Principles and Labs for Fitness and Wellness 12th Edition Hoeger Test Bank

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Principles and Labs for Fitness and Wellness 12th Edition Hoeger Test Bank

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Principles and Labs for Fitness and Wellness 12th Edition Hoeger Test Bank

Test Bank[1] for Principles & Labs for Fitness & Wellness 12e

Chapter 2 Behavior Modification

 

Chapter Learning Objectives

 

  1. Learn the effects of environment on human behavior.
  2. Understand obstacles that hinder the ability to change behavior.
  3. Explain the concepts of motivation and locus of control.
  4. Identify the stages of change.
  5. Describe the processes of change.
  6. Explain techniques that will facilitate the process of change.
  7. Describe the role of SMART goal setting in the process of change.
  8. Be able to write specific objectives for behavioral change.

 

True/False

 

LO#   An.    Question

 

1       F       1.   As the scientific evidence continues to mount each day, most people are adhering to a healthy lifestyle program.

 

1       F       2.   The food industry spends less money advertising a single food product than the federal government spends promoting MyPlate.

 

2       F       3.   Individuals who are indifferent and helpless believe that consequences of unhealthy behaviors often dont manifest themselves until years later.

 

3       F       4.   People who believe they have control over events are said to have an external locus of control.

 

3       T       5.   Motivation can be controlled by external factors.

 

4       T       6.   The transtheoretical model of change illustrates change as a gradual process that involves several stages.

 

4       T       7.   The action stage requires the greatest commitment of time and energy on the part of the individual.

 

5       T       8.   The consciousness-raising process involves obtaining information about the problem, so you can make a better decision about the problem behavior.

 

6       F       9.   In countering, the person restructures the physical surroundings to avoid problem behaviors and decrease temptations.

 

7       T       10. An acceptable goal must be compatible with those of the other people involved.

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

LO#   An.    Question

 

1       d       11.  Which of the following is NOT an example of a toxic environment for wellness?

  1. remote controls and cellular phones
  2. super-sized fries and hamburgers
  3. television and the Internet
  4. bicycle lanes and jogging trails

 

1       d       12.  For each car in the United States, how many parking spaces are there?

  1. 1
  2. 3
  3. 5
  4. 7

 

1       a       13.  Which of the following statements is true?

  1. On average, American women consume 335 more daily calories than they did 20 years ago.
  2. On average, American women consume 170 more daily calories than they did 20 years ago.
  3. On average, American men consume 335 more daily calories than they did 20 years ago.
  4. On average, American men consume 200 more daily calories than they did 20 years ago.

 

1       c       14.  Health experts recommend that to be considered active, a person accumulate the equivalent of _____ miles of walking per day.

  1. 12
  2. 34
  3. 56
  4. 78

 

1       b       15.  Which of the following encourages walking and cycling?

  1. straight and wide street
  2. traffic-calming strategy
  3. sufficient parking space
  4. smooth and wide street

 

1       d       16.  Which of the following elements of modern-day architecture reinforce healthy behaviors?

  1. automatic doors
  2. accessible elevators
  3. elegant escalators
  4. accessible stairways

 

1       c       17.  Daily computer e-mailing, surfing the Net, and conducting online transactions decrease energy expenditure by _____ calories.

  1. 3 to 10
  2. 5 to 10
  3. 50 to 300
  4. 50 to 200

 

2       a       18.  When people recognize the benefits of a healthy lifestyle but are unwilling or unable to trade convenience for health or other benefits, they:

  1. exhibit a lack of core values.
  2. practice procrastination.
  3. have instant gratification.
  4. have an illusion of invincibility.

 

2       c       19.  When people think that tomorrow, next week, or after the holiday is the best time to start change, they are practicing the _____ barrier to change.

  1. gratification
  2. indifference
  3. procrastination
  4. rationalization

 

2       b       20.  Tanners focusing on the short-term darker skin look and ignoring the long-term risk of skin cancer are practicing the _____ barrier to change.

  1. complexity
  2. gratification
  3. cultural beliefs
  4. rationalization

 

2       d       21.  Saying, Ill deal with the consequences later demonstrates the _____ barrier to change.

  1. illusions of invincibility
  2. indifference
  3. rationalization
  4. risk complacency

 

2       a       22.  Being overwhelmed by all the changes needed for a healthy lifestyle is the _____ barrier to change.

  1. complexity
  2. gratification
  3. procrastination
  4. rationalization

 

2       b       23.  The belief that our destiny is in our genes is the _____ barrier to change.

  1. illusions of invincibility
  2. indifference and helplessness
  3. preconditioned cultural beliefs
  4. rationalization

 

2       d       24.  Falsely concluding that their lifestyle is healthy, people employ the _____ barrier to change.

  1. gratification
  2. illusions of invincibility
  3. indifference
  4. rationalization

 

2       c       25.  The belief that unhealthy behaviors might harm others but not oneself is a(n) _____ barrier to change.

  1. gratification
  2. helplessness
  3. illusions of invincibility
  4. procrastination

 

3       c       26.  People with an internal locus of control:

  1. are at less risk for illness.
  2. believe they control others.
  3. have better exercise adherence.
  4. say things happen by chance.

