Population And Community Health Nursing 6th Edition By Clark -Test Bank

<< Practice of Nursing Research Appraisal Synthesis 7th Edition By Grove Burns Test Bank Population And Community Health Nursing 6 Ed By Mary JO Clark-Test Bank >>
Product Code: 222
Availability: In Stock
Price: $24.99
Qty:     - OR -   Add to Wish List
Add to Compare

Population And Community Health Nursing 6th Edition By Clark -Test Bank

Description

WITH ANSWERS

Population And Community Health Nursing 6th Edition By Clark -Test Bank

Population and Community Health Nursing, 6e (Clark)

Chapter 3   Epidemiology and Population Health Nursing

 

1) After being diagnosed with cancer the patient tells the population health nurse that the disease is punishment from God. Which theory of disease causation is this patient using to explain the illness?

  1. Environment.
  2. Physical forces.
  3. Specific organism.
  4. Divine intervention.

Answer:  4

Explanation:  4. Theories about the cause of disease and ill health have evolved over time. The first recognized attempt to attribute a cause to illness occurred during the religious era. During this period, disease was thought to be caused directly or indirectly by divine intervention, possibly as punishment for sins or as a trial of faith. During Hippocrates time, the primary belief of disease was from harmful substances in the environment. Before the religious era, disease was often attributed to physical forces such as miasmas or mists. The belief that disease was caused by a specific organism was introduced in the late 1870s with the bacteriologic era.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Physiological Integrity

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  3-1

 

2) A patient diagnosed with a terminal illness asks why the disease developed when others who have less healthy lifestyle habits enjoy good health. Which theory of disease causation should the nurse use when responding to this patients enquiry?

  1. Environment.
  2. Divine intervention.
  3. Single cause theory.
  4. Multiple cause theory.

Answer:  4

Explanation:  4. The discovery of specific agents responsible for particular diseases did not explain why some people exposed to an agent developed the disease, while others did not. The result of this explanatory failure was the movement into the current era of multiple causation or the ecosocial perspective. The era of multiple causation is characterized by the recognition that multiple factors interact in the development of health or illness in a given person or population and that there is seldom one single cause. During Hippocrates time, the primary belief of disease was from harmful substances in the environment. During the religious era disease was thought to be caused directly or indirectly by divine intervention, possibly as punishment for sins or as a trial of faith. During the bacteriologic era specific organisms were identified as causative agents for specific diseases.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Implementation

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  3-1

 

3) The population health nurse is visiting the home of a family whose youngest child developed chickenpox after being exposed to a classmate with the same disease. Of which criterion for establishing a causal relationship is this situation an example?

  1. Frequency.
  2. Consistency.
  3. Absolute risk.
  4. Susceptibility.

Answer:  2

Explanation:  2. Consistency is the first criterion for establishing a causal relationship. This consistency must be between the supposed causal factor and its presumed effect. The condition in question must occur when the factor is present, not when it is absent. Frequency is not a criterion for establishing a causal relationship. Absolute risk is the probability that anyone in a given population will develop a particular condition. Susceptibility is the ability to be affected by factors contributing to a particular health condition.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Physiological Integrity

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  3-2

 

4) The population health nurse is trying to identify the causative relationship for a group of school students who developed viral meningitis. Which criterion must the nurse identify to prove causation for the development of the disease in these students?

  1. Coherence.
  2. Specificity.
  3. Consistency.
  4. Temporal relationship.

Answer:  4

Explanation:  4. Only the criterion of a correct temporal relationship is absolutely required for attributing causation. Temporal relationship is the time between the factor and the result condition. The factor thought to be causative should occur before the condition occurs. Coherence is the idea that one condition that causes another must be logical and should be congruent with other known facts. Specificity is present when the factor in question results in one specific condition. Consistency is when the condition in question occurs when the factor is present and not when it is absent.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Diagnosis

Client Need:  Physiological Integrity

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  3-2

 

5) The population health nurse notes that the number of cases of diabetes in a community remained stable during the last year. However in January, ten new diagnoses of diabetes were confirmed. What type of data is the nurse analyzing?

  1. Incidence.
  2. Morbidity.
  3. Prevalence.
  4. Case fatality rate.

Answer:  1

Explanation:  1. Incidence reflects the number of new cases of a particular condition identified during a specified period of time. Morbidity is the ratio of the number of cases of a disease or condition to the number of people in the population. Prevalence is the total number of people affected by a particular condition at a specified point in time. Case fatality rate is the percentage of persons who develop a health problem and who die as a result of it.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  3-4

 

6) The population health nurse is compiling childhood illness statistics and finds that the morbidity for chickenpox is higher for one neighborhood in comparison to the local county. What does this information mean to the nurse?

  1. There are new cases of chickenpox in the neighborhood.
  2. There are a larger percentage of children with chickenpox in the neighborhood.
  3. A large group of children have been affected by chickenpox in the neighborhood.
  4. There has been a rise in the number of children with chickenpox during a specified period of time in the neighborhood.

