Psychology 10th Edition by Carole Wade Carol Tavris Test Bank

Psychology  10th Edition by Carole Wade Carol Tavris  Test Bank
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Name __________________________________________________________

Chapter 3 Quick Quiz 1

1. Tabula rasa was a term Watson used to describe human nature. The term means:
a. natural selection.
b. blank slate.
c. innate characteristics.
d. genetic leash.

2. _______________ attempts to tease apart the relative contributions of heredity and environment.
a. Nativism c. Evolutionary psychology
b. Empiricism d. Behavioral genetics

3. _______________ are rod-shaped paired structures made of DNA that are located in the nucleus of the cell.
a. Genes c. Chromosomes
b. Genomes d. Genetic markers

4. Which of the following is NOT a reason that the frequency of genes in a population may change over many
generations?
a. mutation c. copying errors
b. crossover of genetic material d. addition of new amino acids

5. Which of the following is NOT an innate human characteristic?
a. the ability to walk on two legs c. basic computational skills
b. a sucking reflex d. an interest in novelty

6. Surface structure refers to:
a. the way a sentence is actually spoken.
b. the rules of grammar.
c. how the sentence is understood.
d. core features of all languages.

7. Sociobiologists predict that, compared to males, females:
a. are more likely to be polygamous. c. are more likely to choose a young, attractive mate.
b. are more likely to be monogamous. d. are more likely to be promiscuous.

8. Which of the following is NOT an argument used by critics of evolutionary explanations of courtship and
mating behaviors?
a. Sexual attitudes and practice vary considerably within a culture.
b. On questionnaires, both sexes rate kindness, understanding, and intelligence above physical qualities
and financial status.
c. Similarity and proximity are the strongest predictors of mate selection.
d. Peoples responses on questionnaires correspond with their actual behavior.

9. _______________ is an estimate of the proportion of the total variance in a trait that is attributed to genetics.
a. Heritability c. Evolutionary psychology
b. Nativism d. The nature effect

10. Which of the following is an advantage of genetic testing?
a. Genetic information could be used to discriminate against an individual.
b. Knowing a genetic risk could result in a self-fulfilling prophesy.
c. Genes can absolve a person of responsibility.
d. Knowing that a childs disorder is genetic can keep a parent from experiencing unnecessary guilt.
Chapter 3 Quick Quiz 1
Answer Key

1. b Rationale: Tabula rasa is a Latin phrase that means blank slate. (Page 67, Factual)

2. d Rationale: This is the goal of behavioral genetics. (Page 68, Factual)

3. c Rationale: This is a definition of chromosomes. (Page 68, Factual)

4. d Rationale: New amino acids are not added to the DNA molecule. All the other
choices are reasons the frequency of genes may change. (Page 71, Conceptual)

5. c Rationale: A basic understanding of numbers is innate, but computational
skills must be learned. (Pages 74-75, Conceptual)

6. a Rationale: Surface structure is the way a sentence is actually spoken. (Page 76, Factual)

7. b Rationale: Females are more likely to be monogamous, because polygamy
does not provide them with any advantage. (Page 81, Conceptual)

8. d Rationale: Peoples responses on questionnaires are actually not good
predictors of their behavior. (Pages 82, Conceptual)

9. a Rationale: This is a definition of heritability. (Page 86, Factual)

10. d Rationale: All the other choices are potential disadvantages of genetic testing.
(Pages 96-97, Conceptual)

Name __________________________________________________________

Chapter 3 Quick Quiz 2

1. Which of the following is true about nativism?
a. It emphasizes the role of experience.
b. It emphasizes the role of our genetic nature.
c. It was espoused by John B. Watson.
d. It is the prominent position in psychology today.

2. _______________ emphasizes the evolutionary mechanisms that might help explain similarities in behavior.
a. Nativism c. Evolutionary psychology
b. Empiricism d. Behavioral genetics

3. _______________ are the functional units of heredity that code for the structure of proteins.
a. Genes c. Chromosomes
b. Genomes d. Genetic markers

4. Evolutionary psychologists view the mind as:
a. a general-purpose computer.
b. a collection of specialized mental modules.
c. an inherited language acquisition device.
d. a result of our environment and experience.

5. Which of the following does NOT support the existence of an innate capacity for children to acquire language?
a. Children in different cultures go through similar stages of linguistic development.
b. Children not exposed to adult language do not develop language skills.
c. Adults do not consistently correct their childrens syntax.
d. Children combine words in ways that adults never would.

6. _______________ is the founder of the field of sociobiology.
a. Charles Darwin c. John B. Watson
b. Edward O. Wilson d. Noam Chomsky

7. Sociobiologists predict that, compared to females, males:
a. are more likely to be monogamous.
b. are more likely to be promiscuous.
c. are more likely to choose a partner who is stable and secure.
d. are more likely to be discriminating in their choice of a mate.

8. Which of the following statements of heritability is true?
a. Heritability is a measure of the genetic contribution to a particular trait for an individual.
b. The best way to estimate heritability is to study blood relatives who share a particular trait.
c. An estimate of heritability will apply regardless of environment.
d. Heritability can help explain differences within groups.

9. Estimates of the heritability of intelligence:
a. increase with age. c. do not change with age.
b. decrease with age. d. explain differences between groups.

10. Which of the following is NOT associated with reduced mental ability?
a. poor prenatal care c. stressful family circumstances
b. malnutrition d. having a mentally ill sibling

Chapter 3 Quick Quiz 2
Answer Key

1. b Rationale: Nativism is the view that our genetic nature determines our
personality. (Pages 67, Factual)

2. c Rationale: This is the definition of evolutionary psychology. (Page 68, Factual)

3. a Rationale: This is the definition of a gene. (Page 68, Factual)

4. b Rationale: Evolutionary psychologists believe that specific mental modules
develop to cope with specific survival problems. (Pages 72-73, Factual)

5. b Rationale: There is evidence that children who are not exposed to adult
language may develop a detailed language of their own. (Pages 78,
Conceptual)

6. b Rationale: Edward O. Wilson founded the field of sociobiology. (Page 81,
Factual)

7. b Rationale: Males are more likely to be promiscuous because this gives them
an advantage in increasing the frequency of their genes within the population.
(Page 82, Conceptual)

8. d Rationale: Heritability can help explain differences within groups, but not for
an individual. It is specific to a particular environment and is best estimated
based on studies of adopted children and twins. (Page 87, Conceptual)

9. a Rationale: Estimates of the heritability of intelligence increase with age, at
least up until middle age. (Page 87, Factual)

10. d Rationale: Having a mentally ill sibling is not one of the stressful family
circumstances that predicts reduced intelligence. (Pages 93-94, Factual)

Multiple Choice Questions

INTRODUCTION

1. For many years, psychologists addressing questions about human differences tended to fall into two camps. Those who emphasized the role of genes in human diversity were called:
a. empiricists.
b. behaviorists.
c. nativists.
d. psychoanalysts.
Section: Chapter Introduction
Page(s): 67 Type: Factual Answer: c
Rationale: Nativists emphasized the importance of nature or genetics whereas empiricists emphasized the importance of nurture or environment and experience.

