Prescotts Microbiology 10th Edition Willey Sherwood Woolverton Test bank

Prescotts Microbiology  10th Edition Willey Sherwood Woolverton  Test bank
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Chapter 11
Catabolism: Energy Release and Conservation

Multiple Choice Questions

1. The sum total of all chemical reactions occurring in a cell is called
A. anabolism.
B. catabolism.
C. metabolism.
D. None of the choices are correct.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.01.01 Use the terms that describe a microbes carbon source, energy source, and electron source
Section: 11.01
Topic: Biochemistry

True / False Questions

2. Although most metabolic reactions are freely reversible, a few irreversible catabolic steps are bypassed during biosynthesis with special enzymes that catalyze the reverse reaction in order to allow for independent regulation of catabolic and anabolic pathways.
TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.02.03 Propose an explanation that accounts for the existence of amphibolic pathways
Section: 11.02
Topic: Biochemistry

3. Metabolic pathways can be either catabolic or anabolic but not both.
FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.02.03 Propose an explanation that accounts for the existence of amphibolic pathways
Section: 11.02
Topic: Biochemistry

Fill in the Blank Questions

4. __________ pathways are those that function both catabolically and anabolically.
Amphibolic

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.02.03 Propose an explanation that accounts for the existence of amphibolic pathways
Section: 11.02
Topic: Biochemistry

True / False Questions

5. The catabolism of glucose begins with one or more of the glycolytic pathways that yield pyruvate.
TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.04.01 List the three major pathways that catabolize glucose to pyruvate
Section: 11.04
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

Fill in the Blank Questions

6. ____________ ____________ is a process that can completely catabolize an organic energy source to CO2 using the glycolytic pathways and TCA cycle with O2 as the terminal electron acceptor for an electron transport chain.
Aerobic respiration

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.03.01 Describe in general terms what happens to a molecule of glucose during aerobic respiration
Section: 11.03
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration

True / False Questions

7. Very few Gram-positive bacteria utilize the Entner-Doudoroff glycolytic pathway.
TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.04.01 List the three major pathways that catabolize glucose to pyruvate
Learning Outcome: 11.04.04 Identify those reactions of the Embden-Meyerhof, Entner-Doudoroff, and pentose phosphate pathways that consume ATP, produce ATP and NAD(P)H, generate precursor metabolites, or are redox reactions
Section: 11.04
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration

8. Some aerobic bacteria lack the Entner-Doudoroff and Embden-Meyerhoff pathways and instead use the pentose phosphate pathway for glycolysis.
FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.04.01 List the three major pathways that catabolize glucose to pyruvate
Learning Outcome: 11.04.06 Summarize the function of the Embden-Meyerhof, Entner-Doudoroff, and pentose phosphate pathways
Section: 11.04
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration

9. An organism may use glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway simultaneously.
TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.04.01 List the three major pathways that catabolize glucose to pyruvate
Learning Outcome: 11.04.03 Diagram the major changes made to glucose as it is catabolized by the Embden-Meyerhof, Entner-Doudoroff, and pentose phosphate pathways
Learning Outcome: 11.04.04 Identify those reactions of the Embden-Meyerhof, Entner-Doudoroff, and pentose phosphate pathways that consume ATP, produce ATP and NAD(P)H, generate precursor metabolites, or are redox reactions
Learning Outcome: 11.04.06 Summarize the function of the Embden-Meyerhof, Entner-Doudoroff, and pentose phosphate pathways
Learning Outcome: 11.04.07 Draw a simple diagram that shows the connection between the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and the Embden-Meyerhof pathway and the connection between the pentose phosphate pathway and the Embden-Meyerhof pathway
Section: 11.04
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration

Multiple Choice Questions

10. The net gain of ATP per molecule of glucose metabolized anaerobically via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway in prokaryotes is
A. 2.
B. 36.
C. 38.
D. 85.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.04.05 Calculate the yields of ATP and NAD(P)H by the Embden-Meyerhof, Entner-Doudoroff, and pentose phosphate pathways
Section: 11.04
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration

11. The net gain of ATP per molecule of glucose metabolized to pyruvate using Entner-Doudoroff pathway is
A. 4.
B. 2.
C. 1.
D. 0.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.04.05 Calculate the yields of ATP and NAD(P)H by the Embden-Meyerhof, Entner-Doudoroff, and pentose phosphate pathways
Section: 11.04
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration

12. The pentose phosphate pathway produces
A. CO2.
B. NADPH.
C. glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate.
D. All of the choices are correct.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.04.03 Diagram the major changes made to glucose as it is catabolized by the Embden-Meyerhof, Entner-Doudoroff, and pentose phosphate pathways
Learning Outcome: 11.04.04 Identify those reactions of the Embden-Meyerhof, Entner-Doudoroff, and pentose phosphate pathways that consume ATP, produce ATP and NAD(P)H, generate precursor metabolites, or are redox reactions
Learning Outcome: 11.04.05 Calculate the yields of ATP and NAD(P)H by the Embden-Meyerhof, Entner-Doudoroff, and pentose phosphate pathways
Learning Outcome: 11.04.06 Summarize the function of the Embden-Meyerhof, Entner-Doudoroff, and pentose phosphate pathways
Section: 11.04
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

13. The synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi, when coupled with an exergonic chemical reaction is called __________ phosphorylation.
A. chemiosmotic
B. oxidative
C. substrate-level
D. conformational change

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.04.02 Describe substrate-level phosphorylation
Section: 11.04
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

14. The most common pathway for conversion of glucose to pyruvate is
A. Entner-Doudoroff.
B. Pentose phosphate.
C. Embden-Meyerhoff.
D. mixed acid fermentation.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.04.01 List the three major pathways that catabolize glucose to pyruvate
Section: 11.04
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

15. The TCA cycle generates all of the following from each acetyl-CoA molecule oxidized except
A. three NADH molecules.
B. two CO2 molecules.
C. one FADH2 molecule.
D. two ATP or GTP molecules.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.05.03 Identify those reactions of the TCA cycle that produce ATP (or GTP) and NAD(P)H, generate precursor metabolites, or are redox reactions
Learning Outcome: 11.05.04 Calculate the yields of ATP (or GTP), NAD(P)H, and FADH2 by the TCA cycle
Section: 11.05
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

16. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex oxidizes and cleaves pyruvate to form one CO2 and
A. lactate.
B. isocitric acid.
C. acetyl-CoA.
D. succinyl-CoA.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.05.02 Diagram the major changes made to pyruvate as it is catabolized by the TCA cycle
Learning Outcome: 11.05.06 Diagram the connections between the various glycolytic pathways and the TCA cycle
Section: 11.05
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

Fill in the Blank Questions

17. After glycolysis, pyruvate is oxidized to one CO2 and the two-carbon molecule acetyl-CoA by a multienzyme system called the ________ ________ complex.
pyruvate dehydrogenase

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.05.02 Diagram the major changes made to pyruvate as it is catabolized by the TCA cycle
Learning Outcome: 11.05.05 Summarize the function of the TCA cycle
Learning Outcome: 11.05.06 Diagram the connections between the various glycolytic pathways and the TCA cycle
Section: 11.05
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

18. TCA cycle enzymes are found in the _____________ _________ of eukaryotic cells.
mitochondrial matrix

ASM Objective: 01.01 Cells, organelles (e.g. mitochondria and chloroplasts) and all major metabolic pathways evolved from early prokaryotic cells.
ASM Objective: 02.01 The structure and function of microorganisms have been revealed by the use of microscopy (including bright field, phase contrast, fluorescent, and electron).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 01 Evolution
ASM Topic: Module 02 Cell Structure and Function
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.05.07 Locate the TCA cycle enzymes in bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic cells
Section: 11.05
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