Answer:  4

Explanation:  4. Morbidity is the ratio of the number of cases of a disease or condition to the number of people in the population. The morbidity for chickenpox indicates the total number and new cases identified during and at a specified period of time. Incidence is the number of new cases alone. The percentage with chickenpox represents case rate. Prevalence is the group affected by chickenpox.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  3-4

 

7) The population health nurse is compiling statistics about lung cancer in one neighborhood that has experienced an average of 15 years from diagnosis to death. Which concept of epidemiology is the nurse analyzing?

  1. Mortality rate.
  2. Survival time.
  3. Morbidity rate.
  4. Survival rate.

Answer:  2

Explanation:  2. The average length of time from diagnosis to death is survival time. Mortality rate is the ratio of the numbers of deaths from a specific condition. Morbidity rate reflects the incidence and prevalence of a specific condition. Survival rate is the proportion of people with a given condition who remain alive after a specific period.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  3-4

 

8) The population health nurse is explaining the epidemiologic triad to a group of nursing students. What should the nurse use as an example of this triad?

  1. Sun, beach, and sunburn.
  2. Rural Mississippi, deer, and Lyme disease.
  3. Potato salad, outdoor picnic, and food poisoning.
  4. Standing water, mosquitoes, and warm weather.

Answer:  3

Explanation:  3. The epidemiologic triad consists of agent, host, and environment. Potato salad is the agent, the host is food poisoning, and the environment is the outdoor picnic. Sun, beach, and sunburn does not exemplify the epidemiologic triad. Rural Mississippi, deer, and Lyme disease does not exemplify the epidemiologic triad. Standing water, mosquitoes, and warm weather does not exemplify the epidemiologic triad.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Implementation

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  3-6

 

9) The population health nurse is planning to use a web of causation to explain the development of a health problem in a group of patients. What should the nurse use as an example of the web of causation?

  1. Oil refinery, flare emissions, and asthma.
  2. Mosquitoes, West Nile virus, and decreased mosquito spraying.
  3. Adolescent pregnancy rate, lower socioeconomic status and education, and close friends with infants.
  4. Access to alcohol, decreased enforcement of minors, and attractive media portrayal of alcohol that contributes to adolescent alcohol usage.

Answer:  4

Explanation:  4. Web of causation explores the influence of multiple factors on a specific health condition. The factors of access to alcohol, decreased enforcement of age checking, and the attractive portrayal of alcohol in the media contributes to adolescent alcohol usage. The other examples are of the epidemiologic triad.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Planning

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  3-6

 

 

10) The population health nurse is identifying determinants of health to address the development of cancer in a small rural neighborhood. Which determinants should the nurse identify? (Select all that apply.)

  1. Availability of health facilities.
  2. Mean age of the male population.
  3. Prevailing diet high in unprocessed foods and low fat.
  4. High percentage of tobacco use among the male population.
  5. Proximity of the community to chemical plants that have a poor history of regulating emissions.

Answer:  3, 4, 5

Explanation:  3. Determinants of health are broad categories of factors that influence health and illness. Determinants of health to address the development of cancer in a community would be the proximity to chemical plants with emissions, tobacco usage, and diet. Availability of health facilities has no bearing on the development of cancer. Mean age of a population has no bearing on cancer development.

  1. Determinants of health are broad categories of factors that influence health and illness. Determinants of health to address the development of cancer in a community would be the proximity to chemical plants with emissions, tobacco usage, and diet. Availability of health facilities has no bearing on the development of cancer. Mean age of a population has no bearing on cancer development.
  2. Determinants of health are broad categories of factors that influence health and illness. Determinants of health to address the development of cancer in a community would be the proximity to chemical plants with emissions, tobacco usage, and diet. Availability of health facilities has no bearing on the development of cancer. Mean age of a population has no bearing on cancer development.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  3-6

11) The population health nurse is concerned that a group of lifeguards who refuse to use sunscreen might develop skin cancer. On what is the nurse focusing this concern?

  1. Risk.
  2. Cases.
  3. Mortality.
  4. Morbidity.

Answer:  1

Explanation:  1. Risk is the probability that a given individual will develop a specific condition. Cases are the number of a particular event. Mortality is the ratio of the number of deaths in various categories to the number of people in a given population. Morbidity is the ratio of the number of cases of a disease or condition to the number of people in the population.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  3-3

 

 

12) After reviewing data collected during a community health fair the population health nurse is concerned that 500 people have an absolute risk of developing peripheral vascular disease. How should the nurse explain this risk to the community leaders?

  1. Probability that any of the 500 people will develop peripheral vascular disease.
  2. Probability that one of the 500 people will develop peripheral vascular disease when compared to the rest of the population.
  3. The ability that the 500 people will be affected by factors that contribute to the development of peripheral vascular disease.
  4. The likelihood that the 500 people will be exposed to factors that contribute to the development of peripheral vascular disease.

