Principles of Animal Physiology 3rd Edition By Christopher D.Moyes Test Bank

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Principles of Animal Physiology 3rd Edition By Christopher D.Moyes Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Principles of Animal Physiology 3rd Edition By Christopher D.Moyes

Chapter 2    Physiological Evolution of Animals

 

 

1) Which of the following is a parasitic protist that causes malaria?

  1. A) Paramecium
  2. B) slime mould
  3. C) Platyzoa
  4. D) Plasmodium

Answer: D

Page ref: 22

 

2) Which of the following characteristics apply to all protists?

  1. A) They are animal-like.
  2. B) They can photosynthesize.
  3. C) They have a nucleus.
  4. D) They have a cell wall.

Answer: C

Page ref: 22

 

3) Which protist is best described by its lifestyle?

  1. A) Euglena have features of animals and fungi.
  2. B) Paramecium are ciliated hunters.
  3. C) Plasmodium are free-living animal-like protists.
  4. D) Amoebas are sedentary photosynthetic protists.

Answer: B

Page ref: 22

 

4) Which of the following pairs is correctly matched?

  1. A) Choanoflagellates and Cnidarians
  2. B) Paramecium and ciliated herbivore
  3. C) ancestors of fungi and plants with no cell walls
  4. D) choanocytes and flagellated cells in sponges

Answer: D

Page ref: 23

 

5) If multicellular organisms have distinct cell types, this means that

  1. A) the different cell types express different genes.
  2. B) each cell can be different.
  3. C) some of the organisms cells will grow larger over time.
  4. D) some cells will have cell walls and others wont.

Answer: A

Page ref: 23

 

6) In fungi and plants

  1. A) the cell wall controls osmotic swelling.
  2. B) the sodium-potassium pump regulates osmotic balance.
  3. C) chemical messengers are not used to communicate.
  4. D) collagen is used to build tissues.

 

Answer: A

Page ref: 23-24

 

7) All animals

  1. A) eat other animals.
  2. B) are multicellular.
  3. C) reproduce sexually.
  4. D) are triploblastic.

Answer: B

Page ref: 24

 

8) The three cell types found in sponges are

  1. A) cnidocytes, mesenchyme cells, and nematocyst cells.
  2. B) choanocytes, mesenchyme cells, and pinacocytes.
  3. C) choanocytes, cnidocytes, and nematocyst cells.
  4. D) nematocyst cells, mesenchyme cells, and pinacocytes.

Answer: B

Page ref: 24

 

9) The first animals to show true tissues were

  1. A) sponges.
  2. B) placozoans.
  3. C) cnidarians.
  4. D) ctenophores.

Answer: C

Page ref: 24

 

10) One key advantage associated with bilateral symmetry in animals is

  1. A) an increase in speed.
  2. B) the presence of a coelom.
  3. C) the evolution of limbs.
  4. D) the evolution of cephalization.

Answer: D

Page ref: 25

 

11) In early gastrulation, a depression called a blastopore forms. If this blastopore forms the anus, the animals are referred to as

  1. A) deuterostomes.
  2. B) protostomes.
  3. C) gastrostomes.
  4. D) diploblasts.

Answer: A

Page ref: 25

 

12) Which of the following statements is correct?

  1. A) In deuterostome animals, the blastopore becomes the mouth and the anus forms at a distant site.
  2. B) In coelomate animals, the coelom is located between the endoderm and the mesoderm.
  3. C) Arthropods show metamerism and tagmatization.
  4. D) Deuterostomes include the arthropods, echinoderms, and chordates.

 

Answer: C

Page ref: 25-28

 

13) Triploblastic animals are

  1. A) acoelomate.
  2. B) pseudocoelomate.
  3. C) coelomate.
  4. D) partially coelomate.

Answer: C

Page ref: 26

 

14) Platyhelminthes exhibit which of the following lifestyles?

  1. A) free-living
  2. B) free-living and ectoparasitic
  3. C) ectoparasitic and endoparasitic
  4. D) free-living, ectoparasitic, and endoparasitic

Answer: D

Page ref: 26

 

15) Platyhelminthes can live without a circulatory or respiratory system because

  1. A) they rely on their digestive system.
  2. B) they are dorsoventrally flattened.
  3. C) the kidney excretes excess waste materials.
  4. D) the epidermis secretes lubricants.

Answer: B

Page ref: 27

 

16) Which of the following statements best describes mollusks?

  1. A) Mollusks include gastropods, bivalves, and cephalopods; they have a reduced coelom, and many move at a sluggish pace.
  2. B) Mollusks include gastropods, bivalves, and cephalopods; many move at a sluggish pace, and all are aquatic.
  3. C) Mollusks include gastropods and bivalves; several bivalves are terrestrial with adaptations to withstand severe dehydration.
  4. D) Mollusks include gastropods and bivalves, have a mantle, and all are aquatic.

