Practice of Nursing Research Appraisal Synthesis 7th Edition Grove Burns Test bank

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Practice of Nursing Research Appraisal Synthesis 7th Edition Grove Burns Test bank

Description

Chapter 4: Introduction to Qualitative Research
Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. What does the grounded in grounded theory mean?
a.
Small pieces of data are ground up in the analysis process.
b.
The theory that emerges is grounded in real-world data.
c.
No theory is groundless.
d.
All data must be on the ground and written out fully.

ANS: B
Grounded theory research is an inductive research technique developed by Glaser and Strauss through their study of the experience of dying. The methods name means the findings are grounded in the concrete world as experienced by the participants and are interpreted at a more abstract theoretical level.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 62

2. An ethnographic researcher plans to study organizations and how they promote or suppress individual effort. What type of ethnography will the researcher select?
a.
Classical ethnography
b.
Systematic ethnography
c.
Interpretive ethnography
d.
Critical ethnography

ANS: B
Four schools of thought within ethnography have emerged from different philosophical perspectives and these include classical, systematic, interpretive, and critical ethnography. Classical ethnography seeks to provide a comprehensive holistic description of a culture. In contrast, systematic ethnography explores and describes the structures of the culture with an increased focus on groups, patterns of social interaction, organizations, and institutions. Interpretive ethnography has as its goal understanding the values and thinking that result in the behaviors and symbols of the people being studied. Critical ethnography has a political purpose of relieving oppression and empowering a group of people to take action on their own behalf. It is not ethnographys focus to construct theories.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 64

3. Why is the Sunshine Model of ethnonursing more specific to health than other ethnography models?
a.
It was created by a nurse.
b.
It values the point of view of the individual.
c.
It focuses on factors that impact health.
d.
It explains how various levels of culture interact.

ANS: C
Madeline Leininger (1970) brought ethnography into nursing science by writing the first book linking nursing with anthropology. Leininger was first a nurse and then earned her doctoral degree in anthropology. In the 1950s, she began developing a framework for culture care that became the Sunshine Model (Clarke, McFarland, Andrews, & Leininger, 2009). The Sunshine Model identifies factors that affect health and illness, such as religion, income, kinship, education, values, and beliefs. Chapter 7 contains more information about the Theory of Culture Care developed by Leininger, so this section focuses on the qualitative method that she developed to be consistent with ethnonursing. Multiple levels of factors affect the culture and, consequently, the care expressions of the people. A person who is a member of the only Vietnamese family in a small rural community in Georgia may have different care practices than if he or she were living in New York City in a predominantly Vietnamese community.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 65

4. A researcher investigates the fact that women with chronic pain are more apt to be treated for depression than are men with chronic pain. Which qualitative strategy will most likely be used to study this topic?
a.
Grounded theory
b.
Exploratory-descriptive qualitative research
c.
Phenomenology
d.
Critical research

ANS: D
Critical ethnography has a political purpose of relieving oppression and empowering a group of people to take action on their own behalf.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 64

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. A research study about holiday celebrations is based on a philosophy or philosophical perspective. In the analysis, the authors state that they reflected upon the data for several weeks, reading and re-reading interviews, in order to capture their meaning. Aside from descriptive statistics addressing the sample, the results are all presented in narrative form. Which of the following statements are true? (Select all that apply.)
a.
The philosophy for the study is logical positivism.
b.
The sample size was decided upon using power analysis.
c.
In this method, meaning emerges from the data.
d.
The data analysis process seems to be inductive.
e.
The method was shaped by the authors philosophical perspectives.

ANS: C, D, E
Quantitative studies are based primarily on the philosophy of logical positivism that values logic, empirical data, and tightly controlled methods. Power analysis is a quantitative method of setting the sample size. Inductive thinking involves perceptually putting insights and pieces of information together and identifying abstract themes or working from the bottom up. From this inductive process, meanings emerge. In qualitative research, the philosophy directs the research questions and the collection and interpretation of the data.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 57

2. Which statements best describes the differences between Heideggerian and Husserlian phenomenology? (Select all that apply.)
a.
Husserl proposed that the researcher could identify and set aside his or her own private attitudes and opinions before data analysis.
b.
Heidegger postulated that a person interacted with the world only through his or her physical body.
c.
Heideggerians believe that the past has no influence on present thought.
d.
Heideggerian phenomenologists posit that the person is situated in a specific context and time that shape his or her experiences, paradoxically freeing and constraining the persons ability to establish meanings through language, culture, history, purposes, and values.
e.
Husserl developed his ideas as a method for understanding and avoiding conflict between psychology and the basic sciences.