Answer:  1

Explanation:  1. Absolute risk is the probability that anyone in a given population will develop a particular condition. Relative risk is the probability that someone in a group of people with a particular characteristic will develop the condition when compared to people without that characteristic. Susceptibility is the ability to be affected by factors contributing to a particular health condition. Exposure potential is the likelihood of encountering or being exposed to factors that contribute to a condition.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Implementation

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  3-3

13) The population health nurse is reviewing data collected on a group of patients to determine which patients are experiencing the same health problem. In which step of the epidemiologic process is the nurse functioning?

  1. Defining the condition.
  2. Developing control strategies.
  3. Identifying strategic points of control.
  4. Determining the natural history of the condition.

Answer:  1

Explanation:  1. The nurse is working within the first step of the process or defining the condition. The nurse is working to clearly define what is, and what is not, an instance of the problem. Developing control strategies is the fourth step of the process and occurs after the condition is defined, the natural history of the condition is determined, and strategic points of control have been identified. When identifying strategic points of control the nurse identifies strategic points at which the development or course of the condition might be controlled. Determining the natural history of the condition is a description of the events that precede its development and occur during its course, as well as its typical outcomes. This step occurs after the condition is defined.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  3-5

 

14) After collecting information from patients about a health problem the population health nurse is analyzing the information to determine the natural history of the condition. What elements of the natural history should the nurse identify? (Select all that apply.)

  1. Signs and symptoms of the health problem.
  2. The effects that the health problem has on the body.
  3. Length of time the health problem will affect the body.
  4. Factors that contribute to the development of the health problem.
  5. Outcomes and factors that affect the outcomes of the health problem.

Answer:  1, 2, 4, 5

Explanation:  1. Determining a conditions natural history involves identifying factors that contribute to its development, typical signs and symptoms of the condition, its effects on the human system, and its typical outcomes and factors that may affect those outcomes. The length of time the health problem will affect the body is not a factor when determining a conditions natural history.

  1. Determining a conditions natural history involves identifying factors that contribute to its development, typical signs and symptoms of the condition, its effects on the human system, and its typical outcomes and factors that may affect those outcomes. The length of time the health problem will affect the body is not a factor when determining a conditions natural history.
  2. Determining a conditions natural history involves identifying factors that contribute to its development, typical signs and symptoms of the condition, its effects on the human system, and its typical outcomes and factors that may affect those outcomes. The length of time the health problem will affect the body is not a factor when determining a conditions natural history.
  3. Determining a conditions natural history involves identifying factors that contribute to its development, typical signs and symptoms of the condition, its effects on the human system, and its typical outcomes and factors that may affect those outcomes. The length of time the health problem will affect the body is not a factor when determining a conditions natural history.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Diagnosis

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  3-5

 

15) A patient comes into the clinic with manifestations of an acute respiratory infection. When analyzing the natural history of the condition, the population health nurse identifies that this patient is in which stage?

  1. Clinical.
  2. Preclinical.
  3. Resolution.
  4. Susceptibility.

Answer:  1

Explanation:  1. The natural history of a condition is often divided into four stages: susceptibility, preclinical, clinical, and resolution. In the susceptibility stage, factors contributing to development of the condition are present and the person is at-risk for its development. When exposure to causative factors has occurred, but no symptoms have appeared, the condition is in the preclinical stage. The clinical stage begins with the onset of signs and symptoms characteristic of the disease or condition. In the resolution stage, the condition culminates in a return to health, death, or continuation in a chronic state.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Physiological Integrity

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  3-5

 

Population and Community Health Nursing, 6e (Clark)

Chapter 15   Care of Communities and Target Populations

 

1) A student asks an instructor to explain population health management. What should the instructor respond to the students question?

  1. Focuses on health promotion.
  2. Is designed to improve overall population health status.
  3. Is designed to identify particular health risk groups.
  4. Identifies illness prevention strategies.

Answer:  2

Explanation:  2. Population health management involves health promotion and illness prevention strategies at the aggregate level designed to improve overall population health status. Population health focuses on more than health management. It identifies more than health risk groups. It also does more than identify illness prevention strategies.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Implementation

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  15-1

 

2) During a discussion about factors affecting the health of population groups the nurse discusses the shorter life spans of Native Americans as compared to the rest of the population. Which determinant is the nurse explaining?

  1. Sociocultural determinant.
  2. Behavioral determinant.
  3. Biological determinant.
  4. Health system determinant.

Answer:  3

Explanation:  3. Human biological determinants influencing a populations health reflect specific physical attributes of its members. Native Americans have shorter expected life spans than the rest of the populations because of the higher incidence of some chronic diseases, alcoholism, and homicide. Considerations in assessing the sociocultural determinants include information about community government and leadership, language, income and education levels, employment levels and occupations, marital status and family composition, and religion. Behavioral determinants include consumption patterns, leisure pursuits, and other health-related behaviors. Health system determinants include existing services, level of performance of the services, and areas in which services are lacking.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Implementation

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  15-2

 

3) Twelve new cases of the measles have been diagnosed last week in a particular county. In that same county, 20 children are currently under treatment for the measles. What should the population nurse identify as being the incidence rate of the measles infection?

  1. 8.
  2. 12.
  3. 20.
  4. Unknown.

