Psychology An Introduction 10th edition by Benjamin Lahey test bank

Psychology An Introduction  10th edition by Benjamin Lahey  test bank
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9 COGNITION, LANGUAGE, AND INTELLIGENCE

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Complete the following statement with one of the primary facets of cognition. Cognition
A) is the basic unit of thinking.
B) is a mental set.
C) processes information.
D) senses internal stimuli.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 271
Style: Factual

2. What are the three primary facets of cognition?
A) is complex, uses expert systems, is generative
B) processes information, is active, is useful
C) subordinate, conjunctive, disjunctive
D) basic, useful, natural
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 271272
Style: Factual

3. Which of the following is a facet of cognition?
A) emotional
B) active
C) useless
D) passive
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 272
Style: Factual

4. The intellectual processes by which information is obtained, transformed, stored, retrieved, and used is called
A) activation.
B) motivation.
C) cognition.
D) emotion.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 271272
Style: Factual

5. The basic units of thinking are called
A) engrams.
B) behaviors.
C) neurons.
D) concepts.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 272
Style: Factual

6. The concept of father suggests that two concepts exist at the same timemale and parent. This is an example of a ______ concept.
A) conjunctive
B) disjunctive
C) prototypical
D) archetypal
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 273
Style: Conceptual

7. When is a concept considered a conjunctive concept?
A) when it has one characteristic
B) when it is simple
C) when two or more features define it
D) when it has an either-or aspect
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 273
Style: Factual

8. The term adult is sometimes used to defined as a person who is (1) 18 years or older, and (2) has completed puberty, and (3) is financially independent. If a person had to have all three characteristics to qualify as an adult, the term adult could refer to a
A) disjunctive concept.
B) conjunctive concept.
C) prototypical category.
D) basic category.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 273
Style: Conceptual

9. A strike in baseball occurs if either (1) the batter swings at the ball and misses or (2) the batter does not swing at the ball when it passes through the strike zone. The concept of a strike is an example of a _______ concept.
A) prototypical
B) natural
C) conjunctive
D) disjunctive
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: High
Page: 273
Style: Conceptual

10. Concepts that are learned more easily than others are called ________ concepts.
A) simple
B) subordinate
C) conjunctive
D) natural
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 273
Style: Factual

11. Rosch believes basic concepts are easier to learn. Which of the following does she use in support of this statement?
A) Basic concepts are very exclusive.
B) Basic concepts are very descriptive.
C) Basic concepts are easily named.
D) Basic concepts are disjunctive.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 274
Style: Factual

12. In Roschs study of the ability of the subjects from the Dani tribe to learn names of colors, she found evidence that some color concepts
A) are learned through heuristics.
B) share common attributes.
C) can be described by shapes.
D) are better prototypes than others.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 275
Style: Factual

13. Natural concepts have two primary characteristics: they are ______ and ______.
A) basic; archetypal
B) basic; prototypical
C) complex; prototypical
D) complex; archetypal
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 273
Style: Factual

14. Which of the following levels expresses the greatest amount of conceptual inclusiveness?
A) hyperordinate
B) basic
C) superordinate
D) subordinate
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 273
Style: Conceptual

15. Which is the correct order of categories, from most specific to most broad?
A) basic, superordinate, subordinate
B) basic, subordinate, superordinate
C) subordinate, superordinate, basic
D) subordinate, basic, superordinate
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 273
Style: Factual

16. Which of the following statements is correct regarding basic concepts? Basic concepts
A) share similar shapes.
B) share few attributes.
C) are not easily named.
D) rarely share motor movements.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 273
Style: Factual

17. When it is stated that natural concepts are good prototypes, a good prototype is actually a good
A) example.
B) indicator.
C) object.
D) concept.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 274
Style: Factual

18. When we use a certain cognitive process to reach a goal temporarily blocked by an obstacle, we are using
A) concept formation.
B) problem solving.
C) syntax.
D) prototypical thinking.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 277
Style: Factual

19. If a cognitive psychologist were to tell you that you have a mental set, what would she mean?
A) You would have more success in problem solving if you were sitting.
B) You only possess two of the three mental operations of the set.
C) You are solving similar problems in the same, habitual way.
D) You are incapable of using heuristic reasoningyour mental set is fixed.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 278
Style: Applied

