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Test Bank for Principles & Labs for Fitness & Wellness 12e
Chapter 2 Behavior Modification
Chapter Learning Objectives
LO# An. Question
1 F 1. As the scientific evidence continues to mount each day, most people are adhering to a healthy lifestyle program.
1 F 2. The food industry spends less money advertising a single food product than the federal government spends promoting MyPlate.
2 F 3. Individuals who are indifferent and helpless believe that consequences of unhealthy behaviors often dont manifest themselves until years later.
3 F 4. People who believe they have control over events are said to have an external locus of control.
3 T 5. Motivation can be controlled by external factors.
4 T 6. The transtheoretical model of change illustrates change as a gradual process that involves several stages.
4 T 7. The action stage requires the greatest commitment of time and energy on the part of the individual.
5 T 8. The consciousness-raising process involves obtaining information about the problem, so you can make a better decision about the problem behavior.
6 F 9. In countering, the person restructures the physical surroundings to avoid problem behaviors and decrease temptations.
7 T 10. An acceptable goal must be compatible with those of the other people involved.
LO# An. Question
1 d 11. Which of the following is NOT an example of a toxic environment for wellness?
1 d 12. For each car in the United States, how many parking spaces are there?
1 a 13. Which of the following statements is true?
1 c 14. Health experts recommend that to be considered active, a person accumulate the equivalent of _____ miles of walking per day.
1 b 15. Which of the following encourages walking and cycling?
1 d 16. Which of the following elements of modern-day architecture reinforce healthy behaviors?
1 c 17. Daily computer e-mailing, surfing the Net, and conducting online transactions decrease energy expenditure by _____ calories.
2 a 18. When people recognize the benefits of a healthy lifestyle but are unwilling or unable to trade convenience for health or other benefits, they:
2 c 19. When people think that tomorrow, next week, or after the holiday is the best time to start change, they are practicing the _____ barrier to change.
2 b 20. Tanners focusing on the short-term darker skin look and ignoring the long-term risk of skin cancer are practicing the _____ barrier to change.
2 d 21. Saying, Ill deal with the consequences later demonstrates the _____ barrier to change.
2 a 22. Being overwhelmed by all the changes needed for a healthy lifestyle is the _____ barrier to change.
2 b 23. The belief that our destiny is in our genes is the _____ barrier to change.
2 d 24. Falsely concluding that their lifestyle is healthy, people employ the _____ barrier to change.
2 c 25. The belief that unhealthy behaviors might harm others but not oneself is a(n) _____ barrier to change.
3 c 26. People with an internal locus of control:
3 d 27. People with an external locus of control:
3 a 28. The solution to problems of competence is to:
3 b 29. Problems with confidence, one of the three impediments that can keep one from quitting smoking, arise when an individual does not:
3 c 30. Problems of motivation, one of the three impediments that can keep one from quitting smoking, arise when an individual:
4 c 31. Which of the following theories/models proposes that behavior change is influenced by the environment, self-efficacy, and characteristics of the behavior itself?
4 c 32. Critical in the move from the precontemplation stage to the contemplation stage of the transtheoretical model is for the individual to:
4 c 33. During the contemplation stage of the transtheoretical model, people usually:
4 a 34. The action stage of the transtheoretical model:
4 c 35. During the _____, the person continues the new behavior for up to five years.
4 d 36. Relapse in the transtheoretical model:
4 a 37. John does not believe that he will get lung cancer from smoking cigarettes, so he does not want to quit smoking. John is in the _____ stage of the transtheoretical model.
4 d 38. John has maintained his healthy body weight by exercising regularly and eating right for over five years. He is considered to be in the _____ stage of the transtheoretical model.
4 b 39. To manage his weight, John stopped eating at McDonalds. He has been packing a fruit, a turkey or tuna sandwich, and a bottle of water for lunch for four months. He is considered to be in the _____ stage of the transtheoretical model.