Answer:  2

Explanation:  2. Incidence rates indicate the number of new cases of the condition identified over a period. Prevalence rates indicate the total number of cases of a particular condition at any given time.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Evaluation

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  15-2

 

4) After studying the community, the nurse reports widespread unemployment, lack of housing, and crowded living conditions as being major factors influencing community health. These factors are related to which determinant of health?

  1. Environmental determinant.
  2. Biological determinant.
  3. Psychological determinant.
  4. Behavioral determinant.

Answer:  3

Explanation:  3. The psychological environment influences the health of the population by increasing or mediating exposure to stress and affects the ability of the population to function effectively. Widespread unemployment, lack of housing, and crowded living conditions are sources of stress and will create a psychological environment that is not conducive to health. Physical environmental factors affecting a population include its location, its type and size, topographical features, and climate. Human biological determinants reflect specific physical attributes of its members. Behavioral factors influence the health status of a population and its members. Areas to be considered in this dimension include consumption patterns, leisure pursuits, and other health-related behaviors.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  15-2

 

5) The nurse is reviewing factors that affect the health of a population. Which factors should the nurse identify as being sociocultural determinants? (Select all that apply.)

  1. Language.
  2. Annual birth rate.
  3. Family composition.
  4. Population density.
  5. Transportation accessibility.

Answer:  1, 3, 5

Explanation:  1. Considerations in assessing the sociocultural dimension include information about community government and leadership, language, income and education levels, employment levels and occupations, marital status and family composition, and religion. Transportation is included as a sociocultural dimension. Population density relates to physical environmental determinants. Annual birth rate relates to biological determinants.

  1. Considerations in assessing the sociocultural dimension include information about community government and leadership, language, income and education levels, employment levels and occupations, marital status and family composition, and religion. Transportation is included as a sociocultural dimension. Population density relates to physical environmental determinants. Annual birth rate relates to biological determinants.
  2. Considerations in assessing the sociocultural dimension include information about community government and leadership, language, income and education levels, employment levels and occupations, marital status and family composition, and religion. Transportation is included as a sociocultural dimension. Population density relates to physical environmental determinants. Annual birth rate relates to biological determinants.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  15-2

 

 

6) The nurse is identifying a nursing diagnosis applicable to a specific population. What should the nurse include when making this diagnosis determination? (Select all that apply.)

  1. Population at risk.
  2. Potential adverse risk.
  3. Factors contributing to the risk.
  4. Evidence to support the risk.
  5. Population competencies.

Answer:  1, 2, 3, 4

Explanation:  1. Population nursing diagnoses provide a comprehensive picture of the populations health. Diagnoses may be either positive or negative. Positive diagnoses reflect population strengths and may also indicate improvements in the populations health status. Components of a population nursing diagnosis include (a) identification of the population or subgroup at risk, (b) a potential adverse situation or risk, (c) factors or characteristics contributing to the level of risk, and (d) evidence to support the increased or decreased level of risk. Population competencies is not a part of the population nursing diagnosis.

  1. Population nursing diagnoses provide a comprehensive picture of the populations health. Diagnoses may be either positive or negative. Positive diagnoses reflect population strengths and may also indicate improvements in the populations health status. Components of a population nursing diagnosis include (a) identification of the population or subgroup at risk, (b) a potential adverse situation or risk, (c) factors or characteristics contributing to the level of risk, and (d) evidence to support the increased or decreased level of risk. Population competencies is not a part of the population nursing diagnosis.
  2. Population nursing diagnoses provide a comprehensive picture of the populations health. Diagnoses may be either positive or negative. Positive diagnoses reflect population strengths and may also indicate improvements in the populations health status. Components of a population nursing diagnosis include (a) identification of the population or subgroup at risk, (b) a potential adverse situation or risk, (c) factors or characteristics contributing to the level of risk, and (d) evidence to support the increased or decreased level of risk. Population competencies is not a part of the population nursing diagnosis.
  3. Population nursing diagnoses provide a comprehensive picture of the populations health. Diagnoses may be either positive or negative. Positive diagnoses reflect population strengths and may also indicate improvements in the populations health status. Components of a population nursing diagnosis include (a) identification of the population or subgroup at risk, (b) a potential adverse situation or risk, (c) factors or characteristics contributing to the level of risk, and (d) evidence to support the increased or decreased level of risk. Population competencies is not a part of the population nursing diagnosis.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Planning

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  15-3

 

 

7) The nurse is planning a health program for a community. The first task the nurse should consider when planning this program is:

  1. Analyze the issue.
  2. Create the planning group.
  3. Define and prioritize the issue.
  4. Set the stage for evaluation.

Answer:  3

Explanation:  3. The first step in the program planning process is defining and prioritizing the issue to be addressed. Then the planning group is created, the issue is analyzed, the program is developed, and the stage is set for the evaluation.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Planning

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  15-4

8) The nurse identified the members of the planning group for the community health program. The next step the nurse should take is to:

  1. Prioritize the issues.
  2. Analyze the issue.
  3. Develop the program.
  4. Start the evaluation.

Answer:  2

Explanation:  2. After the planning group is identified, the issue is analyzed. Then the program is developed and the stage is set for the evaluation. Prioritization occurs when the health issues are defined.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Implementation

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  15-4

 

 

9) The nurse is creating program objectives to address a populations health problem. Which program objective should the nurse provide the planning committee?