20. When information is used to reach a goal that is blocked, what is the cognitive process called?
A) concept formation
B) conjunctive thinking
C) problem solving
D) neural pruning
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 277
Style: Factual

21. We tend to use certain steps in the solution of a problem. Before we can understand the elements of a problem, we must _______ the problem.
A) formulate
B) generate
C) analyze
D) evaluate
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 277
Style: Conceptual

22. Janice finished organizing the elements of a problem. Which cognitive operation should she perform next?
A) perceive and formulate the problem
B) generate and evaluate alternative solutions
C) construct a mental set
D) develop a goal state
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 278
Style: Conceptual

23. The correct sequence of cognitive operations used in problem solving (starting from the beginning) is
A) formulate, evaluate, generate.
B) evaluate, understand, generate.
C) formulate, understand, generate.
D) understand, evaluate, formulate.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 277278
Style: Factual

24. After we have generated several solutions, our next task in the process of problem solving is to
A) develop a mental set.
B) evaluate the solutions.
C) organize the elements of the problem.
D) formulate the problem.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 278
Style: Factual

25. Ami solved a problem by using a strategy that guarantees a correct solution. She most likely used
A) an algorithm.
B) heuristics.
C) a mental set.
D) an intelligence quotient.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 278
Style: Factual

26. You make your famous strawberry banana daiquiris for a gathering of your best friends. You use a recipe to ensure the correct combination of ingredients. Which approach to problem solving was used in this example?
A) trial-and-error
B) heuristics
C) expert systems
D) an algorithm
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 278
Style: Applied

27. A person using heuristics to solve a problem would
A) demonstrate functional fixedness.
B) take shortcuts.
C) consider and evaluate every option.
D) always find a solution.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 278
Style: Factual

28. Voting for a candidate based on having heard her on TV rather than on having systematically studied the viewpoints of all the candidates is problem solving based on
A) algorithms.
B) convergence.
C) divergence.
D) heuristics.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 278
Style: Conceptual

29. An algorithm is a systematic pattern of reasoning that
A) leads to a correct solution if followed.
B) generates multiple, possible solutions to test.
C) followed a preprogrammed series of shortcuts.
D) records individual trials and errors.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 278
Style: Factual

30. The tendency to make decisions about what is unknown based on what we know is called
A) trial and error.
B) the representativeness heuristic.
C) an algorithmic approach.
D) the availability heuristic.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 279
Style: Factual

31. Which is safer, flying on a commercial airplane or driving an automobile?
A) You are slightly safer in the air than on the ground.
B) There is no difference in safety between air and ground.
C) You are much safer in the air than on the ground.
D) You are moderately safer on the ground than in the air.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 280
Style: Conceptual

32. When asked what a hanger is useful for, a child says it is useful for hanging clothes. This demonstrates
A) convergent thinking.
B) disjunctive thinking.
C) illumination.
D) an algorithm.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 280
Style: Factual

33. The question how many ways can a paper clip be used? calls for
A) convergent thinking.
B) an objective view.
C) a mental set.
D) divergent thinking.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 281
Style: Conceptual

34. With respect to types of thinking, rigid is to flexible as
A) divergent is to functional fixedness.
B) functional fixedness is to convergent.
C) convergent is to divergent.
D) divergent is to heuristic.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 280281
Style: Conceptual

35. The willingness to consider unconventional approaches, to use imagination, and to attempt to develop new definitions of problems are central characteristics of
A) convergent thinking.
B) intelligence.
C) divergent thinking.
D) algorithmic approaches.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 281
Style: Factual

36. It is thought that creative people have a greater ability to use
A) conjunctive thinking.
B) associative thinking.
C) convergent thinking.
D) divergent thinking.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 281
Style: Factual

37. Creativity is the ability to produce outcomes that are ______ and ______.
A) valuable; common
B) easy to use; unique
C) generational; easy to use.
D) novel; valued by others.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 280
Style: Factual

38. If you are a ______ thinker, you are more easily able to break out of mental sets and think in very creative ways.
A) divergent
B) convergent
C) concurrent
D) divested
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 281
Style: Factual

39. In Wallass problem solving sequence, ______ refers to the initial attempt to formulate the problem, recall relevant facts, and begin to consider possible solutions.
A) incubation
B) preparation
C) illumination
D) verification
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 281
Style: Factual