Multiple Choice Questions

19. In the TCA cycle, two carbons are removed from citric acid in the form of __________, thereby regenerating oxaloacetate to complete the cycle.
A. acetyl-CoA
B. ethanol
C. carbon dioxide
D. methanol

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.05.03 Identify those reactions of the TCA cycle that produce ATP (or GTP) and NAD(P)H, generate precursor metabolites, or are redox reactions
Learning Outcome: 11.05.05 Summarize the function of the TCA cycle
Section: 11.05
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

20. In the TCA cycle, two carbons in the form of __________ are added to oxaloacetate at the start of the cycle.
A. acetyl-CoA
B. ethanol
C. carbon dioxide
D. methanol

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.05.02 Diagram the major changes made to pyruvate as it is catabolized by the TCA cycle
Learning Outcome: 11.05.03 Identify those reactions of the TCA cycle that produce ATP (or GTP) and NAD(P)H, generate precursor metabolites, or are redox reactions
Learning Outcome: 11.05.05 Summarize the function of the TCA cycle
Learning Outcome: 11.05.06 Diagram the connections between the various glycolytic pathways and the TCA cycle
Section: 11.05
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

21. The major function(s) of the TCA cycle is(are)
A. energy production.
B. provision of carbon skeletons for biosynthesis of cell components.
C. electron transport.
D. energy production and provision of carbon skeletons for biosynthesis of cell components.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Figure: 11.05
Learning Outcome: 11.05.05 Summarize the function of the TCA cycle
Section: 11.05
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

Fill in the Blank Questions

22. When mitochondria pass electrons donated by NADH through the electron transport chain to molecular oxygen, a theoretical maximum of __________ molecules of ATP can be made per oxygen molecule reduced.
three or
3

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Objective: 03.04 The growth of microorganisms can be controlled by physical, chemical, mechanical, or biological methods.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.06.03 Correlate length of an ETC and the carriers in it with the magnitude of the proton motive force (PMF) it generates
Learning Outcome: 11.06.05 Draw a simple diagram that shows the connections between the glycolytic pathways, TCA cycle, ETC, and ATP synthesis
Learning Outcome: 11.06.06 List the ways the PMF is used by bacterial cells in addition to ATP synthesis
Learning Outcome: 11.06.07 Calculate the maximum possible ATP yields when glucose is completely catabolized to six molecules of CO2 during aerobic respiration
Section: 11.06
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

23. The hypothesis that proton motive force drives ATP synthesis is called the __________ hypothesis.
chemiosmotic

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.06.02 Describe the chemiosmotic hypothesis
Learning Outcome: 11.06.04 Explain how ATP synthase uses PMF to generate ATP
Learning Outcome: 11.06.06 List the ways the PMF is used by bacterial cells in addition to ATP synthesis
Section: 11.06
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

24. The most commonly accepted hypothesis for the production of ATP that results from electron transport system is called the __________ hypothesis.
chemiosmotic

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.06.02 Describe the chemiosmotic hypothesis
Learning Outcome: 11.06.06 List the ways the PMF is used by bacterial cells in addition to ATP synthesis
Section: 11.06
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

True / False Questions

25. Bacterial electron transport chains may be comprised of fewer components and have lower P/O ratios than mitochondrial transport chains.
TRUE

ASM Objective: 01.01 Cells, organelles (e.g. mitochondria and chloroplasts) and all major metabolic pathways evolved from early prokaryotic cells.
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Objective: 03.04 The growth of microorganisms can be controlled by physical, chemical, mechanical, or biological methods.
ASM Topic: Module 01 Evolution
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.06.01 Compare and contrast the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) and bacterial ETCs
Learning Outcome: 11.06.03 Correlate length of an ETC and the carriers in it with the magnitude of the proton motive force (PMF) it generates
Section: 11.06
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

26. The electron transport systems in eukaryotes and prokaryotes use different electron carriers.
TRUE

ASM Objective: 01.01 Cells, organelles (e.g. mitochondria and chloroplasts) and all major metabolic pathways evolved from early prokaryotic cells.
ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 01 Evolution
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.06.01 Compare and contrast the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) and bacterial ETCs
Section: 11.06
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