 

3       d       27.  People with an external locus of control:

  1. are at less risk for illness.
  2. believe they control others.
  3. have better exercise adherence.
  4. say things happen by chance.

 

3       a       28.  The solution to problems of competence is to:

  1. master the skills you need to participate.
  2. visualize yourself doing the task and getting it done.
  3. divide a goal into smaller, more realistic objectives.
  4. get educated about the problems and set objectives.

 

3       b       29.  Problems with confidence, one of the three impediments that can keep one from quitting smoking, arise when an individual does not:

  1. have the skills to quit smoking.
  2. believe that she can quit smoking.
  3. believe smoking causes any harm.
  4. know the benefits of quitting smoking.

 

3       c       30.  Problems of motivation, one of the three impediments that can keep one from quitting smoking, arise when an individual:

  1. does not have the skills to quit smoking.
  2. does not believe that she can quit smoking.
  3. does not believe smoking causes any harm.
  4. is afraid that she cannot succeed in quitting.

 

4       c       31.  Which of the following theories/models proposes that behavior change is influenced by the environment, self-efficacy, and characteristics of the behavior itself?

  1. problem-solving model
  2. learning theories
  3. social cognitive theory
  4. relapse prevention model

 

4       c       32.  Critical in the move from the precontemplation stage to the contemplation stage of the transtheoretical model is for the individual to:

  1. begin an exercise program.
  2. control the environment.
  3. get educated about the problem.
  4. set goals to change behavior.

 

4       c       33.  During the contemplation stage of the transtheoretical model, people usually:

  1. are immediately ready for change.
  2. remain in the stage for a few months.
  3. weigh the pros and cons of changing.
  4. are unaware of the need for change.

 

4       a       34.  The action stage of the transtheoretical model:

  1. requires the greatest commitment of time and energy.
  2. requires no need to prevent relapse or regression.
  3. leads to the termination or adoption stage directly.
  4. requires education about the problem behavior.

 

4       c       35.  During the _____, the person continues the new behavior for up to five years.

  1. contemplation stage
  2. preparation stage
  3. maintenance stage
  4. termination stage

 

4       d       36.  Relapse in the transtheoretical model:

  1. means the failure of the individual.
  2. happens at the preparation stage only.
  3. happens at the precontemplation stage.
  4. may occur at any level of the model.

 

4       a       37.  John does not believe that he will get lung cancer from smoking cigarettes, so he does not want to quit smoking. John is in the _____ stage of the transtheoretical model.

  1. precontemplation
  2. contemplation
  3. preparation
  4. maintenance

 

4       d       38.  John has maintained his healthy body weight by exercising regularly and eating right for over five years. He is considered to be in the _____ stage of the transtheoretical model.

  1. contemplation
  2. action
  3. maintenance
  4. adoption

 

4       b       39.  To manage his weight, John stopped eating at McDonalds. He has been packing a fruit, a turkey or tuna sandwich, and a bottle of water for lunch for four months. He is considered to be in the _____ stage of the transtheoretical model.

  1. contemplation
  2. action
  3. maintenance
  4. adoption

 

5       b       40.  Obtaining information about the problem so you can make a better decision about the problem behavior is:

  1. social liberation.
  2. consciousness-raising.
  3. self analysis.
  4. behavior analysis.

 

5       d       41.  Non-smoking areas, health-oriented cafeterias, and advocacy groups are examples of:

  1. dramatic release.
  2. positive outlook.
  3. self-analysis.
  4. social liberation.

 

5       a       42.  Examples of the social liberation process of the transtheoretical model include:

  1. becoming aware of non-smoking areas.
  2. obtaining information about the problem.
  3. preparing a list of reasons for changing.
  4. accepting the responsibility to change.

 

5       c       43.  Thinking about controlling your excessive weight after seeing a neighbor die from a heart attack due to obesity is an example of:

  1. behavior analysis.
  2. countering.
  3. emotional arousal.
  4. positive outlook.

 

5       d       44.  Being optimistic and focusing on the desired outcome is the transtheoretical model process of:

  1. behavior analysis.
  2. countering.
  3. emotional arousal.
  4. positive outlook.

 

5       d       45.  Commitment as a process of the transtheoretical model involves:

  1. becoming aware of non-smoking areas.
  2. obtaining information about the problem.
  3. preparing a list of reasons for changing.
  4. accepting the responsibility to change.

 

5       a       46.  Journaling your habits is an example of the transtheoretical model process of:

  1. behavior analysis.
  2. emotional arousal.
  3. environmental control.
  4. self-analysis.

 

5       b       47.  After seeing his father die of lung cancer due to smoking, John decided to quit smoking. This is an example of the: transtheoretical model process of:

  1. behavior analysis.
  2. emotional arousal.
  3. environmental control.
  4. self-analysis.

 

5       b       48.  Instead of watching TV after dinner, Joanne started walking. This is an example of the transtheoretical model process of:

  1. behavior analysis.
  2. countering.
  3. emotional arousal.
  4. positive outlook.

 

6       c       49.  The use of positive self-talk (good job, that felt good, I did it) is an example of techniques to help one through the _____ process of change.

  1. countering
  2. monitoring
  3. rewards
  4. self-analysis

 

6       a       50.  Reading the book Principles and Labs for Fitness and Wellness helps Jane through the _____ process of change.