  1. 75% of program participants will lose weight.
  2. 32% of program participants will demonstrate how to administer insulin by the end of the third week.
  3. 100% of program participants will understand the new food pyramid by the end of the second week.
  4. 50% of program participants will quit smoking.

Answer:  2

Explanation:  2. Effective program objectives must be measurable, precise, time-specific, reasonable, within group capability, legal, congruent with community morals and values, carry minimal side effects, and fit budget limitations. The objective which states 75% of program participants will lose weight is not precise and is not time-specific. The objectives which states 100% of program participants will understand the new food pyramid by the end of the second week is not measurable; it does not state how one would measure the understanding. The objective which states 50% of program participants will quit smoking is not time-specific.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Implementation

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  15-4

10) The nurse is working in a weight control program and realizes that most of the participants want to lose weight, but they are unable to because of the difficulties involved in stopping an addictive behavior. This best demonstrates the theory of:

  1. Processing.
  2. Delineation.
  3. Implementation.
  4. Cause and effect.

Answer:  4

Explanation:  4. The theory of cause and effect suggests that although many participants wish to lose weight, they are unable to do so because of the difficulties involved in stopping an addictive behavior. Implementing a health program involves several considerations. These include getting the plan accepted, performing the tasks involved in implementing the program, and using strategies that foster implementation of the program as planned. Processing and delineation are not program theories.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  15-5

 

 

11) The nurse is planning to conduct an evaluation of a population program. Which question should the nurse use to address analysis and use of evaluative data?

  1. What will be evaluated?
  2. What standards will be used to judge the programs performance?
  3. What conclusions can be drawn from comparing program data with the standards selected?
  4. What evidence will be used to compare program performance with the standards selected?

Answer:  3

Explanation:  3. The question that asks what conclusions can be drawn from comparing program data with the standards selected addresses analysis and use of evaluative data. The other questions guide the development of the evaluation plan.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Implementation

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  15-5

12) The nurse is supporting population members to use an empowerment evaluation when determining the success of a health program. What purpose will this type of evaluation serve to population members?

  1. Improves their quality of life.
  2. Delays decisions about a program.
  3. Calls for a discontinuation of a program.
  4. Increases the resources in a program.

Answer:  1

Explanation:  1. Empowerment evaluation assists populations to develop the skills to assess and improve their own quality of life. Delaying decisions about a program, calling for a discontinuation of a program, and increasing the resources in a program contribute to the data included in an empowerment evaluation.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Planning

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  15-5

 

 

13) A population health nurse is asked to assist in an evaluation of an existing program for which evaluative mechanisms were not established during the program planning. Which type of evaluation should the nurse use for this program?

  1. Prospective evaluation.
  2. Outcome evaluation.
  3. Retrospective evaluation.
  4. Process evaluation.

Answer:  3

Explanation:  3. Retrospective evaluation is designed after the program is completed, or at least in the process of being implemented. Prospective evaluation is planned and criteria are determined prior to program implementation. Process evaluation is one concerned with the quality of interactions between program staff and recipients. Outcome evaluation focuses on the consequences of the program for the health and welfare of the population.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Implementation

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  15-5

14) The nurse is planning a program to encourage exercise among high school students. Teachers and parents will be involved in implementing the program. Which activity best describes the third level of acceptance of this health care program?

  1. Marketing the program to the high school students.
  2. Convincing the principal of the benefits of the program.
  3. Meeting with the teachers to explain the program.
  4. Encouraging parents to promote the program.

Answer:  1

Explanation:  1. Marketing the program to the high school students is the third level of acceptance because at this level, the program is accepted and used by members of the target group. Convincing the principal of the benefits of the program would be an example of the first level of acceptance. Meeting with the teachers and encouraging parents to promote the program would be the second level of acceptance, which involves convincing those who are to carry out the plan to implement it as designed.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Planning

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  15-6

 

 

15) The nurse is reviewing the considerations needed when designing a program evaluation. What should the nurse keep in mind as the consideration that influences all other aspects of the evaluation process?

  1. Who should conduct the evaluation.
  2. The type of evaluation to be conducted.
  3. The design to be utilized.
  4. The purpose of the evaluation.

Answer:  4

Explanation:  4. Who should conduct the evaluation, the type of evaluation, and the design of the evaluation are all considerations to be made in designing a program evaluation; however, the purpose of the evaluation is the only consideration that influences all other aspects of the process.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Planning

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  15-7

 

Population and Community Health Nursing, 6e (Clark)

Chapter 29   Substance Abuse

 

1) The population health nurse is completing a history on a client who has been referred to a substance abuse clinic. Which client statements indicate a problem with abuse of a psychoactive substance? (Select all that apply.)

  1. I do not have a job.
  2. I cannot get along with people at work.
  3. I have never had a positive drug test.
  4. I am not married.
  5. I have been arrested several times in the last two months.