27. In addition to being used in the making of ATP, proton motive force is used directly to power the rotation of bacterial flagella.
TRUE

ASM Objective: 02.03 Bacteria and Archaea have specialized structures (e.g. flagella, endospores, and pili) that often confer critical capabilities.
ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 02 Cell Structure and Function
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.06.06 List the ways the PMF is used by bacterial cells in addition to ATP synthesis
Section: 11.06
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

Multiple Choice Questions

28. Differences between mitochondrial and E. coli electron transport chains include the following:
A. The E. coli chain contains a different array of cytochromes.
B. The fundamental principles on which they operate are different.
C. Higher P/O values are observed in E. coli.
D. The electron transport chain does not involve membranes in E. coli.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.06.01 Compare and contrast the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) and bacterial ETCs
Section: 11.06
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

29. Which of the following is NOT true regarding ATP synthases?
A. They require proton motive force to make ATP.
B. They span the inner membrane of mitochondria.
C. The proton flow is outward during ATP synthesis.
D. The subunits of ATP synthase undergo conformational changes during ATP production.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 11.06.04 Explain how ATP synthase uses PMF to generate ATP
Section: 11.06
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

30. The theoretical maximum net gain of ATP per molecule of glucose metabolized aerobically in eukaryotes is
A. 2.
B. 32.
C. 38.
D. 85.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.06.07 Calculate the maximum possible ATP yields when glucose is completely catabolized to six molecules of CO2 during aerobic respiration
Section: 11.06
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

31. Production of ATP using the energy liberated when electrons from reduced chemical bonds are passed through the electron transport system is generally referred to as
A. chemiosmotic.
B. respiration.
C. substrate-level.
D. conformational change.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.03.02 List the end products made during aerobic respiration
Learning Outcome: 11.03.03 Identify the process that generates the most ATP during aerobic respiration
Learning Outcome: 11.06.02 Describe the chemiosmotic hypothesis
Learning Outcome: 11.06.04 Explain how ATP synthase uses PMF to generate ATP
Learning Outcome: 11.06.05 Draw a simple diagram that shows the connections between the glycolytic pathways, TCA cycle, ETC, and ATP synthesis
Section: 11.03
Section: 11.06
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

32. Mitochondrial electron transport takes place
A. on the outer mitochondrial membrane.
B. on the inner mitochondrial membrane.
C. in the fluid matrix of the mitochondria.
D. on the outer mitochondrial membrane and on the inner mitochondrial membrane.

ASM Objective: 01.01 Cells, organelles (e.g. mitochondria and chloroplasts) and all major metabolic pathways evolved from early prokaryotic cells.
ASM Objective: 02.01 The structure and function of microorganisms have been revealed by the use of microscopy (including bright field, phase contrast, fluorescent, and electron).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 01 Evolution
ASM Topic: Module 02 Cell Structure and Function
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.06.01 Compare and contrast the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) and bacterial ETCs
Section: 11.06
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

33. In higher eukaryotes, most aerobically generated ATP is produced by
A. glycolysis.
B. the TCA cycle.
C. a membrane-bound proton translocating ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation.

D. all of these generate equal amounts of ATP.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.06.05 Draw a simple diagram that shows the connections between the glycolytic pathways, TCA cycle, ETC, and ATP synthesis
Learning Outcome: 11.06.07 Calculate the maximum possible ATP yields when glucose is completely catabolized to six molecules of CO2 during aerobic respiration
Learning Outcome: 11.07.01 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration using glucose as carbon source
Learning Outcome: 11.08.01 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation of glucose
Section: 11.06
Section: 11.07
Section: 11.08
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration

34. The number of ATP molecules generated per atom of oxygen that is reduced when electrons are passed from NADH or reduced FAD (FADH) to O2 is called the
A. utilization ratio.
B. energy yield.
C. P/O ratio.
D. phosphorylation coefficient.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.06.07 Calculate the maximum possible ATP yields when glucose is completely catabolized to six molecules of CO2 during aerobic respiration
Learning Outcome: 11.07.04 Predict the relative amount of energy released for each of the common terminal electron acceptors used during anaerobic respiration, as compared to energy released during aerobic respiration
Learning Outcome: 11.08.01 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation of glucose
Section: 11.06
Section: 11.07
Section: 11.08
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

35. In aerobic conditions, it takes __________ sugar to produce the same amount of ATP when compared to anaerobic conditions.
A. more
B. less
C. the same amount of

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Objective: 03.04 The growth of microorganisms can be controlled by physical, chemical, mechanical, or biological methods.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.07.01 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration using glucose as carbon source
Learning Outcome: 11.08.01 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation of glucose
Section: 11.07
Section: 11.08
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry
Topic: Fermentation

True / False Questions

36. Prokaryotes may use several different terminal oxidases for the electron transport system.
TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Objective: 03.04 The growth of microorganisms can be controlled by physical, chemical, mechanical, or biological methods.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.07.01 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration using glucose as carbon source
Learning Outcome: 11.07.02 List examples of terminal electron acceptors used during anaerobic respiration
Learning Outcome: 11.08.01 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation of glucose
Section: 11.07
Section: 11.08
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

37. Reduction of nitrate to nitrite by Paracoccus denitrificans is an example of anaerobic respiration.
TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Objective: 03.04 The growth of microorganisms can be controlled by physical, chemical, mechanical, or biological methods.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.07.03 Defend this statement: The use of nitrate (NO3-) as a terminal electron acceptor is dissimilatory nitrate reduction.
Learning Outcome: 11.07.05 List three examples of the importance of anaerobic respiration
Section: 11.07
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration

Fill in the Blank Questions

38. When cells of a facultative anaerobe such as Paracoccus denitrificans are growing under anaerobic conditions and using nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor, ______________ nitrate reduction is occurring.
dissimilatory

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Objective: 03.04 The growth of microorganisms can be controlled by physical, chemical, mechanical, or biological methods.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.07.03 Defend this statement: The use of nitrate (NO3-) as a terminal electron acceptor is dissimilatory nitrate reduction.
Section: 11.07
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

Multiple Choice Questions

39. Which of the following can be used as electron acceptors during anaerobic respiration?
A. Nitrate

B. Sulfate

C. Carbon dioxide

D. All of the choices are correct.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.07.02 List examples of terminal electron acceptors used during anaerobic respiration
Section: 11.07
Topic: Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration
Topic: Biochemistry

Fill in the Blank Questions

40. Organisms that form lactate, ethanol, and CO2 as end products of glucose metabolism are called __________ fermenters.
heterolactic

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.08.02 List the pathways that may function during fermentation if glucose is the organisms carbon and energy source
Learning Outcome: 11.08.03 Create a table that lists some of the common fermentation pathways and their products, and gives examples of their importance
Section: 11.08
Topic: Fermentation

True / False Questions

41. Fermentation involves the use of pyruvate and/or other organic molecules as electron acceptors.
TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.08.01 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation of glucose
Learning Outcome: 11.08.02 List the pathways that may function during fermentation if glucose is the organisms carbon and energy source
Learning Outcome: 11.08.03 Create a table that lists some of the common fermentation pathways and their products, and gives examples of their importance
Section: 11.08
Topic: Fermentation

42. In the process of fermentation an organic substrate, such as glucose, is reduced and an intermediate of the pathway, such as pyruvate, is oxidized.
FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.08.01 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation of glucose
Learning Outcome: 11.08.02 List the pathways that may function during fermentation if glucose is the organisms carbon and energy source
Section: 11.08
Topic: Fermentation