Answer: A

Page ref: 27

 

17) Which characteristics do annelids and arthropods have in common?

  1. A) Both have feeding grooves.
  2. B) Both exhibit metamorphosis.
  3. C) Both are metameric.
  4. D) Both have a chitin-based body covering.

Answer: C

Page ref: 27-28

 

18) Which of the following characteristics would be most beneficial for animals to successfully survive on land?

  1. A) The presence of a notocord and dorsal nerve cord.
  2. B) The ability to undergo metamorphosis.
  3. C) The presence of an open circulatory system.
  4. D) The presence of an exoskeleton.

Answer: D

Page ref: 27-28

 

19) The most ancient deuterostomes are

  1. A) annelids.
  2. B) echinoderms.
  3. C) mollusks.
  4. D) arthropods.

Answer: B

Page ref: 28

 

20) Ganss and Northcutts new head hypothesis proposes that

  1. A) vertebrates have a diffuse nerve sensory system.
  2. B) more complex teeth in the head evolved in response to a more predatory lifestyle.
  3. C) the success of vertebrates was linked to specializations of the head.
  4. D) B and C

Answer: C

Page ref: 28

 

21) Cartilaginous fish evolved from

  1. A) agnathans.
  2. B) placoderms.
  3. C) ostracoderms.
  4. D) lampreys.

Answer: B

Page ref: 29

 

22) Amphibians differ from other tetrapods in that amphibians

  1. A) are much smaller.
  2. B) have a more rigid spinal column.
  3. C) depend on water for reproduction.
  4. D) A and C

Answer: C

Page ref: 31

 

23) Which of the following animals are amniotes?

  1. A) amphibians, mammals, birds, and reptiles
  2. B) amphibians, birds, and reptiles
  3. C) mammals, birds, and reptiles
  4. D) birds and reptiles

Answer: C

Page ref: 31

 

24) Which of the following pairs is correctly matched?

  1. A) modern mammals / anapsids
  2. B) all extant reptiles and birds / diapsids
  3. C) extinct group of reptiles / synapsids
  4. D) having one opening in the side of the skull / anapsids

Answer: B

Page ref: 31

 

25) In terms of reproduction, which group of mammals is most similar to their reptilian ancestors?

  1. A) monotremes
  2. B) marsupials
  3. C) placental mammals
  4. D) flying mammals

Answer: A

Page ref: 32

 

26) Which of the following statements correctly describes birds?

  1. A) Birds are modern reptiles.
  2. B) Birds differ from other reptiles in their thermal biology.
  3. C) Birds are the only remaining representatives of the therapsids.
  4. D) A and B

Answer: D

Page ref: 32

 

27) Birds and mammals are similar in that

  1. A) both contain species that lay eggs.
  2. B) both are endothermic.
  3. C) both are part of a group of reptiles that includes the dinosaurs and crocodilians.
  4. D) A and B

Answer: D

Page ref: 32

 

28) Would you expect gene duplication, such as seen in the Hox gene, to lead to significant changes in evolution of traits?

  1. A) No, because a duplicated gene would most likely carry a deleterious mutation.
  2. B) No, because a duplicated gene would be identical to the original gene and perform the original function.
  3. C) Yes, because one gene would perform a specific function, but duplicated copies could perform new functions.
  4. D) Yes, because the Hox gene controls all traits.

Answer: C

Page ref: 33

 

29) Which of the following statements is true with respect to myosin?

  1. A) Plants, fungi, and animals share the same myosin families.
  2. B) Myosin is found in all prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
  3. C) Different classes of myosins are distinguished by differences in structural organization and amino acid sequence.
  4. D) Cardiac -myosin allows for greater contractile efficiency.

Answer: C

Page ref: 33

 

30) Only certain organisms possess gene variants that are able to exchange Na+ for K+, thus making the Na+/K+ ATPase unique to

  1. A) animals.
  2. B) fungi.
  3. C) plants and animals.
  4. D) fungi and plants.

Answer: A

Page ref: 34

 

31) Collagen is best described as a(n)

  1. A) intracellular matrix protein.
  2. B) extracellular matrix protein and one of the earliest innovations observed in animals.
  3. C) matrix protein that all animals have, with the exception of sponges.
  4. D) intracellular matrix that is a basis for communication between cells.

Answer: B

Page ref: 35

 

32) In tetrapods, the steroid hormone, aldosterone, plays a role in

  1. A) mineral balance.
  2. B) water and vitamin balance.
  3. C) mineral and vitamin balance.
  4. D) water and mineral balance.

Answer: D

Page ref: 35

 

33) One of the biggest challenges facing terrestrial organisms is to

  1. A) escape from
  2. B) survive food shortages.
  3. C) reduce water loss.
  4. D) find shelter.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 36

 

34) Which of the following organisms are able to thrive under the most diverse environmental conditions due to their remarkable biochemical adaptations?

