationale: The resting membrane potential is defined as the difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of an undisturbed axon membrane.

 

2.1-52.  A change in the axon membrane potential from -70 mV to -90 mV would be termed a(n)

  1. depolarization.
  2. threshold potential.
  3. action potential.
  4. hyperpolarization.
  5. excitatory local potential.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-52

Page Ref: 44

Topic: Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons

Skill:  Conceptual

Answer: d. hyperpolarization.

Rationale:  A hyperpolarization refers to a movement of the resting membrane potential in a more negative direction.

 

2.1-53.  A neuron membrane potential moves from -90 mV to -80 mV in response to a brief stimulation. We would term this change in potential as a(n)

  1. depolarization.
  2. resting potential.
  3. action potential.
  4. hyperpolarization.
  5. inhibitory local potential.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-53

Page Ref: 44

Topic: Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. depolarization.

Rationale:  A depolarization refers to a movement of the resting membrane potential in a more positive direction (towards 0 mV).

 

2.1-54.  A(n) _______  will be recorded from a nerve cell whose membrane potential rises above threshold.

  1. action potential
  2. local potential
  3. downward shift of the threshold of excitation
  4. upward shift of the membrane threshold
  5. long-term change in the membrane potential

Difficulty:  1

Question ID: 2.1-54

Page Ref: 44

Topic: Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons

Skill:  Factual

Answer: a. action potential

Rationale:  An action potential is initiated when the resting membrane potential reaches threshold.

 

2.1-55.  The   _______ is the voltage level at which an action potential is triggered in a patch of axon membrane.

  1. resting membrane potential
  2. hyperpolarization event
  3. threshold of excitation
  4. rate level
  5. refractory period

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1- 55

Page Ref: 44

Topic:  Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. threshold of excitation

Rationale:  The threshold of excitation is that value of membrane potential at which an action potential is triggered.

 

2.1-56.  A cup of sugar is dumped into a gallon of hot water. After 30 minutes, we will expect that the process of  _______ will ensure that the sugar molecules are evenly distributed throughout the water.

  1. retrograde transport
  2. diffusion
  3. anterograde transport
  4. electrostatic pressure
  5. salinity

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-56

Page Ref: 45

Topic:  The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. diffusion

Rationale:  Molecules are distributed evenly throughout a medium via the process of diffusion.

 

2.1-57.  A substance that forms oppositely charged particles when dissolved into water would be termed a(n)

  1. ion.
  2. molecule.
  3. electrolyte.
  4. cation.
  5. anion.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-57

Page Ref: 45

Topic:  The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. electrolyte.

Rationale:  An ion is a charged particle.

 

2.1-58. _______ are charged particles formed when an electrolyte dissolves in water.

  1. Ions
  2. Solvents
  3. Transmitters
  4. Electrons
  5. Solutes

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-58

Page Ref: 45

Topic:  The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Ions

Rationale: A charged particle is known as an ion.

 

2.1-59. _______ are positively charged ionic particles.

  1. Transmitters
  2. Solvents
  3. Electrolytes
  4. Cations
  5. Anions

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-59

Page Ref: 45

Topic:  The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Cations

Rationale: A positively charged particle is defined as a cation.

 

2.1-60. _______ are negatively charged particles.

  1. Transmitters
  2. Solvents
  3. Electrolytes
  4. Cations
  5. Anions

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-60

Page Ref: 45

Topic:  The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. Anions

Rationale: A negatively charged particle is defined as a cation.

 

2.1-61.  The process by which similarly charged particles repel each other and are thus moved within a medium is termed

  1. diffusion.
  2. carrier-mediated transport.
  3. refraction.
  4. electrostatic pressure.
  5. diffraction.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-61

Page Ref: 45

Topic:  The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. electrostatic pressure.

Rationale:  The process by which similarly charged particles repel each other and are thus moved within a medium is known as electrostatic pressure.

 

2.1-62.  Which of the following is true of ion distribution across the axon membrane?

  1. Chloride ions are more concentrated inside the axon membrane.
  2. Potassium ions are more concentrated outside the cell membrane.
  3. The action potential is the balance point between diffusion and electrostatic pressure.
  4. Sodium ions are more concentrated outside the axon membrane.
  5. Sodium ions are more concentrated inside the axon membrane.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-62

Page Ref: 45

Topic:  The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Sodium ions are more concentrated outside the axon membrane.