2. Edward L. Thorndike, one of the leading psychologists of the early 1900s, claimed that in the actual race of life, the chief determining factor is:
a. operant conditioning.
b. classical conditioning.
c. parent-child relationships.
d. heredity.
Section: Chapter Introduction
Page(s): 67 Type: Factual Answer: d
Rationale: Thorndike was a nativist, emphasizing the role of genetics and heredity.

3. John B. Watson would agree that:
a. experience could write virtually any message on the blank slate of human nature.
b. an impulse for young mammals to play and fool around may be biologically adaptive.
c. just as a bird is designed to fly, human beings are designed to use language.
d. men are genetically wired to be promiscuous and women to be monogamous.
Section: Chapter Introduction
Page(s): 67 Type: Conceptual Answer: a
Rationale: Watson was an empiricist, emphasizing the role of experience.

4. Prof. Sandoval emphasizes the evolutionary mechanisms that might help explain commonalities in human behavior. She is most likely to consider herself:
a. a cognitive psychologist.
b. an evolutionary psychologist.
c. a social Darwinist.
d. a sociocultural psychologist.
Section: Chapter Introduction
Page(s): 67 Type: Applied Answer: b
Rationale: Evolutionary psychologists emphasize the evolutionary mechanisms that might help explain commonalities in human behavior.

5. _______________ is an interdisciplinary field of study concerned with the genetic bases of individual differences in behavior and personality.
a. Behavioral genetics
b. Social Darwinism
c. Behaviorism
d. Functionalism
Section: Chapter Introduction
Page(s): 68 Type: Factual Answer: a
Rationale: This is a definition of behavioral genetics.
6. Which of the following best describes the position of most psychologists today on the nature-nurture issue?
a. Nature and nurture interact to produce both our psychological and physical traits.
b. Nature is more important in producing our physical traits, whereas nurture is more important in producing our psychological traits.
c. Nature produces our physical traits, whereas our psychological traits are produced by an interaction of nature and nurture.
d. Some of our psychological traits are produced primarily by nature and some primarily by nurture, but nature is most important in producing our physical traits.
Section: Chapter Introduction
Page(s): 68 Type: Factual Answer: a
Rationale: Both our psychological and physical traits result from an interaction of nature and nurture.

7. With regard to the interaction between genes and experience:
a. genes can affect the experiences we have, but experience cannot affect genes.
b. experience can affect genes, but genes cannot affect experience.
c. both genes and experience can affect each other.
d. the effects of genes and experience are independent.
Section: Chapter Introduction
Page(s): 68 Type: Factual Answer: c
Rationale: There is a two-way interaction between genes and environment.

UNLOCKING THE SECRETS OF GENES
Learning Objectives
3.1 What the chemical code in our genes encodes for
3.2 What a complete map of the human genes revealsand does not reveal

8. _______________, the basic units of heredity, are located on chromosomes, rod-shaped structures found in the nucleus of every cell of the body.
a. Genomes
b. Neural networks
c. Genes
d. Genetic markers
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 68 Type: Factual Answer: c
Rationale: Genes are the basic units of heredity.

9. The functional units of heredity that are composed of DNA and specify the structure of proteins are called:
a. genomes.
b. neural networks.
c. genes.
d. genetic markers.
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 68 Type: Factual Answer: c
Rationale: Genes are the basic units of heredity.

10. The basic unit of heredity is the:
a. chromosome.
b. gene.
c. protein molecule.
d. genome.
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 68 Type: Factual Answer: b
Rationale: Genes are the basic units of heredity.

11. _______________, the basic units of heredity, are located on_______________, rod-shaped structures found in the nucleus of every cell of the body.
a. Genomes; genes
b. Chromosomes; genomes
c. Genes; chromosomes
d. Chromosomes; genes
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 68 Type: Factual Answer: c
Rationale: Genes are the basic units of heredity; they are located on chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell.

12. Within every cell are rod-shared structures called _______________ that carry the genes.
a. DNA
b. genetic markers
c. genomes
d. chromosomes
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 68 Type: Factual Answer: d
Rationale: Chromosomes within the nucleus of the cell carry the genes that determine our genetic characteristics.

13. Each human chromosome has:
a. 23 pairs of genes.
b. 23 genes.
c. about 100 genes.
d. thousands of genes.
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 68 Type: Factual Answer: d
Rationale: Thousands of genes are located on each chromosome.

14. This type of DNA lies outside the genes and is also called junk DNA.
a. perimeter DNA
b. outlying DNA
c. noncoding DNA
d. genome DNA

Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 68 Type: Factual Answer: c
Rationale: Noncoding DNA lies outside the genes.

15. The human genome is estimated to contain about _______________ genes.
a. 7,000
b. 23,000
c. 73,000
d. 303,000
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 69 Type: Factual Answer: b
Rationale: It is estimated that the human genome contains approximately 23,000 genes.

16. The chromosomal molecule, _______________, transfers genetic characteristics by way of coded instructions for the structure of proteins.
a. DNA
b. genetic marker
c. genome
d. genetic landmark
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 68 Type: Factual Answer: a
Rationale: Chromosomes are composed of DNA.

17. The four basic chemical elements of DNA are identified by the letters:
a. A, B, C, D.
b. A, T, C, G.
c. B, D, G, T.
d. W, X, Y, Z.
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 69 Type: Factual Answer: b
Rationale: DNA is composed of four amino acids: thymine (T), adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).