  1. A) prokaryotes
  2. B) plants
  3. C) fungi
  4. D) invertebrates

Answer: A

Page ref: 36

 

35) Which of the following statements with respect to animals is correct?

  1. A) In animals, anatomy and functional properties played a small role in their evolutionary success.
  2. B) In animals, the ability to digest cellulose depends on symbiotic organisms.
  3. C) There are few differences in metabolic rates among animals.
  4. D) B and C

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 36

 

36) The __________ is considered to be the earliest life form.

Answer: progenote

Page Ref: 21

 

37) ____________ are often called extremophiles, because they can survive in some of the harshest environments on earth.

Answer: Archaea

Page Ref: 21

 

38) The cell wall of fungi is composed of ____________.

Answer: chitin

Page Ref: 23

 

39) The tissues of Cnidarians are termed _____________ because they are derived from two embryonic body layers.

Answer: diploblastic

Page Ref: 24

 

40) The body plan of sponges is _____________, while cnidarians are ______________________.

Answer: asymmetrical; radially symmetrical

Page Ref: 25

 

41) The body of annelids is divided into repeating segments called_________________.

Answer: metamers

Page Ref: 27

 

42) In echinoderms and chordates, the mouth forms second; therefore, both are__________________.

Answer: deuterostomes

Page Ref: 25, 28

 

43) The first group of vertebrates to successfully colonize land was the __________________.

Answer: amphibians

Page Ref: 31

 

44) In reptiles and birds, the evolution of the _____________ removed the dependence on water and allowed complete transition to life on land.

Answer: amniote egg

Page Ref: 32

 

45) Birds are most closely related to the group of reptiles known as ________________.

Answer: archosaurs

Page Ref: 32

 

46) Which family of genes is involved in development?

Answer: Hox

Page Ref: 33

 

47) Many eukaryotes have myosin 2, but only __________ use it to build muscle.

Answer: animals

Page ref: 33

 

48) The Na+/K+ ATPase enables animal cells to create an electrical potential across the_________.

Answer: cell membrane

Page Ref: 35

 

49) Aldosterone is a steroid hormone that is produced only in ____________.

Answer: tetrapods

Page Ref: 35

 

50) Metabolic rate is measured as ___________________.

Answer: heat production per unit time

Page Ref: 36

 

 

51) We often hear the terms protists, protozoans, and metazoans; briefly explain the relationship among them.

Answer: When we think about the origin of animals, we often think of protists. Protists are single-celled, eukaryotic organisms that possess a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles. Protists are a very diverse group of distantly-related organisms, and hence assigned to more than 50 phyla. Some protists are animal-like and mobile, and because locomotion was considered a unique trait of animals, animal-like protists were once considered to be the ancestors of animals and were referred to as protozoans. Currently, the term protozoan has no meaningful evolutionary basis. The term metazoan was originally created to differentiate single-celled protozoans from multicellular animals.  Metazoan and animal are often used synonymously.

Page Ref: 22

 

52) List the four key morphological traits that characterize all chordates. Discuss the important physiological transitions from early chordates to Craniata and their evolutionary implication.

Answer: All chordates have a notochord, dorsal nerve cord, postanal tail, and pharyngeal slits.

When we compare early chordates to Craniata, we see several physiological transitions such as an increase in the complexity of the nervous system, the formation of a larger brain, a backbone derived from the notochord, an endoskeleton with the cranium, segmented muscles, and large blood vessels. The filter-feeding pharyngeal structures in lancelets and tunicates evolved into a diversity of structures, including gills of fish, jawbones, ear bones, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. The evolution of these structures resulted in an extensive diversity of vertebrates.

Page Ref: 28

 

53) From an evolutionary perspective, briefly explain why amphibian physiology provides an important link between aquatic and terrestrial organisms.

Answer: Amphibians are intermediate between fish and reptiles in several ways. For example, amphibian larvae are aquatic and breathe via gills, just like fish. When in water, adult amphibians face similar osmotic challenges as do freshwater fish.  Unlike fish, adult amphibians use lungs to breathe on land, may also use their skin as a gas-exchange surface, and excrete urea as a waste product. We see similarities between amphibians and reptiles when it comes to skeletons and muscles: Land tetrapods require more robust skeletons and musculature to support their bodies on land. Some amphibians, such as toads, have evolved a thickened body covering to avoid desiccation. Reptiles are even better adapted to dry conditions, having evolved tough scales to prevent water loss.

Page Ref: 31

 

54) Why is the sodium-potassium pump so important in the animal kingdom?