Rationale: Sodium ions are more concentrated outside the axon membrane

 

2.1-63.  Movement of  _______ ions   _______ the axon would be induced by the force of diffusion.

  1. chloride; out of
  2. sodium; into
  3. potassium; into
  4. organic; into
  5. sodium; out of

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-63

Page Ref: 45

Topic:  The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. sodium; into

Rationale: The force of diffusion would tend to force sodium ions into the axon.

 

2.1-64.  Sodium ions move out of the axon because of

  1. the opening of sodium channels.
  2. the opening of voltage-gated channels.
  3. kinesin.
  4. electrostatic pressure.
  5. the sodium-potassium transporter.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-64

Page Ref: 46

Topic:  The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

Skill: Factual

Answer: e. the sodium-potassium transporter.

Rationale:  The sodium-potassium transporter acts to move sodium ions out of the axon.

 

2.1-65.  As a consequence of the activity of the sodium-potassium transporters,

  1. extracellular sodium concentrations are kept low.
  2. intracellular sodium concentrations are kept very high.
  3. extracellular potassium concentrations are kept very high.
  4. intracellular sodium concentrations are kept low.
  5. very little energy is required to maintain ionic differences across the membrane.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-65

Page Ref: 46

Topic:  The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. intracellular sodium concentrations are kept low.

Rationale:  The sodium-potassium transporter acts to move sodium ions out of the axon thus keeping intracellular sodium concentrations at a low level.

 

2.1-66.  Which of the following is true regarding the action potential (AP)?

  1. The AP is conducted along the dendrite.
  2. The AP is conducted faster in unmyelinated nerve cells
  3. The AP is an all-or-none electrical event
  4. The AP amplitude is higher for an intense signal.
  5. The AP amplitude depends on its location along the axon.

Difficulty:       2

Question ID: 2.1-66

Page Ref: 49, 51

Topic:  Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. The AP is an all-or-none electrical event.

Rationale:  The action potential is an all-or-none event.

 

2.1-67.  The specialized protein molecules located in the axon membrane that can open or close are termed

  1. receptors.
  2. voltage transporters.
  3. autoreceptors.
  4. ion channels.
  5. sodium-potassium transporters.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-67

Page Ref: 47

Topic: The Action Potential

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. ion channels.

Rationale:  Ion channels are proteins located in the axon membrane that open or close thus allowing ions to enter or leave the neuron.

 

2.1-68.  Which of the following is true of the action potential?

  1. More sodium channels are opened at a lower voltage level than are the potassium channels.
  2. The action potential requires 10 msec for completion.
  3. The action potential requires the activity of the sodium-potassium transporters during the rising phase.
  4. More potassium channels are opened at a lower voltage than are sodium channels.
  5. The overshoot is due to a prolonged change in sodium conductance.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-68

Page Ref: 47

Topic:  The Action Potential

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. More sodium channels are opened at a lower voltage level than are the potassium channels.

Rationale:  The upswing of the action potential occurs because more sodium channels are opened at a lower voltage level than are the potassium channels.

 

2.1-69.  Sodium ions will be pushed into a resting neuron by the forces of

  1. inactivation of potassium channels; diffusion.
  2. electrostatic pressure; sodium-potassium pump activation.
  3. sodium-potassium pump activation; diffusion.
  4. ion channel inactivation; diffusion.
  5. diffusion; electrostatic pressure.

Difficulty:  2

Question ID: 2.1-69

Page Ref:  45

Topic: The Membrane Potential: The Balance of Two Forces

Skill:  Conceptual

Answer: e. diffusion; electrostatic pressure.

Rationale:  The forces of diffusion and electrostatic pressure push sodium ions into the axon interior.

 

2.1-70. Match the ion channel action with its resulting change in membrane potential:

 

  1. entry of a negative ion; hyperpolarization
  2. entry of a positive ion; hyperpolarization
  3. exit of a positive ion; depolarization
  4. exit of a negative ion; hyperpolarization
  5. inactivation of sodium-potassium transporters; depolarization

Difficulty: 3

Question ID:  2.1-70

Page Ref: 44-47

Topic: Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons; The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces; The Action Potential

Skill:   Factual

Answer: a. entry of a negative ion; hyperpolarization

Rationale: Hyperpolarization is produced by the entry of a negative ion into the axon.