5 b 40. Obtaining information about the problem so you can make a better decision about the problem behavior is:
5 d 41. Non-smoking areas, health-oriented cafeterias, and advocacy groups are examples of:
5 a 42. Examples of the social liberation process of the transtheoretical model include:
5 c 43. Thinking about controlling your excessive weight after seeing a neighbor die from a heart attack due to obesity is an example of:
5 d 44. Being optimistic and focusing on the desired outcome is the transtheoretical model process of:
5 d 45. Commitment as a process of the transtheoretical model involves:
5 a 46. Journaling your habits is an example of the transtheoretical model process of:
5 b 47. After seeing his father die of lung cancer due to smoking, John decided to quit smoking. This is an example of the: transtheoretical model process of:
5 b 48. Instead of watching TV after dinner, Joanne started walking. This is an example of the transtheoretical model process of:
6 c 49. The use of positive self-talk (good job, that felt good, I did it) is an example of techniques to help one through the _____ process of change.
6 a 50. Reading the book Principles and Labs for Fitness and Wellness helps Jane through the _____ process of change.
6 a 51. Using various techniques to avoid unnecessary snacking helps one through the _____ process of change.
6 a 52. Jane decides to study in the library so that she wont snack while studying. She is using this technique to help her through the _____ process of change.
6 b 53. John replaced his TV with a treadmill. He used this technique to help him through the _____ process of change.
6 b 54. To help her quit drinking alcohol, Joanne joined AA. She used this technique to help her through the _____ process of change.
6 d 55. To help himself lose weight, John associated himself with some friends who also want to lose weight. This technique helps John through the _____ process of change.
7 c 56. SMART goals refer to those that are:
7 a 57. Which of the following goals is most likely to help Jane reduce her body fat from 30% to 20%?
7 c 58. The goal, I will reduce my body fat to 20 percent body fat in 2 weeks is not:
7 d 59. The goal, I will reduce my body fat to 20 percent body fat through exercising is not:
7 c 60. When asking yourself the question, Do I have the time, commitment, and necessary skills to accomplish this goal?, you are considering whether your goal is:
8 d 61. I will reduce my body fat to 20 percent body fat (137 pounds) in 12 weeks is an example of a:
8 c 62. Monitor body weight before breakfast every morning is an example of a:
8 c 63. Making goals realistic involves a(n):
8 d 64. An example of a measurable objective is:
8 b 65. Aprils long-term goal is to attain recommended body weight. She is currently 50 pounds overweight. Which of the following is most likely to help April achieve her long-term goal?
Critical Thinking/Short Answer
1 66. Use three examples of the environmental influences on physical activities and on diet and nutrition to explain the notion: When it comes to fitness and wellness, we live in a toxic environment.
Answer: Responses will vary. Sample answers:
Influences on physical environment: Most activities of daily living, which a few decades ago required movement or physical activity, now require almost no effort and negatively impact health, fitness, and body weight. Small movements that have been streamlined out of daily life quickly add up, especially when we consider these over 7 days a week and 52 weeks a year. Walking, jogging, and bicycle trails are too sparse in most cities, further discouraging physical activity. Modern-day architecture reinforces unhealthy behaviors.
Influences on diet and nutrition: The amount of daily food supply available in the United States is about 3,900 calories per person, before wastage. Many activities of daily living in todays culture are associated with eating. We now eat out more often than in the past, portion sizes are larger, and we have an endless variety of foods to choose from. We also snack more than ever before. Unhealthy food is relatively inexpensive and is sold in places where it was not available in the past.
8 67. Design a behavior modification plan to change one negative behavior in your life. Include short- and long-term goals that are realistic, measurable, and time specific.
Answer: Responses will vary.
2 68. List the possible reasons why a person believes change is too complex.
Answer: There are numerous aspects to a healthy lifestyle, all of which cannot be changed at once. They include exercise, good nutrition, controlling substances, managing stress, wearing seat belts, practicing safe sex, getting regular physicals, taking needed supplements, and fostering spirituality.