Answer: The sodium-potassium pump is also known as Na+/K+ ATPase. It is unique to animals because only animals possess the gene variants that can exchange Na+ for K+. In animal cells, the sodium-potassium pump creates an electrical potential across cell membranes and maintains the membrane ion gradients that are critical for the function of neurons and muscles. Sodium-potassium genes also allow for adaptations in relation to osmoregulation. For example, some species of fish can change the expression of their Na+/K+ ATPase genes when they change environments, thus allowing them to successfully move between freshwater and salt water at specific times in their life cycle.

Page Ref: 33-35

 

55) Discuss the evolutionary connection between bilateral symmetry and cephalization in animals.

Answer: As organisms became more complex, this complexity was associated with an increase in cephalization. Very early animals had simple nervous systems with little centralization for processing information. Bilaterally symmetrical animals show a concentration of sensory and nervous tissue in the anterior parts of their bodies. With the evolution of bilateral symmetry, animals were able to move in a forward direction, using the sensory anterior end to locate food or sense threats. For example, arthropods, which are bilaterally symmetrical, have a distinct head region that processes extensive sensory information. Vertebrates show even more extensive cephalization. In mammals, for example, the brain and central nervous system control breathing, feeding, reflexes, thermoregulation, and movement.

Page Ref: 36

 

56) Describe some key physiological adaptations that allowed animals to successfully colonize terrestrial     environments.

Answer: Animals had to evolve physiological adaptations to successfully invade terrestrial environments. Desiccation is a risk for all land organisms, therefore, adaptations to conserve water were critical. Animals also had to overcome the challenge of controlling their internal osmolarity, independent of the external environment. Animals evolved a body surface that would prevent water loss (e.g., reptilian scales). An excretory system used to expel nitrogenous wastes out of water was also an important adaptation for land animals. When water was no longer available for support, skeletons and muscles evolved to allow locomotion on land. In addition, respiratory systems to exchange gases on land became a requirement for successful survival on land.

Page Ref: 36

 

 

Chapter 16    Reproductive Physiology

 

 

1) Parthenogenesis

  1. A) enables females to self-fertilize their own ova.
  2. B) occurs in lizards, such as the Komodo dragon.
  3. C) occurs only in invertebrates.
  4. D) A and B

Answer: D

Page Ref: 668-669

 

 

 

2)
 

The whiptail lizards Cnemidophorus uniparens of the American southwest are unique in that they are

 

  1. A)

 

Are an entirely female species that reproduce by parthenogenesis.

 

  1. B)

 

protogynous and the largest female develops into the male of the harem.

 

  1. C)

 

protandrous with the older, larger individuals developing into females.

 

  1. D)

 

a true social species with haploid sterile males and diploid female workers.

 

Answer:
 

A

 

Page Ref: 669

 

3)
 

The term anisogametic refers to

 

  1. A)

 

the haploid condition of mature gametes.

 

  1. B)

 

arrestment following the first meiotic division.

 

  1. C)

 

degradation of the polar bodies.

 

  1. D)

 

sex-specific difference in gamete size.

 

Answer:
 

D

 

Page Ref: 670

 

4)
 

One way in which gametogenesis differs between the two sexes is that in spermatogenesis,

 

  1. A)

 

the mature gametes lack mobility.

 

  1. B)

 

four viable haploid gametes are produced from one germ cell.

 

  1. C)

 

chromosome number is halved only after the second meiotic division.

 

  1. D)

 

the germ cells are diploid.

 

Answer:
 

B

 

Page Ref: 678

 

5)
 

Animals mediate the effects of steroid hormones by altering the

 

  1. A)

 

rates of hormone synthesis.

 

  1. B)

 

levels of target tissue receptors.

 

  1. C)

 

rates of degradation.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above

 

Answer:
 

D

 

Page Ref: 671

 

6)
 

The immediate precursor of estradiol-17 is

 

  1. A)

 

androstenedione.

 

  1. B)

 

dihydrotestosterone.

 

  1. C)

 

progesterone.

 

  1. D)

 

testosterone.

 

Answer:
 

D

 

Page Ref: 672

 

7)
 

__________ is not considered a gonadotropin.

 

  1. A)

 

CG

 

  1. B)

 

FSH

 

  1. C)

 

GnRH

 

  1. D)

 

LH

 

Answer:
 

C

 

Page Ref: 672

 

8)
 

__________ is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes androgens to estrogens.

 

  1. A)

 

Aromatase

 

  1. B)

 

Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase

 

  1. C)

 

Tyrosine hydroxylase

 

  1. D)

 

Steroid 22-hydroxylase

 

Answer:
 

A

 

Page Ref: 672

 

9)
 

Which of the following would be considered a gonadotropin that occurs in vertebrates?

 

  1. A)

 

FSH

 

  1. B)

 

LH

 

  1. C)

 

CG

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above

 

Answer:
 

D

 

Page Ref: 672

 

10)
 

The main regulator of the release of gonadotropins from the anterior pituitary is

 

  1. A)

 

aromatase.