Answer:  2, 5

Explanation:  2. General indicators that a person has a problem with abuse of a psychoactive substance include frequent intoxication, preoccupation with obtaining and using the substance, binge use, change in personality or mood, withdrawal, problems with family members related to use of the substance, problems with friends or neighbors, problems on the job, and conflicts with law enforcement officials. The best answers include the response that the client cannot get along with people at work and that he has had conflict with law enforcement officials. Unemployment, negative drug testing, and not marrying are not indicators that a person has a problem with abuse of psychoactive substances.

  1. General indicators that a person has a problem with abuse of a psychoactive substance include frequent intoxication, preoccupation with obtaining and using the substance, binge use, change in personality or mood, withdrawal, problems with family members related to use of the substance, problems with friends or neighbors, problems on the job, and conflicts with law enforcement officials. The best answers include the response that the client cannot get along with people at work and that he has had conflict with law enforcement officials. Unemployment, negative drug testing, and not marrying are not indicators that a person has a problem with abuse of psychoactive substances.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Psychosocial Integrity

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  29-1

 

 

2) The population health nurse suspects that a client has psychoactive substance dependence. Which assessment made the nurse most suspicious?

  1. Decreased tolerance to the substance.
  2. Lack of the characteristic withdrawal symptoms.
  3. Decreased substance use to decrease withdrawal symptoms.
  4. Increased time spent recovering from the effects.

Answer:  4

Explanation:  4. Diagnosis of psychoactive substance dependence is based on increased tolerance to the substance, experience of characteristic withdrawal symptoms, increased substance use to decrease withdrawal symptoms, and increased time spent recovering from the effects.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Physiological Integrity

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  29-2

3) The community is conducting a series of forums about alcoholism. What information should the forums include?

  1. Alcohol use is the tenth leading cause of death in the United States.
  2. Ten percent of high school students engage in periodic heavy drinking.
  3. Almost 1% of the United States population reports binge drinking.
  4. Alcohol use contributes to 2.5 million deaths worldwide.

Answer:  4

Explanation:  4. Alcohol use is the third leading cause of death in the United States, and contributes to 2.5 million deaths worldwide. Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2009 indicted that nearly 42% of high school students reported current alcohol use. Almost a fourth of the population (23%) reported binge drinking.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Implementation

Client Need:  Psychosocial Integrity

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  29-3

 

4) The population health nurse is teaching a class about substance abuse. A portion of the class discusses the desirable initial effects of some of the substances. Which substances should be cited as producing a euphoric initial effect? (Select all that apply.)

  1. Phencyclidine (PCP).
  2. Cocaine.
  3. Nicotine.
  4. Amphetamines.
  5. Inhalants.

Answer:  2, 4, 5

Explanation:  2. PCP causes heightened sensitivity to stimuli, mood elevation, a sense of omnipotence, and relaxation. Cocaine produces euphoria, a sense of competence, increased energy, and clarity of thought. Nicotine produces feelings of well-being, increases mental acuity and ability to concentrate, and heightens ones sense of purpose. Amphetamines produce feelings of euphoria, energy, confidence, increased ability to concentrate, and improved physical performance. Inhalants usually produce a sense of euphoria, loss of inhibition, and excitement.

  1. PCP causes heightened sensitivity to stimuli, mood elevation, a sense of omnipotence, and relaxation. Cocaine produces euphoria, a sense of competence, increased energy, and clarity of thought. Nicotine produces feelings of well-being, increases mental acuity and ability to concentrate, and heightens ones sense of purpose. Amphetamines produce feelings of euphoria, energy, confidence, increased ability to concentrate, and improved physical performance. Inhalants usually produce a sense of euphoria, loss of inhibition, and excitement.
  2. PCP causes heightened sensitivity to stimuli, mood elevation, a sense of omnipotence, and relaxation. Cocaine produces euphoria, a sense of competence, increased energy, and clarity of thought. Nicotine produces feelings of well-being, increases mental acuity and ability to concentrate, and heightens ones sense of purpose. Amphetamines produce feelings of euphoria, energy, confidence, increased ability to concentrate, and improved physical performance. Inhalants usually produce a sense of euphoria, loss of inhibition, and excitement.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Physiological Integrity

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  29-3

5) While interviewing the spouse of a client who is being treated for substance abuse, the population health nurse suspects codependence exists between the client and the spouse. What characteristic of codependence did the nurse assess?

  1. Evidence of high self-esteem.
  2. The ability to freely express feelings.
  3. Control of others.
  4. The ability to stand up for ones own desires.

Answer:  3

Explanation:  3. Characteristics of codependence center on patterns of denial of feelings, low self-esteem, and compliance with others desires over personal interests, and control of others.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Psychosocial Integrity

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  29-4

 

6) The population health nurse suspects that a client is experiencing nicotine withdrawal. What manifestations did the nurse use to make this clinical decision? (Select all that apply.)