Fill in the Blank Questions

43. Organisms that directly reduce almost all of their pyruvate to lactate are called __________ fermenters.
homolactic

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.08.01 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation of glucose
Learning Outcome: 11.08.02 List the pathways that may function during fermentation if glucose is the organisms carbon and energy source
Learning Outcome: 11.08.03 Create a table that lists some of the common fermentation pathways and their products, and gives examples of their importance
Section: 11.08
Topic: Biochemistry
Topic: Fermentation

True / False Questions

44. Oxygen is always required for the regeneration of NAD from NADH.
FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.08.01 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation of glucose
Learning Outcome: 11.08.02 List the pathways that may function during fermentation if glucose is the organisms carbon and energy source
Learning Outcome: 11.08.03 Create a table that lists some of the common fermentation pathways and their products, and gives examples of their importance
Section: 11.08
Topic: Biochemistry
Topic: Fermentation

Fill in the Blank Questions

45. Large external polysaccharides are degraded by bacteria and archaea using ________ ________, which they secrete outside the cell.
hydrolytic enzymes

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.09.02 Differentiate the catabolism of disaccharides and polysaccharides by hydrolysis from their catabolism by phosphorolysis
Section: 11.09
Topic: Biochemistry
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

46. Disaccharides and polysaccharides can be processed as nutrients after first being cleaved to monosaccharides by either __________ or __________.
hydrolysis; phosphorolysis or
phosphorolysis; hydrolysis

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.09.02 Differentiate the catabolism of disaccharides and polysaccharides by hydrolysis from their catabolism by phosphorolysis
Section: 11.09
Topic: Biochemistry
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

Multiple Choice Questions

47. Fatty acids are metabolized by the __________ pathway.
A. alpha-oxidation
B. beta-oxidation
C. gamma-oxidation
D. delta-oxidation

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.09.03 Discuss the fate of the fatty acid and glycerol components of triglycerides when triglycerides are catabolized
Learning Outcome: 11.09.06 Draw a simple diagram that illustrates how the pathways used to catabolize reduced organic molecules other than glucose connect to the glycolytic pathways and the TCA cycle
Section: 11.09
Topic: Biochemistry
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

48. During breakdown of fatty acids, carbons are removed __________ at a time with each turn of the cycle, and two carbon units are released as __________.
A. one; carbon dioxide
B. one; methane
C. two; acetyl-CoA
D. two; ethanol

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.09.03 Discuss the fate of the fatty acid and glycerol components of triglycerides when triglycerides are catabolized
Learning Outcome: 11.09.06 Draw a simple diagram that illustrates how the pathways used to catabolize reduced organic molecules other than glucose connect to the glycolytic pathways and the TCA cycle
Section: 11.09
Topic: Biochemistry
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

Fill in the Blank Questions

49. Proteins are catabolized by hydrolytic cleavage to amino acids by the action of enzymes called __________.
proteases

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.09.04 State the name of the enzymes responsible for hydrolyzing proteins into amino acids
Learning Outcome: 11.09.06 Draw a simple diagram that illustrates how the pathways used to catabolize reduced organic molecules other than glucose connect to the glycolytic pathways and the TCA cycle
Section: 11.09
Topic: Biochemistry
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

Multiple Choice Questions

50. Amino acids are processed first by the removal of the amino group through
A. deamination.
B. transamination.
C. phosphorolytic cleavage.
D. deamination or transamination.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.09.05 Distinguish deamination from transamination and explain how the two are related
Section: 11.09
Topic: Biochemistry
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

True / False Questions

51. Nitrification of ammonia occurs when ammonia is first converted to nitrite and then is converted to nitrate by the nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.10.01 Describe in general terms the fueling reactions of chemolithotrophs
Learning Outcome: 11.10.02 List the molecules commonly used as energy sources and electron donors by chemolithotrophs
Learning Outcome: 11.10.06 List three examples of important chemolithotrophic processes
Section: 11.10
Topic: Biochemistry

Fill in the Blank Questions

52. _______________ is a two-step process that depends on the activity of at least two genera to carry out the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate.
Nitrification