 

2.1-71.  Which of the following events restores the membrane potential from the peak of the action potential back down to the resting level?

  1. Sodium ions move into the cell.
  2. Potassium ions move out of the cell.
  3. Potassium ions move into the cell.
  4. Chloride ions move into the cell.
  5. Protein anions move out of the cell.

Difficulty:  2

Question ID: 2.1-71

Page Ref: 48

Topic:  Action Potential

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. Potassium ions move out of the cell.

Rationale: The movement of potassium ions out of the axon moves the membrane potential back to resting levels.

 

2.1-72.  Which of the following sets of terms do NOT belong together?

  1. saltatory conduction; faster conduction speeds in smaller neurons
  2. open sodium channels; membrane depolarization
  3. saltatory conduction; slower conduction speeds in smaller neurons
  4. open potassium channels; membrane repolarization
  5. sodium-potassium pump; restoration of the normal concentrations of these ions

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-72

Page Ref: 49-50

Topic:  Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. saltatory conduction; slower conduction speeds in smaller neurons

Rationale:  Saltatory conduction results in more rapid conduction speeds in smaller neurons

 

2.1-73.  Which of the following is consistent with the all-or-none law?

  1. The action potential will diminish to near 0 mV when transmitted down a long axon.
  2. The action potential fires at the same rate regardless of the inputs to the neuron.
  3. The action potential is conducted more rapidly down the axon as it reaches the axon terminal.
  4. The action potential is produced whenever the membrane potential reaches threshold.
  5. The action potential travels only in one direction.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-73

Page Ref: 48

Topic:  The Action Potential

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. The action potential is produced whenever the membrane potential reaches

threshold.

Rationale:  The fact that an AP occurs when threshold is reached but not below the threshold is consistent with the notion of all-or-none.

 

2.1-74.  The nervous system codes for variation in the intensity of incoming sensory stimuli by variations in the  _______ of a neuron.

  1. repolarization rate
  2. resting membrane potential
  3. speed of conduction of action potentials
  4. total amplitude of the action potential
  5. firing rate

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-74

Page Ref: 49

Topic: Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: e. firing rate

Rationale: More intense stimuli produce a faster rate of firing in a given sensory neuron.

 

2.1-75.  Depolarizations of the axon membrane that are below the threshold of activation

  1. involve activation of the sodium-potassium pump.
  2. remain the same size at each point along the membrane.
  3. are just smaller versions of the action potential.
  4. decrease in size as they sweep along the membrane.
  5. are not conducted along the membrane.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-75

Page Ref: 51

Topic:  Communication Between Neurons

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. decrease in size as they sweep along the membrane.

Rationale: Local potentials decrease in size as they sweep along the membrane.

 

2.1-76.  Among the cable properties of axons are the fact that

  1. subthreshold signals degrade with distance from the point of stimulation.
  2. a high rate of firing produces a stronger response in muscle.
  3. subthreshold signals grow in size with distance.
  4. subthreshold signals remain constant in size along the axon membrane.
  5. subthreshold signals grow in size as time passes.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-76

Page Ref: 50

Topic:  Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. subthreshold signals degrade with distance from the point of stimulation.

Rationale:  Subthreshold local potentials degrade with distance from the point of stimulation.

 

2.1-77.  In a myelinated axon, ions can enter and leave the axonal membrane only at

  1. the terminal buttons.
  2. the soma.
  3. the nodes of Ranvier.
  4. the segment of membrane under the Schwann cell wrapping.
  5. every point along the axonal membrane.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-77

Page Ref: 50

Topic:  Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. the nodes of Ranvier.

Rationale: Ions enter/leave the myelinated axon only at the nodes of Ranvier.

 

2.1-78.  Which of the following is an important advantage associated with saltatory conduction?

  1. More sodium ions have to be pumped out of the cell after an action potential.
  2. Myelin allows the nerve cell to recycle neurotransmitter molecules.
  3. Less transmitter is required to send a message across the next synapse.
  4. Myelin speeds up the velocity at which an axon can conduct an action potential.
  5. Myelin requires that nerve cell axons be larger in order to conduct a signal rapidly.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-78

Page Ref: 50

Topic:  Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Myelin speeds up the velocity at which an axon can conduct an action potential.