  1. consciousness-raising
  2. environment control
  3. emotional arousal
  4. self-reevaluation

 

6       a       51.  Using various techniques to avoid unnecessary snacking helps one through the _____ process of change.

  1. countering
  2. monitoring
  3. rewards
  4. self-analysis

 

6       a       52.  Jane decides to study in the library so that she wont snack while studying. She is using this technique to help her through the _____ process of change.

  1. social liberation
  2. dramatic release
  3. self-commitment
  4. commitment

 

6       b       53.  John replaced his TV with a treadmill. He used this technique to help him through the _____ process of change.

  1. consciousness-raising
  2. environment control
  3. emotional arousal
  4. self-reevaluation

 

6       b       54.  To help her quit drinking alcohol, Joanne joined AA. She used this technique to help her through the _____ process of change.

  1. consciousness-raising
  2. environment control
  3. emotional arousal
  4. self-reevaluation

 

6       d       55.  To help himself lose weight, John associated himself with some friends who also want to lose weight. This technique helps John through the _____ process of change.

  1. consciousness-raising
  2. behavioral analysis
  3. emotional arousal
  4. helping relationships

 

7       c       56.  SMART goals refer to those that are:

  1. written based on a thorough analysis of problem behaviors.
  2. written for anyone who wishes to change a problem behavior.
  3. specific, measurable, acceptable, realistic, and time specific.
  4. special, meaningful, accountable, reasonable, and treatable.

 

7       a       57.  Which of the following goals is most likely to help Jane reduce her body fat from 30% to 20%?

  1. I will reduce my body fat to 20 percent body fat in 20 weeks.
  2. I will reduce my body fat to 20 percent body fat in 2 weeks.
  3. I will reduce my body fat to 20 percent body fat through exercising.
  4. I will reduce my body fat to 20 percent body fat through eating right.

 

7       c       58.  The goal, I will reduce my body fat to 20 percent body fat in 2 weeks is not:

  1. specific.
  2. measurable.
  3. realistic.
  4. time specific.

 

7       d       59.  The goal, I will reduce my body fat to 20 percent body fat  through exercising is not:

  1. specific.
  2. measurable.
  3. realistic.
  4. time specific.

 

7       c       60.  When asking yourself the question, Do I have the time, commitment, and necessary skills to accomplish this goal?, you are considering whether your goal is:

  1. specific.
  2. measurable.
  3. acceptable.
  4. too difficult.

 

8       d       61.  I will reduce my body fat to 20 percent body fat (137 pounds) in 12 weeks is an example of a:

  1. long-term goal.
  2. short-term goal.
  3. specific objective.
  4. specific goal.

 

8       c       62.  Monitor body weight before breakfast every morning is an example of a:

  1. long-term goal.
  2. short-term goal.
  3. specific objective.
  4. specific goal.

 

8       c       63.  Making goals realistic involves a(n):

  1. guarantee of results.
  2. short time frame for results.
  3. understanding of likely results.
  4. positive reward system.

 

8       d       64.  An example of a measurable objective is:

  1. I will eat healthier starting tomorrow.
  2. I will lose weight in five months.
  3. I will go to bed earlier every day.
  4. I will go to bed at 10 p.m. every day.

 

8       b       65.  Aprils long-term goal is to attain recommended body weight. She is currently 50 pounds overweight. Which of the following is most likely to help April achieve her long-term goal?

  1. Lose 5 pounds in one week.
  2. Lose 1 pound per week.
  3. Lose 50 pounds in two months.
  4. Lose 10 pounds in one week.

 

 

Critical Thinking/Short Answer

 

LO#   Question

 

1       66.  Use three examples of the environmental influences on physical activities and on diet and nutrition to explain the notion: When it comes to fitness and wellness, we live in a toxic environment.

 

Answer: Responses will vary. Sample answers:

Influences on physical environment: Most activities of daily living, which a few decades ago required movement or physical activity, now require almost no effort and negatively impact health, fitness, and body weight. Small movements that have been streamlined out of daily life quickly add up, especially when we consider these over 7 days a week and 52 weeks a year. Walking, jogging, and bicycle trails are too sparse in most cities, further discouraging physical activity. Modern-day architecture reinforces unhealthy behaviors.

Influences on diet and nutrition: The amount of daily food supply available in the United States is about 3,900 calories per person, before wastage. Many activities of daily living in todays culture are associated with eating. We now eat out more often than in the past, portion sizes are larger, and we have an endless variety of foods to choose from. We also snack more than ever before. Unhealthy food is relatively inexpensive and is sold in places where it was not available in the past.

 

8       67.  Design a behavior modification plan to change one negative behavior in your life. Include short- and long-term goals that are realistic, measurable, and time specific.

 

Answer: Responses will vary.

 

2       68.  List the possible reasons why a person believes change is too complex.

 

Answer: There are numerous aspects to a healthy lifestyle, all of which cannot be changed at once. They include exercise, good nutrition, controlling substances, managing stress, wearing seat belts, practicing safe sex, getting regular physicals, taking needed supplements, and fostering spirituality.