40. Sudden insight pertaining to the solution of a problem was referred to by Wallas as
A) eureka!
B) aha!
C) illumination.
D) insight.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 281
Style: Factual

41. After working on a calculus problem for three hours, Sue took a two-hour break before going back to the problem. She solved the problem soon after she returned to it. Wallas would refer to Sues two-hour break as a step to problem solving called _______.
A) relaxation
B) preparation
C) incubation
D) meditation
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 281
Style: Factual

42. In the process of problem solving suggested by Wallas, _______ is followed by _______.
A) incubation; illumination
B) atmosphere; preparation
C) incubation; verification
D) preparation; acknowledgment
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 281
Style: Conceptual

43. Bill suddenly realized how to solve a difficult problem. According to Wallas, Bill has just completed the creative process step called
A) verification.
B) incubation.
C) preparation.
D) illumination.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 281
Style: Factual

44. Chuck just completed the step in Wallass creative problem-solving process called verification. Which of the following did Chuck likely do?
A) create a knowledge base
B) compare similarities with other problems
C) test the correctness of a solution
D) take a period of rest
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 281
Style: Factual

45. The type of reasoning that requires a conclusion beyond the information presented (thus relying on information you bring from your own background) is called ______ reasoning.
A) divergent
B) descriptive
C) inferential
D) convergent
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 280
Style: Factual

46. Wallas steps in creative problem solving, from start to finish, are
A) verification, preparation, incubation, illumination
B) illumination, verification, preparation, incubation
C) incubation, illumination, verification, preparation
D) preparation, incubation, illumination, verification
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 281
Style: Factual

47. The semantic meaning of communication refers to its
A) meaning.
B) sound.
C) syntax.
D) grammar.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 284
Style: Factual

48. Which of the following best depicts the meaning of the surface structure of language?
A) the grammatical syntax
B) the spoken word
C) the statements meaning
D) the language in use
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 284
Style: Factual

49. The idea that there are an infinite number of possible things a person can say, and that these sayings come from a finite number of words and rules of language is called
A) fluid intelligence.
B) the Whorfian effect.
C) generativity.
D) syntactic collaboration.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 285
Style: Factual

50. Discovering gold is exciting and It is exciting to discover gold are statements that may mean the same thing, but they have different
A) semantic content.
B) syntax structure.
C) surface structure.
D) phoneme structure.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 285
Style: Conceptual

51. Language codes are to semantic content as _______ is to _______.
A) phoneme; sound
B) language; intelligence
C) surface structure; deep structure
D) conjunctive concept; disjunctive concept
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 285
Style: Conceptual

52. The ability to create an infinite number of sentences from a finite set of words and rules refers to the _______ of language.
A) morphology
B) generative property
C) syntactical property
D) semantics
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 285
Style: Factual

53. When we say that language is generative, we mean that
A) it is passed down from generation to generation.
B) novel language utterances generate new thoughts.
C) there is no limit to what can be said.
D) dialects change over several generations.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 285
Style: Factual

54. How many phonemes are there in the English language?
A) 26
B) 44
C) approximately 12,000
D) an infinite number
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 285
Style: Factual

55. How many phonemes are found in the word tree?
A) one
B) two
C) three
D) four
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 285
Style: Conceptual

56. A teacher insists that diagramming complex sentences helps students comprehend the _______ of the English language.
A) phonology
B) morphology
C) semantics
D) syntax
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 285
Style: Factual

57. The word that refers to the grammar of a language is
A) syntax.
B) semantics.
C) morpheme.
D) structure.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 285
Style: Factual

58. What is the relationship between morphemes and words?
A) Morphemes are closely related to but not the same as words.
B) Every word is composed of one morpheme.
C) Morphemes and words are exactly the same thing.
D) Every word is composed of at least two morphemes.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 285
Style: Conceptual

59. What role does syntax play in the effective use of language?
A) Syntax is the smallest unit of meaning possible.
B) Syntax describes the rules of language use.
C) Syntax describes each of the sounds that can be generated by humans.
D) Syntax refers to the back and forth nature of nonverbal communications.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 285286
Style: Factual