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.10.01 Describe in general terms the fueling reactions of chemolithotrophs
Learning Outcome: 11.10.02 List the molecules commonly used as energy sources and electron donors by chemolithotrophs
Learning Outcome: 11.10.05 Differentiate nitrification from denitrification
Learning Outcome: 11.10.06 List three examples of important chemolithotrophic processes
Section: 11.10
Topic: Biochemistry

Multiple Choice Questions

53. Which of the following may be used as sources of energy by chemolithotrophs?
A. Hydrogen gas

B. Reduced nitrogen compounds

C. Reduced sulfur compounds

D. All of the choices are correct.

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.10.01 Describe in general terms the fueling reactions of chemolithotrophs
Learning Outcome: 11.10.02 List the molecules commonly used as energy sources and electron donors by chemolithotrophs
Section: 11.10
Topic: Biochemistry

54. How many molecules of ATP are needed to reduce one molecule of carbon dioxide to carbohydrate by oxygenic phototrophs during the dark reactions of photosynthesis?
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 10-12

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 11.11.01 Describe in general terms the fueling reactions of phototrophs
Learning Outcome: 11.11.03 Describe the light and dark reactions that occur during photosynthesis
Section: 11.11
Topic: Biochemistry

55. How many molecules of NADPH are needed to reduce one molecule of carbon dioxide to carbohydrate by oxygenic phototrophs during the dark reactions of photosynthesis?
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 10-12

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 11.11.01 Describe in general terms the fueling reactions of phototrophs
Learning Outcome: 11.11.03 Describe the light and dark reactions that occur during photosynthesis
Section: 11.11
Topic: Biochemistry

56. How many quanta of light are needed to reduce one molecule of carbon dioxide to carbohydrate during photosynthesis?
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 10-12

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 11.11.03 Describe the light and dark reactions that occur during photosynthesis
Learning Outcome: 11.11.06 Distinguish cyclic photophosphorylation from noncyclic photophosphorylation
Section: 11.11
Topic: Biochemistry

True / False Questions

57. All prokaryotic photosynthesizers are anoxygenic.
FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.11.01 Describe in general terms the fueling reactions of phototrophs
Learning Outcome: 11.11.07 Compare and contrast oxygenic photosynthesis, anoxygenic phototrophy, and rhodopsin-based phototrophy
Section: 11.11
Topic: Biochemistry

58. Photosynthetic organisms serve as the base for most food chains in the biosphere.
TRUE

ASM Objective: 05.01 Microorganisms are ubiquitous and live in diverse and dynamic ecosystems.
ASM Objective: 05.03 Microorganisms and their environment interact with and modify each other.
ASM Objective: 05.04 Microorganisms, cellular and viral, can interact with both human and nonhuman hosts in beneficial, neutral or detrimental ways.
ASM Objective: 06.01 Microbes are essential for life as we know it and the processes that support life (e.g. in biogeochemical cycles and plant and / or animal microbiota).
ASM Topic: Module 05 Microbial Systems
ASM Topic: Module 06 Impact of Microorganisms
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.11.08 List two examples of the importance of chlorophyll-based phototrophy
Section: 11.11
Topic: Biochemistry
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

59. All eukaryotic photosynthesizers are oxygenic.
TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.11.07 Compare and contrast oxygenic photosynthesis, anoxygenic phototrophy, and rhodopsin-based phototrophy
Learning Outcome: 11.11.08 List two examples of the importance of chlorophyll-based phototrophy
Section: 11.11
Topic: Biochemistry

Multiple Choice Questions

60. In the process of noncyclic photophosphorylation
A. water is split to form oxygen gas.
B. electrons from water flow through electron transport chains resulting in synthesis of ATP and NADPH.
C. photosystems I and II are both required.
D. All of the choices are correct.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.11.06 Distinguish cyclic photophosphorylation from noncyclic photophosphorylation
Section: 11.11
Topic: Biochemistry

61. In the process of __________, ATP is synthesized when excited electrons from chlorophyll P700 pass through a series of electron carriers then return to chlorophyll P700.
A. photosynthesis
B. cyclic photophosphorylation
C. acyclic photophosphorylation
D. noncyclic photophosphorylation

ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.11.06 Distinguish cyclic photophosphorylation from noncyclic photophosphorylation
Section: 11.11
Topic: Biochemistry

62. Photosynthetic electron transport in cyanobacteria takes place
A. on the plasma membrane.
B. in the chloroplast.
C. in the cytoplasm.
D. on the thylakoid membranes.