3 69. John believes that his weight problem is caused by his lack of exercise and daily visits to McDonalds, while Jane believes that she inherited the weight problem from her parents. Discuss who is more likely to initiate and adhere to a wellness program. Explain why.
Answer: People who believe that they have control over events in their lives are said to have an internal locus of control. People with an external locus of control believe that what happens to them is a result of chance or the environment and is unrelated to their behavior. People with an internal locus of control generally are healthier and have an easier time initiating and adhering to a wellness program than those who perceive that they have no control and think of themselves as powerless and vulnerable. The latter people also are at greater risk for illness. When illness does strike a person, establishing a sense of control is vital to recovery.
John has an internal locus of control and is more likely to initiate and adhere to a wellness program than Jane, who has an external locus of control. John knows that he can control his weight by increasing his activity levels and eating right whereas Jane believes that her weight problem is out of her control (inherited).
4 70. Use the transtheoretical model to describe the characteristics of college students in each stage regarding adopting healthy eating behaviors.
Answer: Responses will vary. Sample answers:
Students can be categorized into six groups according to the six stages in the transtheoretical model.
Precontemplators are the most difficult people to inspire toward behavioral change. Typically, they initiate change only when people they respect or job requirements pressure them to do so.
A key concept to keep in mind during the preparation stage is that in addition to being prepared to address the behavioral change or goal you are attempting to reach, you must prepare to address the specific objectives (supportive behaviors) required to reach that goal.
Relapse is common during this stage, and the individual may regress to a previous stage. If unsuccessful, a person should reevaluate his or her readiness to change supportive behaviors as required to reach the overall goal. Problem solving that includes identifying barriers to change and specific strategies (objectives) to overcome supportive behaviors is useful during relapse. Once people are able to maintain the action stage for six consecutive months, they move into the maintenance stage.
5 71. Use a specific example to describe five of the processes of change.
Answer: Responses will vary. Sample answers (students should relate each process to their chosen example):
The first step in a behavior modification program is consciousness-raising. This step involves obtaining information about the problem, so you can make a better decision about the problem behavior. Consciousness-raising may continue from the precontemplation stage through the preparation stage.
Social liberation stresses external alternatives that make you aware of problem behaviors and make you begin to contemplate change. Social liberation often provides opportunities to get involved, stir up emotions, and enhance self-esteemhelping you gain confidence in your ability to change.
The next process in modifying behavior is developing a decisive desire to do so, called self-analysis. If you have no interest in changing a behavior, you wont do it. You will remain a precontemplator or a contemplator. In your self-analysis, you may want to prepare a list of reasons for continuing or discontinuing the behavior. When the reasons for changing outweigh the reasons for not changing, you are ready for the next stageeither the contemplation stage or the preparation stage.
In emotional arousal, a person experiences and expresses feelings about the problem and its solutions. Also referred to as dramatic release, this process often involves deep emotional experiences.
Having a positive outlook means taking an optimistic approach from the beginning and believing in yourself. Designing a plan so you can work toward change can help you remain enthused about your progress. Also, you may become motivated by looking at the outcomehow much healthier you will be, how much better you will look, or how far you will be able to jog.
Upon making a decision to change, you accept the responsibility to change and believe in your ability to do so. During the commitment process, you engage in preparation and may draw up a specific plan of action.
How you determine the frequency, circumstances, and consequences of the behavior to be altered or implemented is known as behavior analysis.
Goals motivate change in behavior. The stronger the goal or desire, the more motivated youll be either to change unwanted behaviors or to implement new, healthy behaviors.
During the process of self-reevaluation, individuals analyze their feelings about a problem behavior. The pros and cons or advantages and disadvantages of a certain behavior can be reevaluated at this time. You also might visualize what it would be like if you were successful at changing.