60. Some psychologists hold the idea that we are limited in the thoughts that we have when our vocabulary is limited. This idea is known as the
A) availability heuristic.
B) tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
C) Whorfian hypothesis.
D) generativity effect.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 286
Style: Factual

61. Another term for the linguistic relativity hypothesis is the
A) Wallas constraint.
B) Sternberg triarch.
C) Chomsky declaration.
D) Whorfian hypothesis.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 286
Style: Factual

62. The notion that the more vocabulary or categories a language has, the more varied our perceptions will be, is a theory connected to
A) Rosch.
B) Chomsky.
C) Miller.
D) Whorf.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 286
Style: Factual

63. Several efforts have been made to teach apes human language. Although there have been varying degrees of success, the main issue seems to be whether apes
A) have the anatomy for speech.
B) have the intelligence for speech.
C) can generate new combinations of language.
D) can be taught American Sign Language.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 288
Style: Factual

64. Chimpanzees who have been taught sign language have difficulty with
A) asking for food.
B) syntax.
C) interchanging symbols.
D) combining signs.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 289
Style: Factual

65. Which of the following best describes the language of bees?
A) limited by inheritance
B) somewhat flexible
C) generative
D) not a true language
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 288
Style: Factual

66. Why do some researchers believe chimpanzees have not mastered true human language?
A) Apes lack the physical ability to speak; they lack mental ability.
B) Apes can only mimic language; they do not make sense.
C) Apes use language to get rewards; they only communicate with humans.
D) Apes do not understand syntax; they do not use language spontaneously.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 289
Style: Conceptual

67. A bee in the midst of a tail-wagging dance is attempting to communicate
A) distance and direction to nectar.
B) a threat to the hive.
C) a malfunction of its stinger.
D) abdication of the queen bee.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 288
Style: Factual

68. The notion concerning how well a person uses cognition to cope with the world is known as
A) motivation.
B) intelligence.
C) socialization.
D) nurture.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 290
Style: Factual

69. The Primary Mental Abilities Test is designed to measure ______ different types of intelligence.
A) three
B) five
C) seven
D) nine
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 290
Style: Factual

70. The term g refers to the idea that intelligence
A) is made of genetically inherited abilities.
B) may be grouped into subcategories.
C) has a basic general component.
D) was developed by Sir Francis Galton.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 290
Style: Factual

71. The concept of g would best support the observation that
A) impoverished environments can reduce IQ test scores.
B) the stability of IQ changes with age.
C) people who are good at math also tend to be good at reading.
D) some mentally retarded individuals are spectacularly gifted.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 290
Style: Factual

72. Biological views of intelligence hypothesizes that high g persons
A) respond to stimuli by reducing the number of neural connections.
B) have greater potential for deterioration of complex neural pathways.
C) have more neural connections but process cognitive information more slowly.
D) have more neural connections and process simple cognitive tasks faster.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 291
Style: Factual

73. It is believed that persons with high g
A) have faster reflexes but slower reaction times.
B) have slower reflexes due to more complex neural connections.
C) have both faster reflexes and faster reaction times.
D) do not differ from lower g persons in any measurable ways.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 292
Style: Factual

74. College admission usually requires some demonstration of _______ and _______ abilities.
A) verbal; logical-mathematical
B) logical-mathematical; intrapersonal
C) spatial; linguistic
D) kinesthetic; artistic
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 291
Style: Factual

75. In a discussion of intelligence, the concept of g refers to
A) generational intellect.
B) generic performance.
C) genetic superiority.
D) general intelligence.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 290
Style: Factual

76. Which of the following is an advantage for a person who possesses higher levels of g?
A) faster reflexes
B) slower reaction times
C) more time to make simple judgments
D) slowed reflexes
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 292
Style: Factual

77. The idea that a person must map or identify common characteristics between situations in order to solve problems comes from ______ theory of intelligent behavior.
A) Thurstones
B) Sternbergs
C) Gardners
D) Guilfords
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 292
Style: Factual

78. Sternbergs theory of intelligence is an advance over previous theories of intelligence because it
A) quantifies the g factor.
B) identifies the best heuristics for problem solving.
C) provides a basis for discovering how some people are more intelligent.
D) takes into account all aspects of intellectual functioning.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 293
Style: Factual