18. The A, T, C, and G molecules in DNA code for the synthesis of:
a. genes.
b. amino acids.
c. RNA.
d. proteins.
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 69 Type: Factual Answer: d
Rationale: Genes code for the synthesis of proteins.

19. ________ are DNA segments that vary considerably among individuals and whose locations on the chromosome are already known.
a. Genes
b. RNA
c. Linkage studies
d. Genetic markers
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 69 Type: Factual Answer: d
Rationale: This is the definition of genetic markers.

20. Studies that look for patterns of inheritance of genetic markers in large families in which a particular condition is common are called:
a. experimental studies.
b. psychometric studies.
c. linkage studies.
d. naturalistic observation studies.
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 69 Type: Factual Answer: c
Rationale: This is a description of linkage studies.

21. Linkage studies are used to help determine:
a. where a gene for a particular trait is likely to be located.
b. whether people sharing the same trait have a genetic marker for that trait.
c. a map of the human genome.
d. where the boundaries between individual genes are located.
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 69 Type: Conceptual Answer: a
Rationale: Linkage studies help to identify the location of a gene for a particular trait.
22. In the year ________, an international collaboration of researchers called the Human Genome Project and a private company, Celera Genomics, both announced that they had completed a rough draft of a map of the entire human genome.
a. 1985
b. 1990
c. 1995
d. 2000
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 69 Type: Factual Answer: d
Rationale: A rough draft of the human genome was completed in 2000.

23. Which of the following best describes the relationship between genes and traits?
a. Physical traits are usually determined by a single gene pair, whereas psychological traits are usually determined by multiple genes.
b. Psychological traits are usually determined by a single gene pair, whereas physical traits are usually determined by multiple genes.
c. Both physical and psychological traits are usually determined by multiple genes.
d. Both physical and psychological traits are usually determined by a single gene.
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 70 Type: Factual Answer: c
Rationale: Most individual physical and psychological traits are determined, not by a single gene, but by multiple genes.

THE GENETICS OF SIMILARITY
Learning Objectives
3.3 The meaning of evolution
3.4 Why some traits become more common during evolution and others become less common
3.5 Why some evolutionary psychologists assume the existence of innate mental modules in the human mind
3.6 Some innate human characteristics

24. Evolution is defined as:
a. an interdisciplinary field of study concerned with the genetic bases of individual differences in behavior and personality.
b. a process in which individuals with genetically influenced traits that are adaptive in a particular environment tend to survive and reproduce.
c. a change in gene frequencies within a population over many generations.
d. an interdisciplinary field that emphasizes genetic explanations of social behavior in animals, including human beings.
Section: The Genetics of Similarity
Page(s): 71 Type: Factual Answer: c
Rationale: Evolution is defined as a change in gene frequencies in a population over many generations.

25. New characteristics can result from all of the following EXCEPT:
a. spontaneous genetic mutations.
b. crossover of genetic material between members of a chromosome pair.
c. addition of new amino acids to the DNA molecule.
d. recombination of genetic material.
Section: The Genetics of Similarity
Page(s): 71 Type: Factual Answer: c
Rationale: DNA is composed of only four amino acids. New amino acids are not added to the molecule, but the sequence of amino acids can change through mutations, crossover, or recombination.

26. According to the principle of _______________, the fate of genetic variations depends on the environment.
a. natural selection
b. sociobiology
c. linkage
d. genetic markers
Section: The Genetics of Similarity
Page(s): 71 Type: Conceptual Answer: a
Rationale: Natural selection means that traits that are adaptive in a particular environment are favored.

27. Which of the following traits would be LEAST likely to be selected by natural selection?
a. a trait that makes an animal more attractive to the opposite sex
b. a trait that causes progressive hair loss with age
c. a trait that allows an animal to better remember where food sources are located
d. a trait that increases an animals strength and speed allowing it to better escape from predators
Section: The Genetics of Similarity
Page(s): 71 Type: Applied Answer: b
Rationale: Hair loss has no effect on the ability to survive in a particular environment, so it would not be favored by natural selection.

28. Which is the best statement of the principle of natural selection?
a. A species constantly improves as parents pass along their best traits to their offspring.
b. Over time, the environment naturally selects some traits over others.
c. Over time, genetic variations become more common if they are adaptive in a particular environment.
d. If a trait or characteristic is no longer adaptive, then the environment will select better, more adaptive traits.
Section: The Genetics of Similarity
Page(s): 71 Type: Conceptual Answer: c
Rationale: Natural selection means that traits that are adaptive in a particular environment are favored, resulting in changes in gene frequencies within a population.

29. Over the past 150 years, Darwins ideas have been:
a. vehemently rejected by findings in anthropology, botany, and molecular genetics.
b. resoundingly supported by findings in anthropology, botany, and molecular genetics.
c. rejected by findings in anthropology but accepted among botanists and molecular geneticists.
d. accepted as interesting on a historical basis, but irrelevant to current theories.
Section: The Genetics of Similarity
Page(s): 71 Type: Conceptual Answer: b
Rationale: Findings in many different fields have supported Darwins ideas.

30. Evolutionary psychologists usually start their research by asking:
a. What traits do modern humans have that early humans did not possess?
b. What sort of challenges to survival did prehistoric humans face?
c. What characteristics do modern humans have and how might those characteristics have evolved?
d. What kinds of differences are there between modern humans living in different areas of the world?
Section: The Genetics of Similarity
Page(s): 72 Type: Conceptual Answer: b
Rationale: By looking at the challenges to survival faced by early humans, evolutionary psychologists are able to draw inferences about behavioral tendencies that might have been favored by natural selection.

31. Evolutionary psychologists believe that the human mind is:
a. a general-purpose computer that can be programmed to do many different things.
b. a collection of independent mental modules specialized to solve specific survival problems.
c. a collection of instincts related to specific human activities and capacities.
d. a computer that is being used to solve problems that it was not programmed to solve.
Section: The Genetics of Similarity
Page(s): 72 Type: Conceptual Answer: b
Rationale: Evolutionary psychologists view the mind as a collection of independent mental modules specialized for different tasks.