The process whereby you substitute healthy behaviors for a problem behavior, known as countering, is critical in changing behaviors as part of the action and maintenance stages. You need to replace unhealthy behaviors with new, healthy ones.
During the action and maintenance stages, continuous behavior monitoring increases awareness of the desired outcome. Sometimes this process of monitoring is sufficient in itself to cause change.
In environment control, the person restructures the physical surroundings to avoid problem behaviors and decrease temptations.
Surrounding yourself with people who will work toward a common goal with you or those who care about you and will encourage you along the wayhelping relationshipswill be supportive during the action, maintenance, and termination/adoption stages.
Peer support is a strong incentive for behavioral change, so the individual should avoid people who will not be supportive.
People tend to repeat behaviors that are rewarded and to disregard those that are not rewarded or are punished. Rewarding oneself or being rewarded by others is a powerful tool during the process of change in all stages.
6 72. Use a specific example to describe five techniques that will facilitate the process of change.
Answer: Responses will vary. Sample answers:
Learning about the benefits of exercise or the difference in benefits between physical activity and exercise can help you raise your consciousness and decide the type of fitness program (health or high fitness) that you want to pursue.
Pedestrian-only traffic areas, nonsmoking areas, health-oriented cafeterias and restaurants, advocacy groups, civic organizations, policy interventions, and self-help groups are examples of social liberation.
Emotional arousal might be prompted by a dramatization of the consequences of drug use and abuse, a film about a person undergoing open-heart surgery, or a book illustrating damage to body systems as a result of unhealthy behaviors.
Following the guidelines in this chapter will help you design a plan so you can work toward change and remain enthused about your progresspositive outlook.
Write down your goals and, preferably, share them with others. In essence, you are signing a behavioral contract for change. You will be more likely to adhere to your program if others know you are committed to change.
Use exercise to combat sedentary living, smoking, stress, or overeating. Or you may use exercise, healthful diet, yard work, volunteer work, or reading to prevent overeating and achieve recommended body weightcountering.
Keeping track of daily food intake reveals sources of excessive fat in the diet. This can help you gradually cut down or completely eliminate high-fat foodsmonitoring.
7 73. Using maintaining healthy body weight as the target behavior, describe the process of writing SMART goals.
Answer: The SMART acronym is used in reference to goals that are specific, measurable, acceptable, realistic, and time specific. Responses will vary.
8 74. The goal is to change from 30% body fat to 15% body fat. Write three appropriate objectives to accompany this goal and explain why they are important or necessary.
Answer: Responses will vary.
Test Bank for Principles & Labs for Fitness & Wellness 12e
Chapter 14 Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections
Chapter Learning Objectives
LO# An. Question
2 F 1. The damage to the reproductive system caused by chlamydia infection is reversible.
2 T 2. If untreated, gonorrhea can produce heart damage and arthritis in men and women and blindness in children born to infected women.
2 T 3. PID often develops when the STI spreads to the fallopian tubes, uterus, and ovaries.
2 F 4. Genital warts can cause heart damage and arthritis.
2 F 5. Genital herpes is treated successfully with penicillin and other antibiotics.
1 F 6. Syphilis is caused by a viral infection.
3 T 7. The only means to determine whether someone has HIV is through an HIV antibody test.
3 F 8. Today, the risk of being infected with HIV from a blood transfusion is high.
5 T 9. Unprotected anal sex is the riskiest type of sex.
5 T 10. For someone who decides to be sexually active, the best technique to prevent STIs is a long-term, mutually monogamous sexual relationship.
LO# An. Question
1 a 11. The United States has the _____ of sexually transmitted diseases of the countries in the industrialized world.
1 a 12. The most commonly reported STI in the United States is:
1 a 13. Which of the following can be treated with oral antibiotics?
1 c 14. Which of the following has typical symptoms of a pus-like secretion from the penis and painful urination in men?
1 d 15. When the STI spreads to the fallopian tubes, uterus, and ovaries, _____ develops.