 

  1. B)

 

GnRH.

 

  1. C)

 

  1. D)

 

Answer:
 

B

 

Page Ref: 672

 

11)
 

Insects rely on the terpenoid __________ to control reproductive development, metamorphosis, and molting.

 

  1. A)

 

bombyxin

 

  1. B)

 

eclosion hormone

 

  1. C)

 

juvenile hormone

 

  1. D)

 

methyl farnesoate

 

Answer:
 

C

 

Page Ref: 673

 

12)
 

Insects that develop through egg, larval, pupal, and adult stages are considered to be

 

  1. A)

 

hemimetabolous.

 

  1. B)

 

heterometabolous.

 

  1. C)

 

holometabolous.

 

  1. D)

 

hypermetabolous.

 

Answer:
 

C

 

Page Ref: 673

 

13)
 

The activity levels of juvenile hormones can be reduced by

 

  1. A)

 

allatostatins.

 

  1. B)

 

allatotropins.

 

  1. C)

 

JH esterase.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above

 

Answer:
 

D

 

Page Ref: 673

14) Methoprene

  1. A) prevents insects from reproducing by not allowing the larvae to develop.
  2. B) is a very effective insecticide that kills insects upon contact.
  3. C) disrupts neural function of insects.
  4. D) is highly toxic to birds.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 674 (Applications 16.1)

 

 

15)
 

Of the two types of automictic parthenogenesis, thelytoky differs in that

 

  1. A)

 

only homogametic males are produced.

 

  1. B)

 

only females are produced.

 

  1. C)

 

mitosis instead of meiosis generates diploid offspring.

 

  1. D)

 

more than one of the above

 

Answer:
 

B

 

Page Ref: 675

 

16)
 

The phenomenon in which some female coral reef fish spontaneously transform into males if the dominant male is removed is known as

 

  1. A)

 

arrhenotoky.

 

  1. B)

 

protandry.

 

  1. C)

 

protogyny.

 

  1. D)

 

thelytoky.

 

Answer:
 

C

 

Page Ref: 676

 

17)
 

In crocodilians and marine turtles, the sex of the young is determined by

 

  1. A)

 

homogamy vs. heterogamy.

 

  1. B)

 

aromatase activity.

 

  1. C)

 

nest temperature.

 

  1. D)

 

rates of vitellogenesis.

 

Answer:
 

C

 

Page Ref: 676

 

18)
 

__________ is the reproductive strategy in which the entire development of the egg or ovum occurs externally.

 

  1. A)

 

Oviparity

 

  1. B)

 

Ovoviviparity

 

  1. C)

 

Viviparity

 

  1. D)

 

more than one of the above

 

Answer:
 

A

 

Page Ref: 677

 

19)
 

Vitellogenin is a phospholipoprotein produced by the

 

  1. A)

 

follicle cells.

 

  1. B)

 

insect fat body.

 

  1. C)

 

vertebrate liver.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above

 

Answer:
 

D

 

Page Ref: 678

 

20)
 

The Leydig cells of the typical vertebrate testis

 

  1. A)

 

produce testosterone.

 

  1. B)

 

develop into spermatids.

 

  1. C)

 

produce androgen-binding proteins.

 

  1. D)

 

mediate the response of the testis to FSH.

 

Answer:
 

A

 

Page Ref: 681

 

21)
 

The swimming capacity of human sperm is attained within the

 

  1. A)

 

bulbourethral gland.

 

  1. B)

 

epididymis.

 

  1. C)

 

prostate gland.

 

  1. D)

 

seminal vesicles.

 

Answer:
 

B

 

Page Ref: 682

 

22)
 

Which of the following structures is INCORRECTLY matched to its function?

 

  1. A)

 

bulbourethral gland secretion of nutrients and enzymes

 

  1. B)

 

epididymis sperm concentration and storage

 

  1. C)

 

fallopian tube common site of fertilization

 

  1. D)

 

placenta maternal/fetal endocrine and exchange organ

 

Answer:
 

A

 

Page Ref: 682

 

23)
 

The alkaline fluid produced by the __________ neutralizes the acidic conditions of female reproductive tract to allow the sperm to swim.

 

  1. A)

 

bulbourethral gland

 

  1. B)

 

epididymis

 

  1. C)

 

prostate gland

 

  1. D)

 

seminal vesicles

 

Answer:
 

D

 

Page Ref: 682

24) In response to capture, animals often produce stress hormones.  In green sea turtles,

  1. A) an elevation in corticosterone levels is observed.
  2. B) other hormones related to their reproductive condition influence the magnitude of the stress response.
  3. C) males and females show similar increases in corticosterone levels.
  4. D) A and B

Answer: D

Page Ref: 683 (Challenges to Homeostasis 16.2)

 

 

25)
 

The neurotransmitter __________ plays the key role in generating an erection in the mammalian penis.