32. Because of the way our species evolved, many tendencies are either present at birth in all humans or develop rapidly during maturation. An example of one of these tendencies would be:
a. a preference for familiar objects.
b. a natural inclination toward critical thinking.
c. an attraction to novelty.
d. an inclination toward human resilience and joy.
Section: The Genetics of Similarity
Page(s): 73 Type: Factual Answer: c
Rationale: Attraction to novelty is an example of a behavioral tendency present in early life.

33. Which of the following is NOT an innate human characteristic?
a. an interest in novelty
b. an impulse to play
c. a preference for constancy
d. a desire to explore and manipulate objects
Section: The Genetics of Similarity
Page(s): 73-74 Type: Conceptual Answer: c
Rationale: A preference for novelty, not constancy, is innate.

34. An example of a characteristic that is either present at birth in all humans or develops rapidly during maturation would be:
a. a preference for familiar objects.
b. a natural inclination toward critical thinking.
c. an understanding of numbers.
d. an inclination toward human resilience and joy.
Section: The Genetics of Similarity
Page(s): 74 Type: Conceptual Answer: c
Rationale: An understanding of numbers is an example of a behavioral tendency present in early life.

35. Which of the following is NOT part of the human biological heritage?
a. a love of play
b. an avoidance of unfamiliar objects
c. an ability to recognize faces
d. a sucking reflex at birth
Section: The Genetics of Similarity
Page(s): 73-74 Type: Conceptual Answer: b
Rationale: A preference for novelty, not avoidance of the unfamiliar, is innate.

36. Many evolutionary psychologists believe that people are born with mental modules for all of the following basic cognitive skills EXCEPT:
a. recognizing faces.
b. acquiring language.
c. understanding numbers.
d. basic computational skills.
Section: The Genetics of Similarity
Page(s): 74 Type: Conceptual Answer: d
Rationale: Although understanding numbers is thought to be innate, we still have to learn computational skills.

OUR HUMAN HERITAGE: LANGUAGE
Learning Objectives
3.7 What language enables us to do that other animals cannot.
3.8 The evidence that infants brains are equipped with an innate facility for acquiring language.
3.9 The evidence that learning and environment influence language development.
.
37. According to Charles Darwin, language:
a. evolves by probability decisions that one word is likely to follow another.
b. is an innate capacity for verbal communication.
c. is a communication system used by primates.
d. is an instinctive ability unique to human beings.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Language
Page(s): 76 Type: Conceptual Answer: d
Rationale: Language, according to Darwin, is a unique human ability.

38. _______________ is defined as a system that combines meaningless elements such as sounds or gestures to form structured utterances that convey meaning.
a. Communication
b. Universal grammar
c. Language
d. Deep structure
Section: Our Human Heritage: Language
Page(s): 76 Type: Factual Answer: c
Rationale: This is a definition of language.

39. The central distinction between human language and other communication systems is that language:
a. is spoken.
b. allows for the generation of an infinite number of new utterances.
c. is learned through explicit training by parents.
d. expresses meaning directly through its surface structure.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Language
Page(s): 76 Type: Conceptual Answer: b
Rationale: Human language allows for an infinite number of new utterances, unlike communication in other animals.

40. An aspect of language that is unique to humans is:
a. the ability to communicate using sounds.
b. the ability to communicate using gestures.
c. the ability to create unlimited, unique sentences.
d. the ability to understand the meaning of sounds produced by others.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Language
Page(s): 76 Type: Conceptual Answer: c
Rationale: Human language allows for an infinite number of new utterances, unlike communication in other animals.

41. According to Chomsky, the surface structure of a sentence refers to:
a. the way a sentence is actually spoken or signed.
b. the intonation used as a sentence is spoken.
c. the way a sentence is to be understood.
d. the gestures used when speaking a sentence.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Language
Page(s): 76 Type: Factual Answer: a
Rationale: Surface structure is defined as the actual sequence of words or signs in a sentence.

42. According to Chomsky, the deep structure of a sentence refers to:
a. the way a sentence is actually spoken or signed.
b. the intonation used as a sentence is spoken.
c. the way a sentence is to be understood.
d. the gestures used when speaking a sentence.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Language
Page(s): 76 Type: Factual Answer: c
Rationale: Deep structure refers to the meaning of a sentence.

43. Which of the following is NOT true?
a. A single surface structure can be associated with more than one deep structure.
b. A single deep structure can be represented by more than one surface structure.
c. A single surface structure corresponds to one, and only one, deep structure.
d. The rules of grammar are used to transform surface structure to deep structure.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Language
Page(s): 76 Type: Conceptual Answer: c
Rationale: A single surface structure can be associated with more than one deep structure and a single deep structure can be represented by more than one surface structure.

44. To transform surface structure into deep structure, children must:
a. attend to the semantic meanings of the words.
b. apply rules of grammar.
c. note the gestures used by the speaker.
d. listen for cues based on intonation and pitch.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Language
Page(s): 77 Type: Conceptual Answer: b
Rationale: Grammar allows us to transform surface structure into deep structure.

45. According to Chomsky, children are born _______________, that is, their brains are sensitive to the core features common to all languages, such as nouns and verbs, subjects and objects, and negatives.
a. able to calculate statistical patterns among words
b. with neural networks
c. understanding deep structure
d. with a universal grammar
Section: Our Human Heritage: Language
Page(s): 77 Type: Conceptual Answer: d
Rationale: Children are born with a universal grammar and language acquisition device.
46. Psycholinguists have found evidence for all of the following EXCEPT:
a. children combine words in ways that adults never would.
b. adults consistently correct their childrens syntax.
c. children in different cultures go through similar stages of linguistic development.
d. children not exposed to adult language may invent a language of their own.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Language
Page(s): 78-79 Type: Factual Answer: b
Rationale: Adults do not consistently correct their childrens grammar.

47. Infants as young as _______________ can derive simple linguistic rules from a string of sounds.
a. 6 weeks
b. 3 months
c. 5 months
d. 7 months
Section: Our Human Heritage: Language
Page(s): 78 Type: Factual Answer: d
Rationale: Research suggests that infants as young as 7 months can derive simple linguistic rules from a string of sounds.

48. Prof. Chung has designed a computer model to determine how children might be able to acquire linguistic features without an inborn language acquisition device. She is likely to view infants as:
a. grammarians.
b. lexicologists.
c. psycholinguists.
d. statisticians.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Language
Page(s): 80 Type: Conceptual Answer: d
Rationale: Many theorists still view language development as a result of experience and infants as statisticians who learn the probability that any given word or syllable will follow another.