2 d 16. Which of the following causes scarring and obstruction of the fallopian tubes (which may lead to infertility), ectopic pregnancies, and chronic pelvic pain?
1 b 17. Gardasil is a vaccine developed to prevent cervical cancer and other diseases in women caused by HPV. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
1 d 18. In the primary stage of syphilis, between 10 and 90 days following infection (average 21 days):
2 a 19. Chlamydia:
2 a 20. Gonorrhea:
2 d 21. If untreated, gonorrhea can cause:
1 c 22. Pelvic inflammatory disease:
1 d 23. Chlamydia or gonorrhea is likely to be contracted when:
2 a 24. Chlamydia can lead to:
2 d 25. Gonorrhea can lead to:
2 a 26. Genital warts may lead to _____ cancer.
1 d 27. Genital warts:
1 b 28. Electrosurgery or laser surgery, chemicals, and liquid nitrogen are treatments for:
1 b 29. _____ is an incurable sexually transmitted infection.
1 c 30. Genital herpes:
1 a 31. Genital herpes:
2 a 32. Syphilis:
2 d 33. Syphilis can lead to:
3 c 34. People with AIDS are more susceptible to _____ diseases.
3 b 35. The fatal illnesses that AIDS patients develop are usually _____ in the general population.
3 d 36. Opportunistic diseases happen among individuals with:
3 d 37. On the average, the individual develops symptoms that fit the case definition of AIDS about _____ years following infection.
3 d 38. AIDS is the term designating the:
3 c 39. Death in some people infected with HIV is the direct result of:
3 c 40. Not an early symptom, an advanced symptom of AIDS is:
3 d 41. If HIV infection is suspected, a person should wait _____ to be tested.
3 a 42. Currently in the U.S., the race/ethnicity with the highest incidence of new HIV/AIDS infections annually are:
3 d 43. HIV can be transmitted through:
3 c 44. HIV can be transmitted:
4 b 45. In the United States, 1 in every _____ individuals are infected with HIV and _____ is unaware of the infection.
5 d 46. Health experts believe that the riskiest type of sex is unprotected:
3 d 47. HIV can be transmitted through _____ with an infected person.
3 b 48. People get HIV because of:
3 c 49. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding HIV/AIDS?
3 b 50. HIV can be transmitted:
4 a 51. Estimates indicate that _____ are currently infected with HIV.
4 b 52. HIV-infected people and AIDS patients:
4 b 53. Estimates indicate that _____ have died from AIDS since the epidemic began in 1981.
4 a 54. Among the newly reported HIV cases in the United States:
4 d 55. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding HIV/AIDS?
4 a 56. Among the 1.2 million people in the United States infected with HIV, about _____ of them are unaware of the infection.
4 a 57. The purpose of AIDS clinical trials is to:
4 b 58. Currently, the best way to deal with the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to:
4 a 59. Following antiviral drug therapy, an undetectable viral load:
5 d 60. The best guarantee against HIV infection is to:
5 b 61. Sex in the early stages of a relationship is:
5 a 62. Which of the following will lower your risk for STIs?
5 c 63. Which of the following is TRUE regarding teen sex?
5 c 64. Which of the following is the most effective statement to stop the sexual advances of a friend?
5 b 65. Which of the following precautions can reduce your risk for STIs, including HIV infection and, subsequently, AIDS?
Critical Thinking/Short Answer
1 66. Compare and contrast the two types of HSV.
Answer: The two most common forms of HSV are types 1 and 2. In type 1 the HSV most often known to cause oral herpes cold sores or fever blisters appear on the lips and mouth. HSV 2 is better known as the virus that causes genital herpes. The fundamental difference between the two main types of HSV lies in their preferred site of residence. The HSV 1 virus typically establishes latency in a collection of nerve cells near the ear known as the trigeminal ganglion. HSV 2 usually establishes latency at the base of the spine in the sacral ganglion. HSV types 1 and 2, nonetheless, both cause oral and genital herpes.