ASM Objective: 02.01 The structure and function of microorganisms have been revealed by the use of microscopy (including bright field, phase contrast, fluorescent, and electron).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 02 Cell Structure and Function
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.11.04 Summarize the structure and function of the light-absorbing pigments used by oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs
Section: 11.11
Topic: Biochemistry

Check All That Apply Questions

63. Select the terms that describe an organisms carbon source.
__X__ Heterotroph
_____ Lithotroph
_____ Chemotroph
__X__ Autotroph
_____ Organotroph

ASM Objective: 05.01 Microorganisms are ubiquitous and live in diverse and dynamic ecosystems.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Microbial Systems
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.01.01 Use the terms that describe a microbes carbon source, energy source, and electron source
Section: 11.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

Multiple Choice Questions

64. The terms phototroph and chemotroph refer to an organisms source of
A. energy.
B. electrons.
C. carbon.
D. nitrogen.

ASM Objective: 05.01 Microorganisms are ubiquitous and live in diverse and dynamic ecosystems.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Microbial Systems
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 11.01.01 Use the terms that describe a microbes carbon source, energy source, and electron source
Section: 11.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

65. A newly described bacterial species has been shown to use CO2 as its carbon source. Its energy source and its source of reducing power (electrons) are inorganic chemicals. Which term would best describe this nutritional type?
A. Chemolithoheterotroph
B. Photoorganoheterotroph
C. Photolithoheterotroph
D. Chemolithoatotroph

ASM Objective: 05.01 Microorganisms are ubiquitous and live in diverse and dynamic ecosystems.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Microbial Systems
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 11.01.02 State the carbon, energy, and electron sources of photolithoautotrophs, photoorganoheterotrophs, chemolithoautotrophs, chemolithoheterotrophs, and chemoorganoheterotrophs
Section: 11.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

66. Which nutritional classification would you predict to fit most of the well-known members of the human microbiome?
A. Photolithoautotrophs
B. Chemoorganoheterotrophs
C. Chemolithoautotrophs
D. Chemolithohetertrophs

ASM Objective: 05.01 Microorganisms are ubiquitous and live in diverse and dynamic ecosystems.
ASM Objective: 05.04 Microorganisms, cellular and viral, can interact with both human and nonhuman hosts in beneficial, neutral or detrimental ways.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Microbial Systems
Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 11.01.02 State the carbon, energy, and electron sources of photolithoautotrophs, photoorganoheterotrophs, chemolithoautotrophs, chemolithoheterotrophs, and chemoorganoheterotrophs
Section: 11.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

67. Processes that supply ATP, reducing power, and precursor metabolites are collectively referred to as ____________ reactions.
A. redox
B. fueling
C. synthetic
D. generating

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.01.03 Describe the products of the fueling reactions
Section: 11.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

68. In most cases, fueling reactions are__________reactions.
A. catabolic
B. anabolic
C. reducing
D. synthesizing

ASM Objective: 05.01 Microorganisms are ubiquitous and live in diverse and dynamic ecosystems.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Microbial Systems
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.01.03 Describe the products of the fueling reactions
Section: 11.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

True / False Questions

69. An organism can fit into only one nutritional pattern, such as photoheterotrophy, and cannot change if the environmental conditions change.
FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Objective: 05.01 Microorganisms are ubiquitous and live in diverse and dynamic ecosystems.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
ASM Topic: Module 05 Microbial Systems
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 11.01.04 Discuss the metabolic flexibility of microorganisms<

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