49. Theorists have designed these mathematical modes of the brain that can learn some aspects of language:
a. language acquisition devise
b. computer neural networks
c. grammar generation devise
d. personal grammar devise
Section: Our Human Heritage: Language
Page(s): 80 Type: Factual Answer: b
Rationale: These modes are called computer neural networks.

50. All of these findings support an innate ability to acquire language EXCEPT:
a. children combine words in ways that adults never would.
b. parents assist language development by expanding childrens clumsy sentences.
c. children of different cultures go through similar stages of language development.
d. young children derive simple linguistic rules from a string of sounds.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Language
Page(s): 80 Type: Applied Answer: b
Rationale: Parental influence is considered an environmental influence.

OUR HUMAN HERITAGE: COURTSHIP AND MATING
Learning Objectives
3.10 How evolutionary psychologists explain malefemale differences in courtship and mating
3.11 Some problems with evolutionary theories of courtship and mating preferences
3.12 The basic issue that divides evolutionary psychologists and their critics

51. Most psychologists would agree that the evolutionary history of our species accounts for our:
a. engagement in warfare.
b. preference for sweet tastes.
c. willingness to help others.
d. sexual strategies.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Courtship and Mating
Page(s): 81 Type: Conceptual Answer: b
Rationale: A preference for sweet tastes is innate and may result from the survival advantage conferred by this preference.

52. _______________ is an interdisciplinary field that emphasizes evolutionary explanations of social behavior in animals, including human beings.
a. Evolutionary psychology
b. Sociobiology
c. Behavioral genetics
d. Eugenics
Section: Our Human Heritage: Courtship and Mating
Page(s): 81 Type: Factual Answer: b
Rationale: This is a definition of sociobiology.

53. Sociobiology refers to:
a. the belief that human social and sexual practices are innate.
b. the belief that human social and sexual practices are too unique and varied to be due to evolutionary factors.
c. the belief that although biology determines many human characteristics, social behaviors result from the effects of culture.
d. the belief that biological principles can be applied to social and sexual customs in both nonhuman animals and humans.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Courtship and Mating
Page(s): 81 Type: Conceptual Answer: d
Rationale: Sociobiology emphasizes evolutionary explanations of social behavior.

54. When she is teaching a class on Our Human Heritage, Prof. Shelbourne, a sociobiologist, is likely to contend that:
a. evolution has bred into each of us a tendency to act in ways that maximize our chances of passing on our genes.
b. evolution can explain simple behaviors, such as smiling or recognizing emotions, but it cannot account for complex social customs, such as altruism.
c. it is simplistic and misleading for researchers to study nonhuman species and argue by analogy that humans have characteristics with similar evolutionary origins.
d. explanations of infidelity and monogamy are based on stereotypes of gender differences, not the actual behavior of human beings.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Courtship and Mating
Page(s): 81 Type: Applied Answer: a
Rationale: Sociobiology emphasizes evolutionary explanations of social behavior.

55. Sociobiologists suggest that humans behave in ways that will:
a. optimize the chance of passing on their genes at the expense of the genes of their relatives.
b. maximize the propagation of their genes and those of their relatives.
c. optimize the chances for males, but not for females, to propagate their genes.
d. maximize the survival of the fittest members of the community in which they live.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Courtship and Mating
Page(s): 81 Type: Conceptual Answer: b
Rationale: Sociobiologists suggest that humans behave in ways that will maximize the propagation of their genes and those of their relatives.

56. According to sociobiologists, males:
a. need to shop for the best genetic deal.
b. are choosy in their choice of sexual partners.
c. seek secure, stable relationships to ensure the fidelity of females.
d. are promiscuous and drawn to sexual novelty.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Courtship and Mating
Page(s): 82 Type: Conceptual Answer: d
Rationale: Males are promiscuous and drawn to sexual novelty, according to sociobiologists, because such behavior maximizes the propagation of their genes.

57. According to sociobiologists, females:
a. need to shop for the best genetic deal.
b. compete with other females for access to young males.
c. want sex more often than males do.
d. are promiscuous and drawn to sexual novelty.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Courtship and Mating
Page(s): 81 Type: Conceptual Answer: a
Rationale: Females need to shop for the best genetic deal, according to sociobiologists, because such behavior maximizes the propagation of their genes.

58. Which of the following would an evolutionary psychologist expect to be more typical of females than of males?
a. promiscuity
b. choosiness about sexual partners
c. concern with dominance
d. emphasis on physical attractiveness of partners
Section: Our Human Heritage: Courtship and Mating
Page(s): 81-82 Type: Conceptual Answer: b
Rationale: Females need to be choosy and shop for the best genetic deal, according to sociobiologists, because such behavior maximizes the propagation of their genes.

59. Which of the following would NOT support the views of sociobiologists?
a. Males are more likely than females to be promiscuous.
b. Males are more likely than females to engage in frequent sex.
c. Sexual practices of males are highly varied around the world.
d. Males are more likely than females to be undiscriminating in their choice of sexual partners.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Courtship and Mating
Page(s): 81-82 Type: Applied Answer: c
Rationale: If sexual practices of males were highly varied around the world, this would not match the expectations of sociobiologists.

60. Evolutionary psychologists and sociobiologists would agree that:
a. the study of nonhuman species is an effective method in exploring the evolution of human characteristics.
b. human males and females differ in their sexual strategies and practices.
c. the study of human dating and mating practices around the world is the most effective method in exploring sexual strategies.
d. the sexual behavior of the female does not seem to depend on the goal of fertilization because pregnant females continue to have sex.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Courtship and Mating
Page(s): 85 Type: Conceptual Answer: b
Rationale: Evolutionary psychologists and sociobiologists would agree that human males and females differ in their sexual strategies and practices.

61. Critics of sociobiology present all of the following arguments EXCEPT:
a. evolutionary explanations of sexual behavior ignore the variability of human sexual practices.
b. in some species, males are monogamous and, in other species, females are promiscuous.
c. in surveys of humans, both males and females rank qualities like kindness and intelligence as highly important in selection of a mate.
d. in the majority of world cultures, males are more likely to be promiscuous and undiscriminating in selection of a sexual partner compared to females.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Courtship and Mating
Page(s): 83-84 Type: Conceptual Answer: d
Rationale: The first three choices are arguments presented by critics of sociobiology, but they tend to ignore the fact that males are generally more likely to be promiscuous and undiscriminating in choice of sexual partners than females.