 

  1. A)

 

acetylcholine

 

  1. B)

 

dopamine

 

  1. C)

 

GABA

 

  1. D)

 

nitric oxide

 

Answer:
 

D

 

Page Ref: 685

 

26)
 

Female insects possess an elaborate sperm-storage organ called the

 

  1. A)

 

accessory gland.

 

  1. B)

 

Dufours gland.

 

  1. C)

 

gametosome.

 

  1. D)

 

spermatheca.

 

Answer:
 

D

 

Page Ref: 686

 

27)
 

Of the four extraembryonic membranes of developing amniotes, the __________ functions as a gas-exchange organ.

 

  1. A)

 

allantois

 

  1. B)

 

amnion

 

  1. C)

 

chorion

 

  1. D)

 

yolk sac

 

Answer:
 

C

 

Page Ref: 687

 

28)
 

The __________ of the amniotic egg encloses a fluid to act as a protective hydraulic cushion.

 

  1. A)

 

allantois

 

  1. B)

 

amnion

 

  1. C)

 

chorion

 

  1. D)

 

yolk sac

 

Answer:
 

B

 

Page Ref:687

 

29)
 

In the amniotic eggs of birds and reptiles, the __________ serves as a storage sac for nitrogenous wastes.

 

  1. A)

 

allantois

 

  1. B)

 

amnion

 

  1. C)

 

chorion

 

  1. D)

 

yolk sac

 

Answer:
 

A

 

Page Ref: 687

 

30)
 

A member of the TGF- family of cytokines, __________ is a peptide hormone secreted by the mature follicle.

 

  1. A)

 

CG

 

  1. B)

 

estrin

 

  1. C)

 

inhibin

 

  1. D)

 

progestin

 

Answer:
 

C

 

Page Ref: 688

 

31)
 

The luteal phase of the ovulation cycle of mammals corresponds to the __________ phases of the estrous cycle.

 

  1. A)

 

proestrus and estrus

 

  1. B)

 

estrus and metestrus

 

  1. C)

 

metestrus and diestrus

 

  1. D)

 

diestrus and proestrus

 

Answer:
 

C

 

Page Ref: 689 and Fig. 16.16

 

32)
 

In the human reproductive system, ovulation is triggered

 

  1. A)

 

at the end of the luteal phase.

 

  1. B)

 

by the surge in progesterone release.

 

  1. C)

 

by the surge in LH release.

 

  1. D)

 

at the beginning of the follicular phase.

 

Answer:
 

C

 

Page Ref: 689

 

33)

 

The declining FSH levels during the follicular phase results in most of the developing follicles to undergo

 

  1. A)

 

conversion into corpora lutea.

 

  1. B)

 

degeneration by atresia.

 

  1. C)

 

development into nurse cells.

 

  1. D)

 

development into Graafian follicles.

 

Answer:
 

B

 

Page Ref: 689

 

34)
 

Driven by the __________ surge, the post-ovulation follicle undergoes a change in structure to develop into the corpus luteum.

 

  1. A)

 

FSH

 

  1. B)

 

LH

 

  1. C)

 

CG

 

  1. D)

 

progesterone

 

Answer:
 

B

 

Page Ref: 689

 

35)
 

After ovulation, the remnant of the ruptured follicle develops into the

 

  1. A)

 

corpus allatum.

 

  1. B)

 

corpus luteum.

 

  1. C)

 

Graafian follicle.

 

  1. D)

 

polar bodies.

 

Answer:
 

B

 

Page Ref: 690

 

36)
 

The uterine is lined by a layer of epithelial tissue known as the

 

  1. A)

 

endometrium.

 

  1. B)

 

endothelium.

 

  1. C)

 

mesothelium.

 

  1. D)

 

myometrium.

 

Answer:
 

A

 

Page Ref: 691

 

37)
 

The birth control pill developed in the early 1960s prevents pregnancy by

 

  1. A)

 

preventing ovulation.

 

  1. B)

 

stimulating thickening of the cervical mucus.

 

  1. C)

 

impairing endometrial growth.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above

 

Answer:
 

B

 

Page Ref: 691

 

38)
 

Parturition refers to

 

  1. A)

 

childbirth.

 

  1. B)

 

gestation.

 

  1. C)

 

menstruation.

 

  1. D)

 

placental development.

 

Answer:
 

A

 

Page Ref: 691

 

39)
 

The trophoblast of the implanted fertilized egg ultimately develops into the

 

  1. A)

 

allantois.

 

  1. B)

 

amniotic cavity.

 

  1. C)

 

placenta.

 

  1. D)

 

zona pellucida.

 

Answer:
 

C

 

Page Ref: 691-692

 

40)
 

In human reproduction, once conception and successful implantation have occurred,

 

  1. A)

 

CG secreted by the placenta simulates the activity of LH.