  1. Anxiety.
  2. Nervousness.
  3. Disorientation.
  4. Increased appetite.
  5. Sleep disturbances.

Answer:  1, 2, 4, 5

Explanation:  1. Nervousness, increased appetite, sleep disturbances, and anxiety are manifestations of nicotine withdrawal. Disorientation is a manifestation of amphetamine withdrawal.

  1. Nervousness, increased appetite, sleep disturbances, and anxiety are manifestations of nicotine withdrawal. Disorientation is a manifestation of amphetamine withdrawal.
  2. Nervousness, increased appetite, sleep disturbances, and anxiety are manifestations of nicotine withdrawal. Disorientation is a manifestation of amphetamine withdrawal.
  3. Nervousness, increased appetite, sleep disturbances, and anxiety are manifestations of nicotine withdrawal. Disorientation is a manifestation of amphetamine withdrawal.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Psychosocial Integrity

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  29-6

7) A mother is concerned that her son is demonstrating some behaviors that place him at risk for substance abuse. Which behavior should the population health nurse explain that contributes to problems of substance abuse?

  1. Conformity.
  2. Patience with failure.
  3. Easily acknowledging feelings.
  4. Tolerance of deviant behavior.

Answer:  4

Explanation:  4. Personality traits that may place one at risk for substance abuse include rebelliousness and nonconformity that may lead to substance abuse as an expression of defiance or as an escape from the constraints and expectations of the adult world. Other common traits in abusers are a greater tolerance of deviant behavior, a poor self-concept, and passive surrender to belief in their own inevitable failure in life.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Psychosocial Integrity

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  29-4

 

 

8) The population health nurse is planning approaches to help community students cope with substance use. Which approaches should the nurse use to meet this goal? (Select all that apply.)

  1. Teach a class on coping strategies.
  2. Control access to abusive substances.
  3. Educate students on substance use risks.
  4. Implement a program for effective coping skills.
  5. Discuss incorporating coping strategies into the school curriculum.

Answer:  1, 4, 5

Explanation:  1. Strategies to develop effective coping include teaching coping strategies to individual clients/families, advocating for incorporation of coping skills into school curricula, and developing and implementing programs to foster effective coping skills. Prevention strategies include educating individual clients regarding substance use risks and controlling access to substances of abuse.

  1. Strategies to develop effective coping include teaching coping strategies to individual clients/families, advocating for incorporation of coping skills into school curricula, and developing and implementing programs to foster effective coping skills. Prevention strategies include educating individual clients regarding substance use risks and controlling access to substances of abuse.
  2. Strategies to develop effective coping include teaching coping strategies to individual clients/families, advocating for incorporation of coping skills into school curricula, and developing and implementing programs to foster effective coping skills. Prevention strategies include educating individual clients regarding substance use risks and controlling access to substances of abuse.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Planning

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  29-7

 

9) The nurse manager of a community health clinic is designing a process to implement brief interventions when assisting a client to resolve a substance abuse issue. Which components should the nurse include in this process? (Select all that apply.)

  1. Provide feedback.
  2. Providing options to reduce use.
  3. Importance of client responsibility.
  4. Use an authoritative counseling style.
  5. Focus on self-efficacy when setting goals.

Answer:  1, 2, 3, 5

Explanation:  1. Key components of brief interventions include feedback related to personal risk, emphasizing client responsibility, providing options for reducing use, employing an empathetic counseling style, focusing on self-efficacy, and setting goals.

  1. Key components of brief interventions include feedback related to personal risk, emphasizing client responsibility, providing options for reducing use, employing an empathetic counseling style, focusing on self-efficacy, and setting goals.
  2. Key components of brief interventions include feedback related to personal risk, emphasizing client responsibility, providing options for reducing use, employing an empathetic counseling style, focusing on self-efficacy, and setting goals.
  3. Key components of brief interventions include feedback related to personal risk, emphasizing client responsibility, providing options for reducing use, employing an empathetic counseling style, focusing on self-efficacy, and setting goals.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Planning

Client Need:  Psychosocial Integrity

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  29-9

 

 

10) A client is beginning treatment for alcohol abuse. The population health nurse should ensure that the client is instructed on which types of medications used for this treatment? (Select all that apply.)

  1. Disulfiram.
  2. Naltrexone.
  3. Acamprosate.
  4. Amitriptyline.
  5. Buprenorphine.

Answer:  1, 2, 3

Explanation:  1. Disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone may be used for alcohol dependence. Buprenorphine may be used for opioid addiction. Amitriptyline is a mood elevator and not indicated in the treatment of alcohol abuse.

  1. Disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone may be used for alcohol dependence. Buprenorphine may be used for opioid addiction. Amitriptyline is a mood elevator and not indicated in the treatment of alcohol abuse.
  2. Disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone may be used for alcohol dependence. Buprenorphine may be used for opioid addiction. Amitriptyline is a mood elevator and not indicated in the treatment of alcohol abuse.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Implementation

Client Need:  Physiological Integrity

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  29-11

11) An adolescent who has been treated twice in the last three years for substance abuse has been warned by the court that further problems with the law will result in his incarceration. The population health nurse is trying to convince the clients mother to have the adolescent admitted to a local rehabilitative program. Which substance abuse treatment principle is the nurse implementing?