 

3       69.  John believes that his weight problem is caused by his lack of exercise and daily visits to McDonalds, while Jane believes that she inherited the weight problem from her parents. Discuss who is more likely to initiate and adhere to a wellness program. Explain why.

 

Answer: People who believe that they have control over events in their lives are said to have an internal locus of control. People with an external locus of control believe that what happens to them is a result of chance or the environment and is unrelated to their behavior. People with an internal locus of control generally are healthier and have an easier time initiating and adhering to a wellness program than those who perceive that they have no control and think of themselves as powerless and vulnerable. The latter people also are at greater risk for illness. When illness does strike a person, establishing a sense of control is vital to recovery.

John has an internal locus of control and is more likely to initiate and adhere to a wellness program than Jane, who has an external locus of control. John knows that he can control his weight by increasing his activity levels and eating right whereas Jane believes that her weight problem is out of her control (inherited).

 

4       70.  Use the transtheoretical model to describe the characteristics of college students in each stage regarding adopting healthy eating behaviors.

 

Answer: Responses will vary. Sample answers:

Students can be categorized into six groups according to the six stages in the transtheoretical model.

  1. Individuals in the precontemplation stage are not considering eating healthy or do not want to change the unhealthy eating behavior. They typically deny having a problem and have no intention of changing in the immediate future. These people are usually unaware or underaware of the problem. Other people around them, including family, friends, health care practitioners, and coworkers, however, identify the problem clearly. Precontemplators do not care about the problem behavior and may even avoid information and materials that address the issue. They tend to avoid free screenings and workshops that might help identify and change the problem, even if they receive financial compensation for attending. Often they actively resist change and seem resigned to accepting the unhealthy behavior as their fate.

Precontemplators are the most difficult people to inspire toward behavioral change. Typically, they initiate change only when people they respect or job requirements pressure them to do so.

  1. In the contemplation stage, individuals acknowledge that their current food choices are a problem and begin to think seriously about overcoming it. Although they are not quite ready for change, they are weighing the pros and cons of changing. Core values are starting to change. Even though they may remain in this stage for years, in their minds they are planning to take some action within the next six months. Education and peer support remain valuable during this stage.
  2. In the preparation stage, individuals are seriously considering change and planning to start a healthy eating behavior within the next month. They are taking initial steps for change and may even try to prepare healthy lunches. During this stage, people define a general goal for behavioral change to accomplish this goal. Continued peer and environmental support is helpful during the preparation stage.

A key concept to keep in mind during the preparation stage is that in addition to being prepared to address the behavioral change or goal you are attempting to reach, you must prepare to address the specific objectives (supportive behaviors) required to reach that goal.

  1. The action stage requires the greatest commitment of time and energy. Here, the individual is actively doing things to adopt the healthy eating behavior. The action stage requires that the person follow the nutrition guidelines.

Relapse is common during this stage, and the individual may regress to a previous stage. If unsuccessful, a person should reevaluate his or her readiness to change supportive behaviors as required to reach the overall goal. Problem solving that includes identifying barriers to change and specific strategies (objectives) to overcome supportive behaviors is useful during relapse. Once people are able to maintain the action stage for six consecutive months, they move into the maintenance stage.

  1. During the maintenance stage, the person continues eating healthy for up to five years. This stage requires the person to continue to adhere to the nutrition guidelines. At this time, the person works to reinforce the gains made through the various stages of change and strives to prevent lapses and relapses.
  2. Those students who have maintained healthy eating for more than five years are considered to be in the adoption stage and exit from the cycle of change without fear of relapse.

 

 

Essay

 

LO#   Question

 

5       71.  Use a specific example to describe five of the processes of change.

 

Answer: Responses will vary. Sample answers (students should relate each process to their chosen example):

Consciousness-Raising

The first step in a behavior modification program is consciousness-raising. This step involves obtaining information about the problem, so you can make a better decision about the problem behavior. Consciousness-raising may continue from the precontemplation stage through the preparation stage.

Social Liberation

Social liberation stresses external alternatives that make you aware of problem behaviors and make you begin to contemplate change. Social liberation often provides opportunities to get involved, stir up emotions, and enhance self-esteemhelping you gain confidence in your ability to change.

Self-Analysis

The next process in modifying behavior is developing a decisive desire to do so, called self-analysis. If you have no interest in changing a behavior, you wont do it. You will remain a precontemplator or a contemplator. In your self-analysis, you may want to prepare a list of reasons for continuing or discontinuing the behavior. When the reasons for changing outweigh the reasons for not changing, you are ready for the next stageeither the contemplation stage or the preparation stage.

Emotional Arousal

In emotional arousal, a person experiences and expresses feelings about the problem and its solutions. Also referred to as dramatic release, this process often involves deep emotional experiences.

Positive Outlook

Having a positive outlook means taking an optimistic approach from the beginning and believing in yourself. Designing a plan so you can work toward change can help you remain enthused about your progress. Also, you may become motivated by looking at the outcomehow much healthier you will be, how much better you will look, or how far you will be able to jog.

Commitment

Upon making a decision to change, you accept the responsibility to change and believe in your ability to do so. During the commitment process, you engage in preparation and may draw up a specific plan of action.

Behavior Analysis

How you determine the frequency, circumstances, and consequences of the behavior to be altered or implemented is known as behavior analysis.