 

  1. B)

 

the corpus luteum continues progesterone and estrogen secretion for the first trimester.

 

  1. C)

 

the placenta eventually assumes the production of progesterone and estrogen.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above

 

Answer:
 

D

 

Page Ref: 692

 

41)
 

At the onset of labor, __________ acts on the myometrium lining directly to induce contraction.

 

  1. A)

 

oxytocin

 

  1. B)

 

prolactin

 

  1. C)

 

prostaglandin

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above

 

Answer:
 

D

 

Page Ref: 693

 

42)
 

The hormone that controls milk production in mammals is

 

  1. A)

 

estrogen.

 

  1. B)

 

oxytocin.

 

  1. C)

 

prolactin.

 

  1. D)

 

prostaglandin.

 

Answer:
 

C

 

Page Ref: 693

 

43)
 

The earliest mammary gland secretions, called __________, are rich in immunoprotective agents, growth factors, minerals, and vitamins.

 

  1. A)

 

caseinate

 

  1. B)

 

colostrum

 

  1. C)

 

globulus

 

  1. D)

 

meconium

 

Answer:
 

B

 

Page Ref: 695

 

44)
 

Based on molecular evidence, casein most likely arose from a gene coding for

 

  1. A)

 

albumin.

 

  1. B)

 

fibrinogen.

 

  1. C)

 

myoglobin.

 

  1. D)

 

transferrin.

 

Answer:
 

B

 

Page Ref: 696

 

45)
 

In addition to its effects in milk production, prolactin plays a role in

 

  1. A)

 

calcium metabolism.

 

  1. B)

 

gamma globulin biosynthesis.

 

  1. C)

 

uterine contractions.

 

  1. D)

 

maternal behavior.

 

Answer:
 

D

 

Page Ref: 693

 

46)
 

__________ is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes androgens to estrogens.

 

Answer:
 

Aromatase

 

Page Ref: 672

 

47)
 

Most forms of asexual reproduction in animals occur by __________ through the use of ova and the female reproductive system.

 

Answer:
 

parthenogenesis

 

Page Ref: 675

 

 

48)
 

In serial hermaphroditism, __________ animals are initially males.

 

Answer:
 

protandrous

 

Page Ref: 676

49) In ________________ animals, embryos obtain nourishment from yolk, and mature eggs hatch inside the mother.

Answer: ovoviviparous

Page Ref: 677

 

 

50)
 

__________ is the most abundant of the yolk proteins.

 

Answer:
 

Vitellin

 

Page Ref: 678

 

51)
 

The __________ is the sperm-storage organ of female insects.

 

Answer:
 

spermatheca

 

Page Ref: 686

 

52)
 

In insects, sperm are able to fertilize the shelled egg through a tunnel called the __________.

 

Answer:
 

micropyle

 

Page Ref: 680

 

delete, Box 14.1 not in 3e

 

53)
 

Birds transfer sperm directly from the __________ of the male to that of the female.

 

Answer:
 

cloaca

 

Page Ref: 684

 

54)
 

Many mammals have a bone within the penis called the __________.

 

Answer:
 

baculum or os penis

 

Page Ref: 685

 

55) The term _____________ describes the mating system where the offspring from a single litter or clutch was sired by different males.

Answer: polyandry

Page Ref: 686

 

 

56)
 

In more than 100 mammalian species, embryogenesis can be arrested in the early blastocyst stage by a process known as __________. (two words)

 

Answer:
 

delayed implantation

 

Page Ref: 687

 

57)
 

The __________ is the loss of uterine tissue at the end of the menstrual cycle.

 

Answer:
 

menses

 

Page Ref: 688

 

58)
 

The lining of the uterus is known as the __________.

 

Answer:
 

endometrium

 

Page Ref: 691

 

59)
 

After shedding the zona pellucida, the outermost cells of the blastocyst differentiate to form the __________.

 

Answer:
 

trophoblast

 

Page Ref: 691

 

60)
 

The hormone __________ controls milk production.

 

Answer:
 

prolactin

 

Page Ref: 695

 

61)
 

The secretory units of the mammary glands are the __________.

 

Answer:
 

alveoli

 

Page Ref: 695

 

62)
 

What are the three levels through which genomic variation is generated by sexual reproduction?

 

Answer:
 

First, each animal generates an enormous variety of gametes from a genome that was itself derived by a near-random combination of chromosomes from two different parents: An animal with 23 pairs of chromosomes can produce more than 8 million different gametes. Second, during meiosis, chromosomal recombinations can generate hybrids of maternal and paternal chromosomes. And third, the diploid offspring produced by fertilization are unique combinations of the variants generated by the first two processes cited above.

 

Page Ref: 670

 

63)
 

Describe the mechanism of sex determination in the two forms of automictic parthenogenesis.