79. Sternbergs findings suggest that an important part of intelligent problem solving is
A) careful and deliberate encoding of information.
B) careful and deliberate inferring of relationships.
C) rapid and efficient encoding of information.
D) spending the most time on mapping our characteristics of a problem.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 292293
Style: Factual

80. When you use the knowledge you gained in elementary mathematics to balance your checkbook, what kind of intelligence are you using?
A) fluid
B) surface
C) convergent
D) crystallized
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 293
Style: Conceptual

81. How does crystallized intelligence differ from fluid intelligence?
A) Crystallized intelligence stabilizes before adolescence while fluid intelligence always improves.
B) Fluid intelligence shows age-related declines before crystallized intelligence.
C) Crystallized intelligence is set from birth and fluid intelligence is not.
D) Fluid intelligence improves until retirement age, and at the same time crystallized intelligence declines.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 293
Style: Conceptual

82. The ability to process information quickly and devise strategies for dealing with novel problems is known as
A) generativity.
B) g.
C) crystallized intelligence.
D) fluid intelligence.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 293
Style: Factual

83. Which of the following most accurately depicts crystallized intelligence?
A) The ability to combine syntax and grammar to solve word problems.
B) The ability to learn vicariously from others to solve novel problems.
C) The ability to use new information quickly to devise problem-solving strategies.
D) The ability to used previous knowledge to solve familiar problems.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 293
Style: Factual

84. Regarding intelligence, ______ intelligence tends to improve with age.
A) crystallized
B) generative
C) fluid
D) contextual
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 293
Style: Factual

85. The first person to develop a useful measure of intelligence was
A) Guilford.
B) Binet.
C) Thurstone.
D) Wechsler
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 293
Style: Factual

86. In childrens IQ testing, chronological age refers to the measure of
A) the age of the parents when the child was born.
B) how quickly the child can answer questions.
C) how many questions the child can answer.
D) the age of the child.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 294
Style: Factual

87. Of the following, why are intelligence tests used?
A) to predict behavior
B) to categorize people
C) to measure expertise
D) to normalize society
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 294
Style: Factual

88. Persons raised in collectivist cultures when compared to persons raised in individualistic cultures
A) believe that group influence on behavior is very small.
B) believe that group influence is less than individual influence on our behavior.
C) believe that group influence is much greater on behavior.
D) show no difference in inferences.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: High
Page: 282
Style: Conceptual

89. According to the original Stanford-Binet formula, IQ was calculated as mental age _______ chronological age and the result was _______ by 100.
A) divided by; divided
B) divided by; multiplied
C) subtracted from; divided
D) subtracted from; multiplied
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 294
Style: Conceptual

90. If a childs mental age were higher than his or her chronological age, this would mean that
A) the child is brighter than normal.
B) the child is about average.
C) the child is less intelligent than normal.
D) a calculation error was made.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 294
Style: Applied

91. Which form of IQ is currently used by psychologists?
A) ratio IQ
B) deviation IQ
C) reliability IQ
D) algebraic IQ
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 295
Style: Factual

92. With children, the intelligence quotient is calculated as
A) mental age divided by chronological age, then multiplied by 100.
B) mental age multiplied by 100, then divided by chronological age.
C) chronological age divided by mental age, then multiplied by 1000.
D) mental age divided by 100, then multiplied by chronological age.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 294295
Style: Factual

93. The mathematical approach that Binet used to calculate the IQ of children is known as the
A) deviation IQ.
B) ratio IQ.
C) normal IQ.
D) valid IQ.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 295
Style: Factual

94. The idea of test standardization means that
A) the test measures what it is intended to measure.
B) there is no ambiguity when determining the correct answer on a test.
C) an individuals score is compared with larger groups of people who have taken that test.
D) the test is given in the same way to every person taking the test.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 296
Style: Factual

95. The idea that a test score is stable across two different administrations, or that a test score would be stable if the test were administered by two different people depicts the test characteristic known as
A) reliability.
B) validity.
C) objectivity.
D) standardization.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 296
Style: Factual

96. High school students taking the SAT on the east coast are read the exact same instructions and given the exact same amount of time to complete the SAT as students on the west coast. This feature of administering the same test in the same manner at different locations is known as
A) standardization.
B) verification.
C) syndication.
D) translocution.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 296
Style: Factual