Goals

Goals motivate change in behavior. The stronger the goal or desire, the more motivated youll be either to change unwanted behaviors or to implement new, healthy behaviors.

Self-Reevaluation

During the process of self-reevaluation, individuals analyze their feelings about a problem behavior. The pros and cons or advantages and disadvantages of a certain behavior can be reevaluated at this time. You also might visualize what it would be like if you were successful at changing.

Countering

The process whereby you substitute healthy behaviors for a problem behavior, known as countering, is critical in changing behaviors as part of the action and maintenance stages. You need to replace unhealthy behaviors with new, healthy ones.

Monitoring

During the action and maintenance stages, continuous behavior monitoring increases awareness of the desired outcome. Sometimes this process of monitoring is sufficient in itself to cause change.

Environment Control

In environment control, the person restructures the physical surroundings to avoid problem behaviors and decrease temptations.

Helping Relationships

Surrounding yourself with people who will work toward a common goal with you or those who care about you and will encourage you along the wayhelping relationshipswill be supportive during the action, maintenance, and termination/adoption stages.

Peer support is a strong incentive for behavioral change, so the individual should avoid people who will not be supportive.

Rewards

People tend to repeat behaviors that are rewarded and to disregard those that are not rewarded or are punished. Rewarding oneself or being rewarded by others is a powerful tool during the process of change in all stages.

 

6       72.  Use a specific example to describe five techniques that will facilitate the process of change.

 

Answer: Responses will vary. Sample answers:

Learning about the benefits of exercise or the difference in benefits between physical activity and exercise can help you raise your consciousness and decide the type of fitness program (health or high fitness) that you want to pursue.

Pedestrian-only traffic areas, nonsmoking areas, health-oriented cafeterias and restaurants, advocacy groups, civic organizations, policy interventions, and self-help groups are examples of social liberation.

Emotional arousal might be prompted by a dramatization of the consequences of drug use and abuse, a film about a person undergoing open-heart surgery, or a book illustrating damage to body systems as a result of unhealthy behaviors.

Following the guidelines in this chapter will help you design a plan so you can work toward change and remain enthused about your progresspositive outlook.

Write down your goals and, preferably, share them with others. In essence, you are signing a behavioral contract for change. You will be more likely to adhere to your program if others know you are committed to change.

Use exercise to combat sedentary living, smoking, stress, or overeating. Or you may use exercise, healthful diet, yard work, volunteer work, or reading to prevent overeating and achieve recommended body weightcountering.

Keeping track of daily food intake reveals sources of excessive fat in the diet. This can help you gradually cut down or completely eliminate high-fat foodsmonitoring.

 

 

7       73.  Using maintaining healthy body weight as the target behavior, describe the process of writing SMART goals.

 

Answer: The SMART acronym is used in reference to goals that are specific, measurable, acceptable, realistic, and time specific. Responses will vary.

 

8       74.  The goal is to change from 30% body fat to 15% body fat. Write three appropriate objectives to accompany this goal and explain why they are important or necessary.

 

Answer: Responses will vary.

 

 

 

 

 

Test Bank[2] for Principles & Labs for Fitness & Wellness 12e

Chapter 14 Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections

 

Chapter Learning Objectives

 

  1. Name and describe the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
  2. Outline the health consequences of STIs.
  3. Define the difference between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  4. Explain the seriousness of the AIDS epidemic in the United States and worldwide.
  5. Describe ways to prevent acquiring STIs.

 

True/False

 

LO#   An.    Question

 

2       F       1.   The damage to the reproductive system caused by chlamydia infection is reversible.

 

2       T       2.   If untreated, gonorrhea can produce heart damage and arthritis in men and women and blindness in children born to infected women.

 

2       T       3.   PID often develops when the STI spreads to the fallopian tubes, uterus, and ovaries.

 

2       F       4.   Genital warts can cause heart damage and arthritis.

 

2       F       5.   Genital herpes is treated successfully with penicillin and other antibiotics.

 

1       F       6.   Syphilis is caused by a viral infection.

 

3       T       7.   The only means to determine whether someone has HIV is through an HIV antibody test.

 

3       F       8.   Today, the risk of being infected with HIV from a blood transfusion is high.

 

5       T       9.   Unprotected anal sex is the riskiest type of sex.

 

5       T       10. For someone who decides to be sexually active, the best technique to prevent STIs is a long-term, mutually monogamous sexual relationship.

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

LO#   An.    Question

 

1       a       11.  The United States has the _____ of sexually transmitted diseases of the countries in the industrialized world.

  1. highest rate
  2. least deadly combination
  3. lowest rate
  4. most active strains

 

1       a       12.  The most commonly reported STI in the United States is:

  1. chlamydia.
  2. genital herpes.
  3. gonorrhea.
  4. syphilis.

 

1       a       13.  Which of the following can be treated with oral antibiotics?

  1. chlamydia
  2. herpes
  3. genital warts
  4. HIV/AIDS

 

1       c       14.  Which of the following has typical symptoms of a pus-like secretion from the penis and painful urination in men?

  1. chlamydia
  2. genital herpes
  3. gonorrhea
  4. syphilis

 

1       d       15.  When the STI spreads to the fallopian tubes, uterus, and ovaries, _____ develops.