  1. Multiple episodes of treatment may be necessary.
  2. Medications in conjunction with other behavioral therapies are important to treatment.
  3. No single treatment is appropriate for all individuals.
  4. Treatment does not need to be voluntary to be effective.

Answer:  4

Explanation:  4. Even though each possible answer is a principle of treatment for substance abuse, the principle the nurse is working with is that treatment does not need to be voluntary to be effective. The nurse is not addressing that multiple episodes of treatment may be necessary. The nurse is not discussing medications that may be used in conjunction with other therapies. The nurse is not emphasizing that no single treatment is appropriate for all individuals.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Implementation

Client Need:  Psychosocial Integrity

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  29-10

 

 

12) City council asks the population health nurse to assist with preventing the relapse of substance abuse by community members returning from rehabilitation. What actions should the nurse take to help these community members? (Select all that apply.)

  1. Create relapse prevention groups.
  2. Alert law officials that community members are being released.
  3. Work with community members to identify triggers for drug use.
  4. Meet with family members to discuss relapse prevention strategies.
  5. Encourage family members to participate in relapse prevention groups.

Answer:  1, 3, 4, 5

Explanation:  1. Population health nurses can assist clients with substance abuse problems to identify triggers for relapse and to develop strategies for dealing with them. They can also assist in the development of relapse prevention groups that provide clients with the support of others in dealing with their relapse issues. They may also help to motivate family members and significant others to participate in relapse prevention, educating both clients and significant others about relapse, its causes, and prevention strategies. Alerting law officials about the release of community members from rehabilitation will not help prevent the relapse of substance abuse.

  1. Population health nurses can assist clients with substance abuse problems to identify triggers for relapse and to develop strategies for dealing with them. They can also assist in the development of relapse prevention groups that provide clients with the support of others in dealing with their relapse issues. They may also help to motivate family members and significant others to participate in relapse prevention, educating both clients and significant others about relapse, its causes, and prevention strategies. Alerting law officials about the release of community members from rehabilitation will not help prevent the relapse of substance abuse.
  2. Population health nurses can assist clients with substance abuse problems to identify triggers for relapse and to develop strategies for dealing with them. They can also assist in the development of relapse prevention groups that provide clients with the support of others in dealing with their relapse issues. They may also help to motivate family members and significant others to participate in relapse prevention, educating both clients and significant others about relapse, its causes, and prevention strategies. Alerting law officials about the release of community members from rehabilitation will not help prevent the relapse of substance abuse.
  3. Population health nurses can assist clients with substance abuse problems to identify triggers for relapse and to develop strategies for dealing with them. They can also assist in the development of relapse prevention groups that provide clients with the support of others in dealing with their relapse issues. They may also help to motivate family members and significant others to participate in relapse prevention, educating both clients and significant others about relapse, its causes, and prevention strategies. Alerting law officials about the release of community members from rehabilitation will not help prevent the relapse of substance abuse.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Implementation

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  29-12

 

 

13) The population health nurse suspects that a community member was facilitated by the health care system to develop substance abuse. What information in the clients history caused the nurse to make this determination?

  1. Attending classes to complete a GED.
  2. Cancelling routine physical examinations.
  3. Employed part time as a food service worker.
  4. Receiving prescriptions for opioids to treat back pain.

Answer:  4

Explanation:  4. Many of the psychoactive substances with abuse potential originated within the health care system. Opioids are the drug of choice for relief of severe pain. Attending classes for a GED, cancelling physical examinations, and part-time employment are not health care system determinants for substance use.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Evaluation

Client Need:  Safe and Effective Care Environment

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  29-5

14) The population health nurse is working in a methadone clinic. What type of intervention does this best describe?

  1. Health promotion.
  2. Health restoration.
  3. Illness prevention.
  4. Pharmacological intervention therapy.

Answer:  1

Explanation:  1. Harm reduction is a health promotion approach to the control of substance abuse. It is an approach to drug use that focuses on moderation of substance use and minimization of its harmful effects. Providing methadone to heroin users is not a health restoration or illness prevention. Pharmacological intervention therapy is not an identified treatment approach to substance abuse.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Implementation

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  29-8

 

 

15) During an assessment the population health nurse learns that a client is using blue velvet. For which substance should the nurse plan care for this client?

  1. Codeine.
  2. Demerol.
  3. Opium.
  4. Cocaine.

Answer:  3

Explanation:  3. A street name for opium is blue velvet. A street name for codeine is schoolboy. Demerol is referred to as demies, dolls, or dollies. Cocaine is referred to as coke, snow, uptown, flake, crack, bump, toot, c, or candy.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Planning

Client Need:  Physiological Integrity

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  29-3

 

Write a review

Your Name:


Your Review: Note: HTML is not translated!

Rating: Bad           Good

Enter the code in the box below:



 

Once the order is placed, the order will be delivered to your email less than 24 hours, mostly within 4 hours. 

If you have questions, you can contact us here