97. Reading the identical directions to every person taking a given intelligence test is an aspect of the tests
A) reliability.
B) validity.
C) normalization.
D) standardization.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 296
Style: Factual

98. When a test is given to a large group of individuals varying in age, sex, background, and so on to form a basis for interpreting an individuals score, the group is referred to as the _______ sample.
A) standardization
B) validity
C) affirmative
D) normative
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 296
Style: Factual

99. If items on an intelligence test can have more than one correct answer, the test is lacking the very important characteristic of
A) validity.
B) reliability.
C) objectivity.
D) uniformness.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 296
Style: Factual

100. Johns psychology class took a test on Friday. On the following Friday, the class was asked to take the same test again. The professor was determining the _______ of the test.
A) validity
B) readability
C) reliability
D) comprehension
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 296
Style: Conceptual

101. Which of the following is the extent to which a test measures what it is intended to measure?
A) nonbiased
B) standardization
C) reliability
D) validity
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 296
Style: Factual

102. Suppose you were given a comprehension intelligence test, but you realized while taking the test that it was not measuring intelligence, just reading speed. Afterwards, you did not feel that the test measured what it was intended to measure. In other words, you felt that the test was not
A) standardized.
B) valid.
C) reliable.
D) normative.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 296
Style: Applied

103. What kind of intelligence test is best for measuring a persons work skills in a particular area?
A) tacit intelligence test
B) Stanford-Binet test
C) the Wechsler scale
D) general intelligence test
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 297
Style: Factual

104. Jane took a test that was supposed to test her practical knowledge of mechanical systems. What kind of test did she take?
A) the Stanford-Binet
B) a reliability test
C) a tacit intelligence test
D) a ratio IQ test
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 297
Style: Conceptual

105. The ability to get things done or everyday intelligence is known as
A) fluid intelligence.
B) tacit intelligence.
C) g.
D) ratio IQ.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 297
Style: Factual

106. Heredity is one of the more important factors in determining ______, according to adoption studies.
A) algorithmic use
B) generativity
C) IQ
D) tacit knowledge
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 298
Style: Factual

107. Which of the following is true concerning the intelligence scores of identical twins?
A) They are very similar.
B) They resemble those of dizygotic twins.
C) They are unrelated to their natural parents.
D) They indicate intelligence is mostly influenced by environment.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 298
Style: Factual

108. IQs of adopted children are
A) more similar to their biological parents than to their adoptive parents.
B) more similar to their adoptive parents than to their biological parents.
C) equally similar to adoptive and biological parents.
D) uncorrelated to either their adoptive parents or their biological parents.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 298
Style: Factual

109. Concerning environmental enrichment, which of the following research results was reported?
A) Beneficial influences were limited to very early childhood.
B) Improved scores of crystallized and fluid intelligence have been reported.
C) Improvements were reported until children reached the age of 9 years.
D) Improvements were reported only after children reached the age of 15 years.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 298
Style: Factual

110. What importance do intelligence test scores have in modern society?
A) The correlation between IQ and success in occupation is low.
B) Persons with IQs below 85 are not employable.
C) There is a correlation between high-tech jobs and low pay.
D) Persons with higher intelligence tend to perform better in complex jobs.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 299
Style: Conceptual

111. The text contends that in modern society complex occupation is associated with
A) pay.
B) intelligence.
C) technology.
D) performance.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 299
Style: Factual

112. One reason that intelligence is a predictor of how well a person performs in a job is that people with
A) higher intelligence train faster than those with lower intelligence.
B) lower intelligence tend to perform better at complex jobs.
C) higher intelligence think of better excuses to avoid work.
D) lower intelligence tend to seek out higher education more often.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 299
Style: Conceptual

113. Which of the following is a plausible explanation for the general increases in intelligence test scores?
A) Decreasing levels of education have led to unexpected increases in test scores.
B) Nutrition and health care have improved dramatically around the world.
C) Life was easier in the early 1900s and students scored better then due to simplicity.
D) Tests have been written and re-written so many times, who knows what they measure?
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 301
Style: Conceptual

114. Which of the following was not given as a plausible explanation for why intelligence test scores have risen over successive generations?
A) improvements in nutrition and health
B) better genetic inheritance
C) increases in levels of education
D) modern increases in environmental complexity
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 301302
Style: Conceptual