  1. AIDS
  2. HIV
  3. HPV
  4. PID

 

2       d       16.  Which of the following causes scarring and obstruction of the fallopian tubes (which may lead to infertility), ectopic pregnancies, and chronic pelvic pain?

  1. AIDS
  2. HIV
  3. HPV
  4. PID

 

1       b       17.  Gardasil is a vaccine developed to prevent cervical cancer and other diseases in women caused by HPV. Which of the following statements is TRUE?

  1. To get the full benefits of the vaccine, women should get it once they become sexually active.
  2. It protects against four HPV types that cause cervical cancers and genital warts.
  3. It protects against more than 30 HPV types that cause cervical cancers and genital warts.
  4. It is most effective in women who have been infected with the four HPV types covered by the vaccine.

 

1       d       18.  In the primary stage of syphilis, between 10 and 90 days following infection (average 21 days):

  1. some people develop paralysis and gradual blindness.
  2. heart disease develops as a direct result of the infection.
  3. skin rashes and mucous membrane lesions appear.
  4. a painless sore appears where the bacteria entered the body.

 

2       a       19.  Chlamydia:

  1. can damage the reproductive system.
  2. is caused by a viral infection.
  3. presents symptoms immediately.
  4. cannot be treated successfully.

 

2       a       20.  Gonorrhea:

  1. often causes PID in women.
  2. is caused by a viral infection.
  3. presents symptoms immediately.
  4. cannot be treated successfully.

 

2       d       21.  If untreated, gonorrhea can cause:

  1. repeated outbreaks of sores in the genitals and rectum.
  2. blindness, heart disease, brain damage, and insanity.
  3. severe acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
  4. blindness in children born to infected women.

 

1       c       22.  Pelvic inflammatory disease:

  1. is truly a sexually transmitted infection.
  2. is a complication resulting from HIV infection.
  3. develops when chlamydia spreads to the ovaries.
  4. is caused by untreated genital herpes.

 

1       d       23.  Chlamydia or gonorrhea is likely to be contracted when:

  1. a barrier method of contraception is used.
  2. the number of sexual partners is limited.
  3. there are no symptoms in sexual partners.
  4. effective oral contraceptives are used alone.

 

2       a       24.  Chlamydia can lead to:

  1. arthritis.
  2. cancers.
  3. insanity.
  4. paralysis.

 

2       d       25.  Gonorrhea can lead to:

  1. cancers.
  2. the flu.
  3. AIDS.
  4. infertility.

 

2       a       26.  Genital warts may lead to _____ cancer.

  1. cervical
  2. testicular
  3. breast
  4. prostate

 

1       d       27.  Genital warts:

  1. are caused by a bacterial infection.
  2. can be transmitted via blood donation.
  3. are associated with pus-like secretions.
  4. increase the risk of cervical cancer.

 

1       b       28.  Electrosurgery or laser surgery, chemicals, and liquid nitrogen are treatments for:

  1. chlamydia.
  2. genital warts.
  3. gonorrhea.
  4. herpes.

 

1       b       29.  _____ is an incurable sexually transmitted infection.

  1. Chlamydia
  2. Genital herpes
  3. Gonorrhea
  4. Syphilis

 

1       c       30.  Genital herpes:

  1. is caused by HIV.
  2. can cause heart disease.
  3. is highly contagious.
  4. can cause blindness.

 

1       a       31.  Genital herpes:

  1. can remain dormant for extended periods of time.
  2. is curable with high doses of antiviral medications.
  3. causes a painless sore where the virus entered the body.
  4. can cause death in the late stage of the disease.

 

2       a       32.  Syphilis:

  1. can cause heart disease.
  2. is caused by a viral infection.
  3. is contagious in the last stage.
  4. causes multiple painful sores.

 

2       d       33.  Syphilis can lead to:

  1. painful sores.
  2. genital warts.
  3. cancers.
  4. crippling.

 

3       c       34.  People with AIDS are more susceptible to _____ diseases.

  1. chronic
  2. heart and vessel
  3. opportunistic
  4. seasonal

 

3       b       35.  The fatal illnesses that AIDS patients develop are usually _____ in the general population.

  1. commonly contracted
  2. harmless and rare
  3. serious and debilitating
  4. short-lived diseases

 

3       d       36.  Opportunistic diseases happen among individuals with:

  1. chlamydia.
  2. gonorrhea.
  3. herpes.
  4. AIDS.

 

3       d       37.  On the average, the individual develops symptoms that fit the case definition of AIDS about _____ years following infection.

  1. 2
  2. 4
  3. 8
  4. 10

 

3       d       38.  AIDS is the term designating the:

  1. disease among homosexuals.
  2. final state of HPV infection.
  3. final state of HSV infection.
  4. final stage of HIV infection.

 

3       c       39.  Death in some people infected with HIV is the direct result of:

  1. the human immunodeficiency virus.
  2. acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
  3. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.
  4. a weakened immune system.

 

3       c       40.  Not an early symptom, an advanced symptom of AIDS is:

  1. constant fatigue.
  2. diarrhea.
  3. night sweats.
  4. swollen lymph glands.

 

3       d       41.  If HIV infection is suspected, a person should wait _____ to be tested.