ANS: A, B, D, E
Heideggerian phenomenologists believe that the person is a self within a body; the person is referred to as embodied. Husserlian phenomenologists believe that although self and world are mutually shaping, it is possible to separate oneself from ones beliefs or set aside ones beliefs to see the world firsthand in a naive way. Setting aside ones beliefs during qualitative research is called bracketing. Heideggerian phenomenologists posit that the person is situated in a specific context and time that shape his or her experiences, paradoxically freeing and constraining the persons ability to establish meanings through language, culture, history, purposes, and values. Husserl developed his ideas about phenomena in an effort to resolve the conflict in thought between human sciences (primarily psychology) and the basic sciences (such as physics).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 60

3. What is the major contribution of historical nursing research? (Select all that apply.)
a.
It explains how to avoid pitfalls of the past.
b.
It allows us to explain the world of today through the lens of yesterday.
c.
It identifies recurrent social patterns.
d.
It tells the story of where we have been as a profession.
e.
It provides the dates of important events.

ANS: B, D
Historical research examines events of the past. Historians describe events in the context of time, social structures, concurrent events, and key individuals. These descriptions can increase understanding and raise awareness of the forces shaping current events. Historical nursing research can do the same for the profession and its role in society. Nurse researchers using historical methods have examined the events and people that shaped health in different settings and countries as well as nursing as a profession.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 68

4. Which of the following might be the focus of historical nursing research? (Select all that apply.)
a.
The evolution of the role of the physician in the 20th century
b.
Diseases that resulted in significant mortality in the 18th century
c.
Patterns of nursing staffing in years of shortage prior to 1980
d.
A person or persons who have contributed to the profession of nursing
e.
Social patterns that have fostered or squelched nurses developing autonomy

ANS: C, D, E
Historical research examines events of the past. Historians describe events in the context of time, social structures, concurrent events, and key individuals. These descriptions can increase understanding and raise awareness of the forces shaping current events. Historical nursing research can do the same for the profession and its role in society. Nurse researchers using historical methods have examined the events and people that shaped health in different settings and countries as well as nursing as a profession.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 68

5. What is exploratory-descriptive qualitative research? (Select all that apply.)
a.
Research that is clearly qualitative but that does not espouse any distinct methodology
b.
Quantitative research that contains descriptions
c.
Research that contains elements of at least two other types of qualitative research
d.
Mixed methods research
e.
A non-method

ANS: A, E
Qualitative nurse researchers have conducted studies with the purpose of exploring and describing a topic of interest but, at times, have not identified a specific qualitative methodology. Qualitative descriptive research is a legitimate method of research that may be the appropriate label for studies that have no clearly specified method or when the method was specified but ended with a comprehensive summary of an event in the everyday terms of these events. Labeling a study as a specific type (grounded theory, phenomenology, or ethnographic) implies fixed categories of research with distinct boundaries, but the boundaries between methods are more appropriately viewed as permeable. Although the studies result in descriptions and could be labeled as descriptive qualitative studies, most of the researchers are in the exploratory stage of studying the subject of interest.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 66

6. What are the focal points of the four schools of thought within ethnography? (Select all that apply.)
a.
To relieve oppression and empower a group to take action on its own behalf
b.
To investigate cultural structures, focusing on groups and their social patterns
c.
To construct theories that explain cultural interactions
d.
To understand values and thinking that collectively result in behaviors and symbols of the individuals within a culture
e.
To provide a comprehensive holistic description of a culture

ANS: A, B, D, E
Four schools of thought within ethnography have emerged from different philosophical perspectives and these include classical, systematic, interpretive, and critical ethnography. Classical ethnography seeks to provide a comprehensive holistic description of a culture. In contrast, systematic ethnography explores and describes the structures of the culture with an increased focus on groups, patterns of social interaction, organizations, and institutions. Interpretive ethnography has as its goal understanding the values and thinking that result in the behaviors and symbols of the people being studied. Critical ethnography has a political purpose of relieving oppression and empowering a group of people to take action on their own behalf. It is not ethnographys focus to construct theories.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Synthesis REF: Page 64

