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Probation and Parole in Criminal Justice
The American criminal justice system utilizes a unique system of probation and parole. This chapter explores the goals and expectations of this system.
1. Understand the contradictory goals and competing expectations of American criminal justice.
2. Explain why most convicted offenders are not imprisoned.
3. Discuss the impact of increases in the number of geriatric inmates
4. Understand why reducing prison populations by keeping out or releasing
early nonviolent offenders is a dubious policy.
5. Discuss why the system of criminal justice in the United States is not
6. Explain how the criminal law and its enforcement reflect distinctions
7. Understand why prevention of recidivism is difficult to determine.
8. Distinguish the classical view from the positive view of crime and
1. The Why? of Probation and Parole
2. Criminal Justice in America
a. Teaching Note: Discuss and explain the levels of government
3. What is a Crime? Who is a Criminal?
4. Early Responses to Crime
a. Teaching Note: Explain Beccaria and the role of classical theorists.
a. Teaching Note: Explain the role of free will.
8. U.S. System of Criminal Justice
9. Entering the System
a. Teaching Note: Explain the levels of evidence
10. Pretrial Court Appearances
11. Pretrial Hearings
12. Trials or Guilty Pleas
LIST OF CHANGES/TRANSITION GUIDE
No major changes have been made between the 11th and the 12th editions for Chapter 1.
ADDITIONAL ASSIGNMENTS AND CLASS ACTIVITIES
1. Break the class into groups and have them debate the pros and cons of the three-strikes and youre out laws.
2. Have students research the parole board in their state. Discuss the pros and cons of the parole board.
SUGGESTED ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER ASSIGNMENTS
1. What are the contradictory goals and competing expectations of American criminal justice?
2. Most convicted offenders are not imprisoned. Why?
3. What region of the country has the highest rate of incarceration?
4. What is the relationship between three-strikes-and-youre-out laws and geriatric inmates?
5. Why is it difficult to identify a nonviolent offender?
6. Why is the system of criminal justice in the United States not systematic?
7. What problem results from abolishing a parole board?
8. How do the criminal law and its enforcement reflect power relations?
9. Why is recidivism by persons on probation and parole difficult to determine?
10. What is the classical view of criminal behavior and punishment?
11. What is the relationship between free will and mens rea?
12. How does economic inequality diminish legal equality?
13. How does neoclassical differ from classicalism?
14. What is positivism and how does it influence criminal justice?
15. How does positivism contradict free will?
16. How does social Darwinism view criminals?
17. What is the relationship between classicalism and the determinate sentence?
18. What is the relationship between positivism and the indeterminate sentence?
19. What levels of evidence are relevant in probation and parole?
20. At what point in the criminal justice process can a probation officer be found?
Answers to Questions
1. Answers will vary
2. Answers will vary
3. The South
4. Three strikes and youre out means a lifetime of imprisonment. These unreleasable inmates age and become expensive wards of the state.
5. Answers will vary
6. There is a lack of joint planning, budgeting and systematic consultation.
7. Answers will vary
8. Answers will vary
9. Only one crime in four is cleared by arrest.
10. Based on free will, people seek pleasure and avoid pain
11. Free will endows each person with the power to be law abiding or criminal
12. Answers will vary
13. It considers three additional areas: past criminal record, insanity or retardation, age
14. Answers will vary
15. It argues that criminal behavior is biological.
16. Answers will vary
17. Answers will vary
18. Answers will vary
19. Preponderance of the Evidence and Probable Cause
20. If the jury finds the defendant guilty
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