62. In a study of 10,000 people in 37 cultures, researchers found evidence that:
a. women, compared to men, are more interested in the physical attractiveness of their partners.
b. women, compared to men, are more sexually jealous and possessive of their partners.
c. men, compared to women, are more likely to emphasize the prospects of a potential mate.
d. men, compared to women, are more interested in the youth of their partners.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Courtship and Mating
Page(s): 82 Type: Factual Answer: d
Rationale: This study showed that men were more interested in youthful partners than women.

63. The strongest predictors today of the mates people actually choose are:
a. similarity and proximity.
b. physical characteristics and facial attractiveness.
c. intelligence and physical characteristics.
d. proximity and facial attractiveness.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Courtship and Mating
Page(s): 83-84 Type: Factual Answer: a
Rationale: Surveys show that similarity and proximity are the best predictors of mate selection.

64. Evolutionary psychologists expect all of the following characteristics to be more typical of males than females EXCEPT:
a. promiscuity.
b. choosiness about sexual partners.
c. concern with dominance.
d. emphasis on physical attractiveness.
Section: Our Human Heritage: Courtship and Mating
Page(s): 85 Type: Applied Answer: b
Rationale: Choosiness about sexual partners is more characteristic of females than males.

65. Evolutionary psychologists have relied heavily on this method to gather data about sexual behavior.
a. case studies
b. naturalistic observation
c. questionnaires
d. laboratory studies
Section: Our Human Heritage: Courtship and Mating
Page(s): 83 Type: Applied Answer: b
Rationale: Questionnaires are the common method to gather information about sexual behavior.

THE GENETICS OF DIFFERENCE
Learning Objectives
3.13 What it means to say that a trait is heritable
3.14 Three important facts about heritability
3.15 How researchers estimate a traits heritability

66. Heritability is defined as:
a. an interdisciplinary field of study concerned with the genetic bases of individual differences in behavior and personality.
b. a process in which individuals with genetically influenced traits that are adaptive in a particular environment tend to survive and reproduce.
c. a statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a group.
d. a statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to environment.
Section: The Genetics of Difference
Page(s): 86 Type: Factual Answer: c
Rationale: Heritability refers to an estimate of the proportion of variance in a given trait within a population that is due to genetics.

67. _______________ is defined as a statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a group.
a. The inheritance quotient
b. Heritability
c. Factor analysis
d. The nature-nurture argument
Section: The Genetics of Difference
Page(s): 86 Type: Factual Answer: b
Rationale: This is a definition of heritability.

68. Which of the following statements is true about heritability?
a. Heritability allows a person to determine how much of his or her intelligence is determined by genetics.
b. A trait with high heritability generally cannot be modified by experience.
c. If a trait is determined to be highly heritable in one environment, it will be so in all environments.
d. Heritability cannot be directly measured; it must be inferred based on studies of people with a known degree of genetic similarity.
Section: The Genetics of Difference
Page(s): 86-87 Type: Conceptual Answer: d
Rationale: Heritability refers to the genetic contribution to variance of a given trait within a group, not in an individual. Traits with high heritability still can be modified by experience, and environment has an effect on heritability. It cannot be directly measured.

69. Which of the following is NOT one of the important facts about heritability?
a. Estimates of heritability apply to variations within a group regardless of environment.
b. Estimates apply only to a particular group living in a particular place.
c. Estimates do not apply to individuals, but only to variations within a group.
d. Even when a trait is highly heritable, it can still be modified by the environment.
Section: The Genetics of Difference
Page(s): 86-87 Type: Conceptual Answer: a
Rationale: The heritability of a trait may vary in different environments.

70. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. It is impossible to know just how a particular individuals genes and personal history have interacted to produce him or her.
b. The most effective approach to estimate the heritability of a trait or behavior is to compare blood relatives within families.
c. Adopted children are studied because they share an environment with their adoptive parents and siblings, but do not share their genes.
d. The heritability of a trait can be estimated by comparing groups of same-sex fraternal twins with groups of identical twins.
Section: The Genetics of Difference
Page(s): 87 Type: Conceptual Answer: b
Rationale: The most effective approach to estimating heritability is to study adopted children.

71. All of the following methods are used in assessing heritability EXCEPT:
a. the study of families where most members share a particular trait.
b. the comparison of adopted children to their biological and their adoptive parents.
c. the comparison of identical twins with same-sex fraternal twins.
d. the study of identical twins separated shortly after birth and reared apart.
Section: The Genetics of Difference
Page(s): 87-88 Type: Conceptual Answer: a
Rationale: A study of blood relatives who share a particular trait is not useful in estimating heritability.

72. _______________ develop when a fertilized egg divides into two parts that develop into separate embryos.
a. Monozygotic twins
b. Fraternal twins
c. Dizygotic twins
d. Wombmates
Section: The Genetics of Difference
Page(s): 88 Type: Factual Answer: a
Rationale: This is a description of the process that leads to monozygotic twins, that is, twins coming from one fertilized egg.

OUR HUMAN DIVERSITY: THE CASE OF INTELLIGENCE
Learning Objectives
3.16 The extent to which intelligence may be heritable
3.17 The most common error in the argument that one group is genetically smarter than another
3.18 How the environment nurtures or thwarts mental ability

73. An intelligence quotient is a/an
a. midpoint in a set of intelligence test scores that is computed after the scores are ordered from the highest to the lowest.
b. measure of the variability of intelligence test scores that is computed by taking every score in the distribution and determining how much it differs from the mean.
c. statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in intelligence that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a group.
d. measure of intelligence originally computed by dividing a persons mental age by his or her chronological age and multiplying the result by 100.
Section: Our Human Diversity: The Case of Intelligence
Page(s): 89-90 Type: Factual Answer: d
Rationale: An intelligence quotient or IQ was originally calculated by dividing mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100.

74. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. The average IQ score for each age group is arbitrarily set at 100.
b. Two-thirds of all IQ test-takers score between 95 and 105.
c. The distribution of IQ scores approximates a bell-shaped curve.
d. Very high or very low IQ scores are rare.
Section: Our Human Diversity: The Case of Intelligence
Page(s): 90 Type: Factual Answer: b
Rationale: Roughly two-thirds of individuals have IQ scores between 85 and 115.

75. The kind of intelligence that produces high IQ scores is:
a. moderately to highly heritable.
b. more heritable in children than adults.
c. only slightly heritable.
d. not heritable at all.
Section: Our Human Diversity: The Case of Intelligence
Page(s): 90 Type: Conceptual Answer: a
Rationale: Intelligence is a trait with high heritability.

76. Which of the following is true with regard to the heritability of intelligence?
a. Heritability estimates are higher for children than for adults.
b. Heritability estimates increase with age up to at least late middle age.
c. Heritability estimates differ for males and females.
d. Regardless of age, heritability estimates for intelligence range from .75 to .90.
Section: Our Human Diversity: The Case of Intelligence
Page(s): 90 Type: Factual Answer: b
Rationale: Heritability estimates for intelligence tend to increase with age.

77. On average, behavioral-genetic studies estimate the heritability of intelligence to be about _______________ for children and adolescents.
a. .20 -.30
b. .40 .50
c. .60 .80
d. .80 1.00
Section: Our Human Diversity: The Case of Intelligence
Page(s): 90 Type: Factual Answer: b
Rationale: Estimates of the heritability of intelligence for children and adolescents are about .40 to .50, but range from .60 to .80 for adults up to late middle age.

78. Behavioral-genetic studies have shown that:
a. for children and adolescents, heritability estimates average around .75; that is, about three-quarters of the variance in IQ scores is explainable by genetic differences.
b. for adults, heritability estimates average around .45 to .50; that is, about half of the variance in IQ scores is explainable by genetic differences.
c. the scores of fraternal twins reared together are more highly correlated than the scores of identical twins reared apart.
d. as adopted children grow into adulthood, the correlation between their IQ scores and those of their biologically unrelated family members diminishes to zero.
Section: Our Human Diversity: The Case of Intelligence
Page(s): 90 Type: Factual Answer: d
Rationale: Because heritability of intelligence increases with age, as adopted children grow into adulthood, the correlation between their IQ scores and those of their biologically unrelated family members diminishes to zero.

79. Which of the following is NOT true with regard to biological and genetic factors and intelligence?
a. The volume of gray matter in the brain is correlated with intelligence.
b. The IQ of adopted children correlates more highly with their biological parents than their adoptive parents.
c. Monozygotic twins raised apart are more similar to each other in IQ than dizygotic twins raised together.
d. Scores of dizygotic twins are more highly correlated with each other than those of monozygotic twins.
Section: Our Human Diversity: The Case of Intelligence
Page(s): 90 Type: Factual Answer: d
Rationale: Dizygotic twins are not genetically identical; therefore they differ more from each other than do genetically identical monozygotic twins.

80. A major problem with genetic explanations of racial differences in IQ is that:
a. although intelligence differs between groups, it does not differ within groups.
b. heritability estimates used in supporting genetic explanations of group differences are based mainly on white samples.
c. the studies supporting a genetic explanation typically use black and white children from comparable socioeconomic groups.
d. genetic explanations are based on linkage studies.
Section: Our Human Diversity: The Case of Intelligence
Page(s): 92 Type: Conceptual Answer: b
Rationale: Heritability estimates are typically based on studies of primarily white individuals.

81. With the left hand, a handful of tomato seeds that vary genetically is grabbed from a bag and placed in a pot. The right hand grabs seeds from the same bag and plants them in a second pot. The first pot has enriched soil and exposure to sunlight whereas the nutrients in the second pots soil have been depleted and the pot is placed in a dark corner. When the tomato plants grow:
a. the heritability of between-pot differences is 100 percent but the heritability of within-pot differences is 50 percent.
b. the differences within each pot are due to environment but the heritability of between-pot differences is 100 percent.
c. the difference between pots is due to variations in soil and sunlight but the heritability of within-pot differences is 100 percent.
d. the heritability of between-pot differences and within-pot differences are equal, ranging from 50 percent to 60 percent.
Section: Our Human Diversity: The Case of Intelligence
Page(s): 92 Type: Conceptual Answer: c
Rationale: In this analogy, the difference between pots would be due to environment, and the differences within pots would be due to genetics.

82. In order to explain principles of the differences in intelligence between and within groups, the authors described a hypothetical tomato plant experiment. Based on this experiment it would be accurate to conclude that:
a. if differences within groups are at least partly genetic in origin, then differences between groups are also genetic.
b. the heritability differences between groups is 100 percent even though the within-group difference is due entirely to the environment.
c. the variation within each group will result from genetic differences but the between-group difference is explained by the different care received.
d. heritability estimates are valid in regard to group differences but not in regard to the variance found within a group.
Section: Our Human Diversity: The Case of Intelligence
Page(s): 92 Type: Conceptual Answer: c
Rationale: In this analogy, the difference between groups would be due to environment, and the differences within groups would be due to genetics.

83. Which of the following environmental factors has NOT been shown to be associated with reduced mental ability?
a. poor prenatal care
b. malnutrition
c. living in rural communities
d. stressful family circumstances
Section: Our Human Diversity: The Case of Intelligence
Page(s): 93 Type: Factual Answer: c
Rationale: Living in rural vs. urban environments is not related to low mental ability.

84. Environmental factors that hinder intelligence include all the following EXCEPT:
a. poor prenatal care.
b. malnutrition during childhood.
c. exposure to lead.
d. intergenerational households.
Section: Our Human Diversity: The Case of Intelligence
Page(s): 93 Type: Factual Answer: d
Rationale: Living in an intergenerational household does not contribute to reduced intelligence.

85. The average IQ gap between severely malnourished children and well-nourished children can be as high as:
a. 5 points.
b. 10 points.
c. 15 points.
d. 20 points.
Section: Our Human Diversity: The Case of Intelligence
Page(s): 93 Type: Factual Answer: d
Rationale: Research shows that the difference in IQ due to nourishment may be as high as 20 points.