People who have an outbreak of oral herpes should not touch their own or someone elses genitals after touching the oral cold sores. Doing so can lead to a herpes infection of the genitals (genital HSV 1 infection). Oral sex can also result in transmission of HSV from the lips to the genitals. Thirty percent of all new cases of genital herpes result from HSV 1 infection. The opposite is true as well: Oral sex with a genital HSV 2infected person can cause oral HSV 2 infection (although there seems to be some degree of immunity against oral HSV 2 in people already infected with oral HSV 1).
2 67. Explain why chlamydia infection is considered to be a major factor in male and female infertility.
Answer: Chlamydia can damage the reproductive system seriously. Because symptoms are usually mild or absent, three of four people with the infection dont know theyre ill until the infection has become quite serious. Infertility often occurs silently because the individual is unaware of the infection until it is too late to prevent the irreversible damage.
4 68. How should you personally relate to an AIDS patient?
Answer: Just like anyone else, AIDS patients are worthy of respect as human beings. They need to be loved and accepted. Casual contact is not considered dangerous, but sharing of body fluids is something to be careful to avoid.
5 69. Besides avoiding STIs, is there another reason for not having sex before marriage?
Answer: Sex does not guarantee or promote love between individuals. Besides the physical pleasure, however, sex psychologically binds the partners together. This is a natural phenomenon within a marriage commitment that also includes love but is relatively rare outside of marriage.
3 70. Dispel myths about HIV transmission.
Answer: The HIV virus cannot be transmitted through perspiration. Sporting activities with no physical contact pose no risk to uninfected individuals unless they both have open wounds through which blood from an infected person can come in direct contact with the open wound of the uninfected person. The skin is an excellent line of defense against HIV. Blood from an infected person cannot penetrate the skin except through an opening in the skin. As an extra precaution, a person should use vinyl or latex gloves when performing work that requires direct contact with someone elses blood or open wound. HIV is not transmitted through casual contact. HIV cannot be caught by spending time with, shaking hands with, or hugging an infected person; from a toilet seat, dishes, or silverware used by an HIV patient; or by sharing a drink, food, a towel, or clothes with a person who has HIV. Some people fear getting HIV from health care professionals. The chances of getting infected during physical or medical procedures are practically nil. Health care workers take extra care to protect themselves and their patients from HIV. The H in HIV stands for human. You cannot catch HIV from insects or animals.
5 71. Give some arguments for abstinence and not a monogamous relationship as the best method for avoiding STIs.
Answer: No intimate contact is the ultimate barrier method to avoid STIs. Sex in the early stages of a relationship is not the product of love. It is simply the fulfillment of a physical, often selfish, drive. A loving relationship develops over time with mutual respect for each other.
Otherwise, a monogamous relationship can be decided with various relationship lengths and is based on trust in the partner not introducing a STI from another relationship. This will not always hold true.
1 72. Briefly describe the signs and symptoms of syphilis.
Answer: In the primary stage, between 10 and 90 days following infection (average 21 days), a painless sore appears where the bacteria entered the body (sometimes multiple sores appear). A sore also can appear on the lips or in the mouth. This sore disappears on its own in 3 to 6 weeks. If untreated, the infection progresses to the secondary stage.
During the secondary stage, as the initial sore is healing, or several weeks thereafter, skin rashes and mucous membrane lesions appear. A rough/reddish-brown rash can be seen on the palms of the hands and the bottoms of the feet, although different types of rashes can appear on other parts of the body. Additional sores may also appear within 6 months of the initial outbreak. Signs and symptoms of the secondary stage will disappear with or without treatment. Untreated, the infection will progress into the latent stage.
A latent stage, during which the victim is not contagious, may last up to 30 years, lulling victims into thinking they are healed. During the last stage of the infection, some people develop paralysis, crippling, gradual blindness, heart disease, brain and organ damage, or dementia, or die as a direct result of the infection.
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