7. Which of the following are the general purposes of ethnographic research? (Select all that apply.)
a.
To describe events within a culture in the distant past
b.
To describe a culture
c.
To construct theories that explain cultural interactions
d.
To measure the effect of living conditions on human care, health, and nursing process
e.
To explore meanings of social actions against a cultural backdrop

ANS: B, E
Ethnographic research provides a framework for studying cultures. The word ethnography is derived by combining the Greek roots of ethno (folk or people) and graphy (picture or portrait). Ethnographies are the written reports of a culture from the perspectives of insiders. These reports were initially the products of anthropologists who studied primitive, foreign, or remote cultures. Now, however, a number of other disciplines, including social psychology, sociology, political science, education, and nursing, promote cultural research. Anthropologists seek to understand people: their ways of living, believing, acquiring information, transforming knowledge, and socializing the next generation. Studying a culture begins with the philosophical values of respecting, appreciating, and seeking to preserve the values and ways of life of the culture. The philosophical bases of ethnography are naturalism and respect for others. The purpose of anthropological research is to describe a culture and explore the meanings of social actions within cultures.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Synthesis REF: Page 63

8. Which of the following are the general purposes of phenomenological research? (Select all that apply.)
a.
To generate theory
b.
To describe the lived experience
c.
To observe and document interactions within an existent culture
d.
To determine the meaning that an experience has for the individual
e.
To describe the single reality expressed by a group of participants

ANS: B, D
The purpose of phenomenological research is to describe experiences (or phenomena) as they are livedin phenomenological terms, to capture the lived experience of study participants. During the process of data collection, the meaning the participants attach to their experience is revealed. All phenomenologists agree that there is not a single reality: each individual has his or her own reality. While phenomenology can be used indirectly in the development of a theory, grounded theory is the method intended to generate theory. Observing and documenting interactions within a culture describes ethnographic research.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 60

9. A certain qualitative method takes the position that there is no single reality. Because of this, the reality experienced by each participant is unique. Because experience is subjective, the experienced reality is reality. The method does not perform reality checks in order to determine whether a participants story is true or not. What is this qualitative method? (Select all that apply.)
a.
Husserlian phenomenology
b.
Ethnography
c.
Historicism
d.
Heideggerian phenomenology
e.
Grounded theory

ANS: A, D
The purpose of phenomenological research is to describe experiences (or phenomena) as they are livedin phenomenological terms, to capture the lived experience of study participants. All phenomenologists agree that there is not a single reality; each individual has his or her own reality. Reality is considered subjective, and as a result, unique to the individual.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 60

10. What are the general truths of symbolic interaction theory, as utilized in grounded theory research? (Select all that apply.)
a.
Perceptions of ones interactions with others shape ones self-view.
b.
Perceptions of ones interactions with others shape subsequent interactions.
c.
A person is embodied and experiences the world within that body.
d.
The culture determines behavior; the persons comprise the culture.
e.
Persons within a social structure share symbols that have meaning for them.

ANS: A, B, E
Heideggerian phenomenologists believe that the person is a self within a body, which is referred to as a person being embodied. Symbolic interaction theory explores how perceptions of interactions with others shape ones view of self and subsequent interactions. In social life, groups share meanings. They communicate these shared meanings to others through socialization processes. Ethnography does not require travel to another country or region; however, it requires spending considerable time in the setting observing and gathering data.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 60

11. Which of the following are the characteristics of grounded theory research? (Select all that apply.)
a.
It focuses on experiences and processes, against the backdrop of society.
b.
It scrutinizes phenomena, past the capabilities of quantitative research.
c.
It always develops theory.
d.
It provides a cohesive description of a phenomenon, fostering understanding.
e.
It is able to be used effectively in a considerable variety of settings.

ANS: A, B, D, E
Grounded theory research is an inductive research technique developed by Glaser and Strauss through their study of the experience of dying. The methods name means the findings are grounded in the concrete world as experienced by the participants and are interpreted at a more abstract theoretical level. The desired outcome of grounded theory studies is a middle range or substantive theory. Grounded theory researchers have contributed to our understanding of the patient experience across a wide range of settings. Grounded theory research examines experiences and processes with a breadth and depth not usually possible with quantitative research. The reader can intuitively verify these findings through her or his own experiences. The contribution to nursing science is that a clear, cohesive description of the phenomenon allows greater understanding.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Synthesis REF: Page 62

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