Rationale:  Myelin and saltatory conduction speed up the velocity at which an axon can conduct an action potential.

 

2.1-79.  Which of the following was suggested as an advantage associated with myelination?

  1. Myelin changes the height of the action potential.
  2. Myelin increases the energy requirements of the nerve cell.
  3. Myelin slows down conduction speed.
  4. Myelin reduces the threshold for induction of an action potential.
  5. Myelin speeds up axon conduction speed.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-79

Page Ref: 50

Topic:  Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: e. Myelin speeds up axon conduction speed.

Rationale:  Myelin makes for more rapid communication of nerve signals.

 

2.1-80.  Saltatory conduction is rapid because

  1. cable properties carry the signal under the myelin sheath.
  2. myelinated cells have more leakage through the membrane.
  3. myelinated axons are larger in diameter.
  4. myelinated cells have more ion channels per unit area than do non-myelinated cells.
  5. myelinated fibers have a lower threshold of activation.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-80

Page Ref: 50

Topic:  Conduction of the Action Potential

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. cable properties carry the signal under the myelin sheath.

Rationale:  Saltatory conduction is rapid because the membrane potential does not have to depolarize each successive patch of membrane.

 

2.1-81.  The term _______ is derived from the word meaning little bladder.

  1. vesicle
  2. neurite
  3. cisternae
  4. mitochondria
  5. storage pool

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-81

Page Ref: 52

Topic:  Structure of Synapses

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. vesicle

Rationale:  The term vesicle means little bladder.

 

2.1-82.  Which of the following is true of receptors?

  1. The effects of hormones do not involve receptor activation.
  2. Neurotransmitters act on binding sites on receptors to exert their effects.
  3. Receptors are insensitive to drugs.
  4. Neuromodulators are ligands that come from outside the body.
  5. Hormone receptors are found in all tissues except brain.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-82

Page Ref: 56

Topic:  Activation of Receptors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. Neurotransmitters act on binding sites on receptors to exert their effects.

Rationale:  Neurotransmitter molecules act on binding sites on receptors to exert their effects on the postsynaptic membrane.

 

2.1-83.  Signals are carried across the synapse by

  1. direct electrical connections between the two cells.
  2. the secretion of transmitter molecules into the synapse.
  3. the transfer of ions from one cell to another.
  4. carrier molecules.
  5. the sodium-potassium pump.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-83

Page Ref: 54

Topic:  Release of Neurotransmitter

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. the secretion of transmitter molecules into the synapse.

Rationale:  The signal from the presynaptic axon terminal is carried across the synapse by secretion of a transmitter into the synapse.

 

2.1-84.   Communication of neural signals across the synapse involves

  1. the opening of transmitter -gated channels in the axon terminal.
  2. voltage changes that open chloride channels in the presynaptic membrane.
  3. vesicles that take up transmitter molecules into the axon terminal .
  4. the binding of transmitter at postsynaptic receptors triggering membrane potentials.
  5. direct electrical contact of the pre- and post-synaptic membranes.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-84

Page Ref: 54

Topic:  Release of Neurotransmitter

Skill: Conceptual

Answer:  d. the binding of transmitter at postsynaptic receptors triggering membrane potentials.

Rationale:  Communication of neural signals across the synapse involves the release of a transmitter from the axon terminal, which binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane.

 

2.1-85.  The largest number of small vesicles would be expected to be located within the _______ of a neuron.

  1. dendritic spines
  2. soma
  3. postsynaptic membrane
  4. release zone
  5. axon hillock

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-85

Page Ref: 53

Topic:  Structure of Synapses

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. release zone

Rationale: The largest number of small vesicles would be expected to be located within the release zone of a neuron.

 

2.1-86.  A large, dense-core vesicle found in the axon terminal is likely to contain

  1. peptide neurotransmitters
  2. neurotransmitter receptors.
  3. enzymes that degrade transmitter molecules
  4. synthesis peptides.
  5. nonpeptide transmitter molecules.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-86

Page Ref: 53

Topic:  Structure of Synapses

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. peptides.

Rationale:  Peptide transmitters are located within large dense-core vesicles of the axon terminal.

 

2.1-87.  Synaptic vesicles are produced in the _______.