 

Answer:
 

Essentially, sex determination depends on which of the sexes is homogametic. In thelytoky, the homogametic condition (XX) is female, and therefore the parthenogenetically produced offspring must also be homogametic (XX) and female. In arrhenotoky, the heterogametic (WZ) condition is female: Since fusion of the mature  ovum with the second polar body simply reunites the chromatids derived from a single parent chromosome, all offspring must be homogametic (ZZ or WW) and either male (ZZ) or nonviable (WW).

 

Page Ref: 675

64) In most animals, the genotype of the organisms determines their sex. What is the relationship between sex determination and the environment?

Answer: Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is one form of environmental sex determination that is common in reptiles: all crocodilians and sea turtles, and in some species of lizards and terrestrial turtles. At the pivotal temperature (intermediate ambient temperature), equal numbers of male and female offspring are produced. Three patterns have been observed from studies of TSD: 1) In some species of turtles, female offspring are produced above the pivotal temperature while males are produced below; 2) some species of lizards produce males when the temperatures are high and females when temperatures are low; and 3) in crocodiles and alligators, larger numbers of female offspring are produced at both low and high temperatures, while the abundance of male offspring is higher at intermediate temperatures.

Page Ref: 676

 

65)
 

What role does inhibin play in regulating ovulation?

 

Answer:
 

Inhibin is released by the mature ovarian follicle (or corpus luteum) and operates via the hypothalamus-pituitary axis to inhibit the synthesis and release of FSH. Inhibin also has autocrine and paracrine effects at the level of the ovary to inhibit estrogen synthesis.

 

Page Ref: 688-689

 

66)
 

Describe the interactive roles of the various hormones in the process of parturition.

 

Answer:
 

During gestation, high estrogen titers enhance the contractile strength of the uterine smooth muscles as well as their expression of oxytocin receptors, while progesterone inhibits uterine contractions. At the end of gestation when progesterone levels decline, the muscles are freed from inhibition. Fetal cells produce oxytocin, which stimulates the release of contraction-stimulating prostaglandins. Simultaneously, the maternal posterior pituitary begins secreting oxytocin that collectively with the prostaglandins stimulate uterine smooth muscle contractions. The stress stimulates the release of additional oxytocin and prostaglandins, thereby engaging a positive feedback loop.

 

 

Page Ref: 692-693

 

67)
 

What is the proposed relationship between fibrinogen and casein?

 

Answer:
 

Casein or milk protein is thought to have been derived from the gene coding for the -chain of fibrinogen. Evidence to support this hypothesis comes from sequence similarities between the two proteins (and genes) and well as from the observation that primitive mammary glands produce a milk primarily derived from presynthesized components of the blood, including fibrinogen.

 

Page Ref: 696-697

 

 

68)
 

What role does prolactin play in reproductive behavior?

 

Answer:
 

During pregnancy in mammals, prolactin and the steroid hormones alter the brain biochemistry of the female to promote maternal behavior. The behavior is related to increased prolactin synthesis and to the expression of prolactin receptors in the medial peroptic area of the hypothalamus: The hypothalamus exhibits greater sensitivity to prolactin. In mammals in which paternal care has been observed, males also have higher levels of prolactin.

 

Page Ref: 693-694

 

69)
 

What is the relationship between glucocorticoids and testosterone in the reproductive behavior of frogs?

 

Answer:
 

Calling, mediated by testosterone, is one of the most energetically costly behaviors observed in ectotherms, necessitating the mobilization of energy stores by glucocorticoids. Elevated levels of testosterone result in more calling, increasing the demand for energy and the titers of glucocorticoids. Ultimately, the glucocorticoid levels are so high that the stress response is elicited, testosterone production declines, and calling ceases.

 

Page Ref: 683

 

70) All mammals have mammary glands and produce milk. Discuss the features of mammary glands that all mammals have in common, and describe the differences in the anatomical structure of mammary glands in the three different groups of mammals (monotremes, marsupials, and eutherians).

Answer: In all mammals, mammary glands consist of exocrine glands, which secrete milk and myoepithelial cells that have control over the secretions. Mammary glands are similar to sebaceous glands in that they are associated with hair follicles. Milk is released from exocrine glands, milks composition includes macromolecules and fluids, and prolactin controls milk production.

Mammary glands of monotremes consist of convoluted tubes that lie under the skin of the female on the ventral side. Monotremes have no nipples, so the milk oozes through the ducts onto the females fur and the pups lap up the milk. Marsupials have mammary glands with teats. A newborn marsupial takes the teat into its mouth; the teat enlarges in its mouth and keeps the newborn in position. The mammary glands of eutherian mammals consist of globes grouped into alveoli and the alveoli have ducts, which lead to an external teat. Whenever young eutherian mammals are hungry, they locate the teat, suck the milk, and release the teat upon satiation or when the mom walks away.

Page Ref: 695

 

 

 

 

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