86. Lead can damage the nervous system and lead to lower IQ scores. Research in the United States indicates that the concentration of lead in black childrens blood is _______________ higher than in white childrens blood.
a. 50 percent
b. 35 percent
c. 20 percent
d. 5 percent
Section: Our Human Diversity: The Case of Intelligence
Page(s): 93 Type: Factual Answer: a
Rationale: Research shows that black children may have as much as 50 percent more lead in their blood than white children.

87. Raw scores on IQ tests have _______________ in developed countries for the past several decades.
a. been rising
b. stayed the same
c. been falling
d. fluctuated frequently
Section: Our Human Diversity: The Case of Intelligence
Page(s): 94 Type: Factual Answer: a
Rationale: Research shows that scores on IQ tests in developed countries is rising.

BEYOND NATURE VERSUS NURTURE

88. This DNA is not found on genes:
a. unconnected.
b. loose.
c. trash.
d. junk.
Section: Beyond Nature versus Nurture
Page(s): 95 Type: Factual Answer: d
Rationale: Junk DNA is not found on genes.

89. In regard to heredity and environment, it would be accurate to say that:
a. overall, genes cause our personalities.
b. overall, environment causes our IQ scores.
c. the world would be a better place if certain kinds of genes prevailed.
d. nature loves genetic diversity, not similarity.
Section: Beyond Nature versus Nurture
Page(s): 96 Type: Conceptual Answer: d
Rationale: The combined effects of heredity and environment result in great diversity.

90. Which of the following is NOT a potential problem that could result from routine genetic testing?
a. Genetic information could be used to discriminate against individuals.
b. Knowing about a genetic predisposition could result in a premature diagnosis or a self-fulfilling prophesy.
c. Genetic testing could be seen as absolving a person from individual responsibility.
d. Genetic testing could be liberating for parents of a child with a genetic disorder.
Section: Taking Psychology with You
Page(s): 96-97 Type: Conceptual Answer: d
Rationale: Genetic testing could be liberating for parents of a child with a genetic disorder, a positive result of genetic testing. All choices, except this one, could be a problem.

True-False Questions

1. For many years, psychologists addressing questions about human differences tended to fall into two camps; those who emphasized the role of genes in human diversity were called empiricists.
Section: Chapter Introduction
Page(s): 67 Type: Factual Answer: False
Explanation: Empiricists emphasize the role of experience, whereas nativists emphasize the role of genetics.

2. Edward L. Thorndike, one of the leading psychologists of the early 1900s, claimed that in the actual race of life, the chief determining factor is interaction with the environment.
Section: Chapter Introduction
Page(s): 67 Type: Factual Answer: False
Rationale: Thorndike believed that genetics is the chief determining factor.

3. John B. Watson would agree that just as a bird is genetically designed to fly, human beings are designed to use language.
Section: Chapter Introduction
Page(s): 67 Type: Factual Answer: False
Rationale: Watson was an empiricist who strongly emphasized the role of environment, not genetics.

4. Researchers in evolutionary psychology emphasize the evolutionary mechanisms that might help explain commonalities in areas of human psychology.
Section: Chapter Introduction
Page(s): 67 Type: Factual Answer: True
Rationale: Statement of fact.

5. Behavioral genetics is an interdisciplinary field of study concerned with the genetic bases of individual differences in behavior and personality.
Section: Chapter Introduction
Page(s): 68 Type: Factual Answer: True
Rationale: Statement of fact.

6. In general, evolutionary psychologists study human differences and behavioral geneticists study human similarities.
Section: Chapter Introduction
Page(s): 67-68 Type: Factual Answer: False
Rationale: In general, evolutionary psychologists study human similarities and behavioral geneticists study human differences.

7. Genes, the basic units of heredity, are located on chromosomes, rod-shaped structures found in the nucleus of every cell of the body.
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 68 Type: Factual Answer: True
Rationale: Statement of fact.

8. The functional units of heredity that are composed of DNA and that specify the structure of proteins are called genes.
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 68 Type: Factual Answer: True
Rationale: Statement of fact.

9. Within every cell are rod-shaped structures called chromosomes that carry the genes.
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 68 Type: Factual Answer: True
Rationale: Statement of fact.

10 About 200,000 genes make up the human genome.
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 69 Type: Factual Answer: False
Rationale: The human genome is estimated to contain 23,000 genes.

11. The chromosomal molecule, DNA, transfers genetic characteristics by way of coded instructions for the structure of proteins.
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 69 Type: Factual Answer: True
Rationale: Statement of fact.

12. The four basic chemical elements of DNA are identified by the letters A, B, C, D.
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 69 Type: Factual Answer: False
Rationale: The four basic chemical elements of DNA are identified by the letters A, T, C, G.

13. Linkage studies look for patterns of inheritance of genetic markers in large families in which a particular condition is common.
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 69 Type: Factual Answer: True
Rationale: Statement of fact.

14. Researchers have completed a rough map of the human genome including information about what each gene does and where it is located.
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 69 Type: Factual Answer: False
Rationale: This rough map does not include information about what each gene does.

15. In the year 2000, an international collaboration of researchers called the Human Genome Project and a private company, Celera Genomics, both announced that they had completed a rough draft of a map of the entire human genome.
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 69 Type: Factual Answer: True
Rationale: Statement of fact.

16. After a particular gene is located, it is relatively easy for researchers to identify its function.
Section: Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
Page(s): 69 Type: Factual Answer: False
Rationale: It is still difficult to identify a genes function, even when the genes location is known.

17. Evolution is defined as a change of gene frequencies within a population over many generations.
Section: The Genetics of Similarity
Page(s): 71 Type: Factual Answer: True
Rationale: Statement of fact.

18. According to the principle of natural selection, the fate of genetic variations depends on the environment.
Section: The Genetics of Similarity
Page(s): 71 Type: Factual Answer: True
Rationale: Statement of fact.

19. According to the principle of natural selection, genetic variations become more common over time if they are adaptive in a particular environment.
Section: The Genetics of Similarity
Page(s): 71 Type: Factual Answer: True
Rationale: Statement of fact.

20. Over the past 150 years, Darwins ideas have been vehemently rejected by findings in anthropology, botany, and molecular genetics.
Section: The Genetics of Similarity
Page(s): 71 Type: Factual Answer: False
Rationale: Darwins ideas have received resounding support.

21. An evolutionary psychologist would agree that the human mind developed as a collection of modules to handle specific survival problems.
Section: The Genetics of

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