  1. neuron soma
  2. dendrites
  3. glial cells
  4. neuron lysosomes
  5. astrocytes

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-87

Page Ref: 53

Topic:  Structure of Synapses

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. neuron soma

Rationale:  Synaptic vesicles are manufactured in the soma of the nerve cell.

 

2.1-88.  Neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic membrane is triggered by the

  1. activation of the sodium-potassium pumps.
  2. arrival of an EPSP at the axon terminal.
  3. influx of calcium ions into the axon terminal.
  4. hyperpolarization of the axon membrane.
  5. opening of channels within the microtubules.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-88

Page Ref: 55

Topic:  Release of Neurotransmitter

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. influx of calcium ions into the axon terminal.

Rationale:  Influx of calcium ions into the axon terminal triggers neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic membrane.

 

2.1-89.  Placing neurons and their synaptic contacts into a medium containing no calcium ions would be expected to

  1. decrease the time required to move sodium ions out of the axon terminal.
  2. enhance the voltage changes associated with the action potential.
  3. increase the number of transmitter molecules released from the axon terminal.
  4. prolong the refractory period of the action potential.
  5. prevent the release of neurotransmitter into the synapse.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-89

Page Ref: 55

Topic:  Release of Neurotransmitter

Skill: Applied

Answer: e. prevent the release of neurotransmitter into the synapse.

Rationale: Maintaining a neuron is a low calcium medium would be expected to prevent the release of neurotransmitter into the synapse.

 

2.1-90.  In order to produce a depolarization or hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane, neurotransmitters

  1. diffuse widely in the brain to exert changes in metabolism.
  2. act through ionotropic receptors to activate a second-messenger. c. are released into the synapse from the cisternae.
  3. open ion channels in the postsynaptic membrane. e. alter ion channel activity for minutes.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-90

Page Ref: 56

Topic:  Activation of Receptors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. open ion channels in the postsynaptic membrane.

Rationale:  Neurotransmitters act to produce postsynaptic membrane potentials by opening or closing ion channels.

 

2.1-91.  After a vesicle fuses with the presynaptic membrane and releases its contents into the synaptic cleft, the membrane is

  1. destroyed by astrocytes.
  2. incorporated into the postsynaptic membrane.
  3. recycled to form new vesicles.
  4. degraded and the debris removed from the axon terminal.
  5. incorporated into the mitochondria.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-91

Page Ref: 55

Topic:  Release of Neurotransmitter

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. recycled to form new vesicles.

Rationale: The membrane of vesicles are recycled.

 

2.1-92.  Match up the correct receptor type and effect.

  1. metabotropic; direct opening of an ion channel
  2. ionotropic; more time required to open an ion channel
  3. metabotropic; G protein activation leads to activation of a second-messenger
  4. metabotropic; rapid opening of a single ion channel
  5. metabotropic; rapid short-lived effects on ion channels

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-92

Page Ref: 56-57

Topic:  Activation of Receptors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. metabotropic; G protein activation leads to activation of a second-messenger

Rationale: Metabotropic receptors act via G proteins which in turn act via activation/inactivation of a second-messenger molecule.

 

2.1-93.  With regard to release of neurotransmitter in the brain, kiss and run refers to the situation in which the vesicle

  1. releases most of its contents into the cleft and the vesicle remains attached to the

presynaptic membrane.

  1. closes before releasing any molecules and then moves to the cell interior.
  2. remains open until the next action potential.
  3. releases most of its contents into the cleft after which the vesicle breaks away from the presynaptic membrane and is refilled.
  4. merges completely with the presynaptic membrane.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-93

Page Ref: 55

Topic:  Release of Neurotransmitter

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. releases most of its contents into the cleft after which the vesicle breaks away from the presynaptic membrane and is refilled.

Rationale:  Kiss and run refers to the situation in which a released vesicle releases most of its contents into the cleft after which the vesicle breaks away from the presynaptic membrane and is refilled.

 

2.1-94.  Match up the correct receptor type and effect:

  1. ionotropic; direct opening of an ion channel
  2. ionotropic; more time required to open an ion channel
  3. ionotropic; G protein activation leads to activation of a second-messenger
  4. metabo

Write a review

Your Name:


Your Review: Note: HTML is not translated!

Rating: Bad           Good

Enter the code in the box below:



 

Once the order is placed, the order will be delivered to your email less than 24 hours, mostly within 4 hours. 

If you have questions, you can contact us here