  1. no longer than 24 hours
  2. about 1 week
  3. exactly 1 month
  4. at least 3 months

 

3       a       42.  Currently in the U.S., the race/ethnicity with the highest incidence of new HIV/AIDS infections annually are:

  1. African-Americans.
  2. American Indians.
  3. Caucasians.
  4. Hispanics.

 

3       d       43.  HIV can be transmitted through:

  1. casual contact.
  2. insect bites.
  3. animal bites.
  4. body fluid exchange.

 

3       c       44.  HIV can be transmitted:

  1. by donating blood.
  2. through insect bites.
  3. through unprotected sex.
  4. from health care workers.

 

4       b      45.  In the United States, 1 in every _____ individuals are infected with HIV and _____ is unaware of the infection.

  1. 160; 10%
  2. 260; 20%
  3. 360; 30%
  4. 460; 40%

 

5       d       46.  Health experts believe that the riskiest type of sex is unprotected:

  1. vaginal sex.
  2. oral sex.
  3. digital sex.
  4. anal sex.

 

3       d       47.  HIV can be transmitted through _____ with an infected person.

  1. shaking hands
  2. sharing a drink
  3. sharing of clothes
  4. sharing needles

 

3       b       48.  People get HIV because of:

  1. who they are.
  2. what they do.
  3. how they look.
  4. where they live.

 

3       c       49.  Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding HIV/AIDS?

  1. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Kaposis sarcoma, two of the most common fatal conditions in AIDS patients, are directly caused by HIV.
  2. AIDS drug therapies are effective in treating damage among AIDS patients, leading to improved motor control and language functions.
  3. Most of the illnesses that AIDS patients develop are harmless and rare in the general population but are fatal to AIDS victims.
  4. Earliest symptoms of HIV infection include weight loss, constant fatigue, mild fever, swollen lymph glands, diarrhea, and sore throat.

 

3       b       50.  HIV can be transmitted:

  1. through perspiration.
  2. through unprotected sex.
  3. through a toilet seat.
  4. by donating blood.

 

4       a       51.  Estimates indicate that _____ are currently infected with HIV.

  1. about 34 million people worldwide
  2. more than 40 million people worldwide
  3. about 34 million people in the U.S.
  4. more than 40 million people in the U.S.

 

4       b       52.  HIV-infected people and AIDS patients:

  1. deserve the consequences of their risky behaviors.
  2. deserve respect, understanding, and support.
  3. should not be allowed to have sexual relationships.
  4. should be labeled so they wont infect others.

 

4       b       53.  Estimates indicate that _____ have died from AIDS since the epidemic began in 1981.

  1. less than 30 million people worldwide
  2. more than 30 million people worldwide
  3. more than 30 million people in Africa
  4. more than 30 million people in the U.S.

 

4       a       54.  Among the newly reported HIV cases in the United States:

  1. about 24% were women.
  2. about 24% were men.
  3. about 36% were women.
  4. about 36% were men.

 

4       d       55.  Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding HIV/AIDS?

  1. Almost none of AIDS cases in the U.S. occur in homosexual men.
  2. HIV infection is spreading only among homosexuals and bisexuals.
  3. Heterosexual practice prevents individuals from getting HIV infection.
  4. HIV is an epidemic that does not discriminate by sexual orientation.

 

4       a       56.  Among the 1.2 million people in the United States infected with HIV, about _____ of them are unaware of the infection.

  1. 20%
  2. 30%
  3. 50%
  4. 70%

 

4       a       57.  The purpose of AIDS clinical trials is to:

  1. evaluate experimental drugs and various therapies for HIV infection.
  2. identify the mechanisms and processes of how HIV leads to AIDS.
  3. study how HIV and AIDS can be prevented through clinical trials.
  4. assess the effectiveness of HIV prevention and intervention programs.

 

4       b       58.  Currently, the best way to deal with the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to:

  1. take HIV/AIDS drugs.
  2. avoid risky behaviors.
  3. be vaccinated against HIV.
  4. take antiretroviral drugs.

 

4       a       59.  Following antiviral drug therapy, an undetectable viral load:

  1. does not mean the person is cured.
  2. means the person is cured.
  3. means the person cant infect others.
  4. means the virus has been eliminated.

 

5       d       60.  The best guarantee against HIV infection is to:

  1. have sex only with people you know.
  2. use condoms consistently and correctly.
  3. have a monogamous sexual relationship.
  4. postpone sexual activity until marriage.

 

5       b       61.  Sex in the early stages of a relationship is:

  1. the product of intimacy and love.
  2. the fulfillment of a physical drive.
  3. most enjoyable and fulfilling.
  4. the sign of a successful relationship.

 

5       a       62.  Which of the following will lower your risk for STIs?

  1. Have a mutually monogamous sexual relationship.
  2. Have sexual intercourse only with someone you know.
  3. Share injection needles with someone you know.
  4. Use barrier methods of contraception if you have an STI.

 

5       c       63.  Which of the following is TRUE regarding teen sex?

  1. Teenagers are not susceptible to peer pressure leading to sexual intercourse.
  2. Romantic relationships in teenage years always involve great sexual intercourse.
  3. Too many young people wish they had not engaged in sex as teenagers.
  4. Sex in the early stages of a relationship is the product of true love.

 

5       c       64.  Which of the following is the most effective statement to stop the sexual advances of a friend?

  1. Dont.
  2. Im not sure about this.
  3. No.
  4. Please stop.

 

5       b       65.  Which of the following precautions can reduce your risk for STIs, including HIV infection and, subsequently, AIDS?

  1. Only have sex with someone who looks healthy.
  2. Abstain from sexual relations even if you have a cold.
  3. Only have sex with someone who has no infection.
  4. Sex is safe as long as your partner really loves you.

 

 

Critical Thinking/Short Answer

 

LO#   Question

 

1       66.  Compare and contrast the two types of HSV.

 

Answer: The two most common forms of HSV are types 1 and 2. In type 1 the HSV most often known to cause oral herpes cold sores or fever blisters appear on the lips and mouth. HSV 2 is better known as the virus that causes genital herpes. The fundamental difference between the two main types of HSV lies in their preferred site of residence. The HSV 1 virus typically establishes latency in a collection of nerve cells near the ear known as the trigeminal ganglion. HSV 2 usually establishes latency at the base of the spine in the sacral ganglion. HSV types 1 and 2, nonetheless, both cause oral and genital herpes.

People who have an outbreak of oral herpes should not touch their own or someone elses genitals after touching the oral cold sores. Doing so can lead to a herpes infection of the genitals (genital HSV 1 infection). Oral sex can also result in transmission of HSV from the lips to the genitals. Thirty percent of all new cases of genital herpes result from HSV 1 infection. The opposite is true as well: Oral sex with a genital HSV 2infected person can cause oral HSV 2 infection (although there seems to be some degree of immunity against oral HSV 2 in people already infected with oral HSV 1).

 

2       67.  Explain why chlamydia infection is considered to be a major factor in male and female infertility.

 

Answer: Chlamydia can damage the reproductive system seriously. Because symptoms are usually mild or absent, three of four people with the infection dont know theyre ill until the infection has become quite serious. Infertility often occurs silently because the individual is unaware of the infection until it is too late to prevent the irreversible damage.

 

4       68.  How should you personally relate to an AIDS patient?

 

Answer: Just like anyone else, AIDS patients are worthy of respect as human beings. They need to be loved and accepted. Casual contact is not considered dangerous, but sharing of body fluids is something to be careful to avoid.

 

5       69.  Besides avoiding STIs, is there another reason for not having sex before marriage?

 

Answer: Sex does not guarantee or promote love between individuals. Besides the physical pleasure, however, sex psychologically binds the partners together. This is a natural phenomenon within a marriage commitment that also includes love but is relatively rare outside of marriage.

 

3       70.  Dispel myths about HIV transmission.

 

Answer: The HIV virus cannot be transmitted through perspiration. Sporting activities with no physical contact pose no risk to uninfected individuals unless they both have open wounds through which blood from an infected person can come in direct contact with the open wound of the uninfected person. The skin is an excellent line of defense against HIV. Blood from an infected person cannot penetrate the skin except through an opening in the skin. As an extra precaution, a person should use vinyl or latex gloves when performing work that requires direct contact with someone elses blood or open wound. HIV is not transmitted through casual contact. HIV cannot be caught by spending time with, shaking hands with, or hugging an infected person; from a toilet seat, dishes, or silverware used by an HIV patient; or by sharing a drink, food, a towel, or clothes with a person who has HIV. Some people fear getting HIV from health care professionals. The chances of getting infected during physical or medical procedures are practically nil. Health care workers take extra care to protect themselves and their patients from HIV. The H in HIV stands for human. You cannot catch HIV from insects or animals.

 

5      71.  Give some arguments for abstinence and not a monogamous relationship as the best method for avoiding STIs.

 

Answer: No intimate contact is the ultimate barrier method to avoid STIs. Sex in the early stages of a relationship is not the product of love. It is simply the fulfillment of a physical, often selfish, drive. A loving relationship develops over time with mutual respect for each other.

Otherwise, a monogamous relationship can be decided with various relationship lengths and is based on trust in the partner not introducing a STI from another relationship. This will not always hold true.

 

Essay

 

LO#   Question

 

1       72.  Briefly describe the signs and symptoms of syphilis.

 

Answer: In the primary stage, between 10 and 90 days following infection (average 21 days), a painless sore appears where the bacteria entered the body (sometimes multiple sores appear). A sore also can appear on the lips or in the mouth. This sore disappears on its own in 3 to 6 weeks. If untreated, the infection progresses to the secondary stage.

During the secondary stage, as the initial sore is healing, or several weeks thereafter, skin rashes and mucous membrane lesions appear. A rough/reddish-brown rash can be seen on the palms of the hands and the bottoms of the feet, although different types of rashes can appear on other parts of the body. Additional sores may also appear within 6 months of the initial outbreak. Signs and symptoms of the secondary stage will disappear with or without treatment. Untreated, the infection will progress into the latent stage.

A latent stage, during which the victim is not contagious, may last up to 30 years, lulling victims into thinking they are healed. During the last stage of the infection, some people develop paralysis, crippling, gradual blindness, heart disease, brain and organ damage, or dementia, or die as a direct result of the infection.

 

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