115. Why do we need to be cautious about concluding that people are more intelligent than they used to be?
A) Younger people may be more familiar with the types of problems tested.
B) The test items used have actually become easier.
C) The tests do not measure fluid intelligence.
D) Old people have better fluid intelligence than young people.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 301302
Style: Conceptual

116. During the time intelligence scores have risen, people from different regions have become more mobile, choosing mates from regions with people with fewer shared traits (fewer harmful recessive traits). This particular explanation for increases in intelligence scores over time is known as
A) intellectual imprinting.
B) latent learning.
C) hybrid vigor.
D) survival of the fittest.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 302
Style: Factual

117. How much did the educational level of adults in African American families increase between 1973 and 1990?
A) 10%
B) 70%
C) 105%
D) 350%
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 303
Style: Factual

118. Which group showed the greatest improvements in academic achievement between 1970 and 1990?
A) Hispanic youths
B) African American youths
C) white youths
D) white adults
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 303
Style: Factual

119. Because they believe that higher education and favorable employment are determined by a persons ability, the authors of The Bell Curve believe American society is moving toward
A) genetic superiority.
B) intellectual superiority.
C) a meritocracy.
D) an aristocracy.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 303
Style: Factual

120. There are approximately ______ of Americans classified as mentally retarded, which means an IQ below ______.
A) 8%; 100
B) 1%; 50
C) 5%; 85
D) 2%; 70
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 304
Style: Factual

121. Someone scoring a 15 on an IQ test would be classified as ______ retarded.
A) profoundly
B) moderately
C) severely
D) mildly
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 305
Style: Factual

122. Profoundly retarded is a label given to individuals with IQs under
A) 50.
B) 30.
C) 20.
D) 10.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 305
Style: Factual

123. Along with IQ, giftedness is also associated with
A) expertise.
B) creativity.
C) convergent thinking.
D) crystallized intelligence.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 305
Style: Factual

124. The Terman study that followed gifted children from childhood through adulthood found that the gifted individuals
A) were just as successful as non-gifted individuals.
B) had higher rates of adult alcoholism.
C) had a lower death rate than the national average.
D) had average family incomes.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 305
Style: Factual

125. Of the four designations of retardation, which accounts for the greatest percentage of individuals who are considered retarded?
A) profoundly
B) severely
C) moderately
D) mildly
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 304305
Style: Conceptual

True/False Questions

126. Cognition is both an active and useful process.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 271272
Style: Factual

127. The presence of two or more characteristics at the same time defines a disjunctive concept.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 273
Style: Factual

128. Conjunctive concepts and disjunctive concepts are simple concepts.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 273
Style: Factual

129. Superordinate concepts are very inclusive and have many members.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 274
Style: Factual

130. Superordinate concepts are the least inclusive level of concepts.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 274
Style: Factual

131. The habitual way of approaching a problem is called a mental set.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 278
Style: Factual

132. The key to effective problem solving usually is determined by how many possible solutions have been generated.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 277
Style: Factual

133. Using shortcuts to solve complex problems is using algorithmic reasoning.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty:Low
Page: 278
Style: Factual

134. Generally, it is safer to fly in an airplane than to drive an automobile.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 280
Style: Conceptual

135. Loosely organized and unconventional thinking is known as convergent thinking.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 280
Style: Factual

136. Most formal education emphasizes the teaching of divergent thinking.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 281
Style: Factual

137. In problem solving, incubation is a period of rest.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 282
Style: Factual

138. Inferential reasoning involves reaching a conclusion using only the information readily available.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 282
Style: Factual

139. The semantic content of language refers to the sound of the spoken word.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 284
Style: Factual

140. The rules of language are called syntax.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 285
Style: Factual

141. Phonemes are the smallest unit of meaning in a language.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 285
Style: Factual

142. Children learn syntax before they learn morphemes.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 285
Style: Factual

143. The linguistic relativity hypothesis suggests that thoughts are limited by the availability of language.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 286
Style: Factual

144. Bees can communicate in a way that is firmly limited by inheritance.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 288
Style: Factual

145. Apes that are taught sign language can carry on complex two-way conversations with humans.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 288
Style: Factual

146. The theory that intelligence is a single general factor has much more support than the theories that state there are multiple levels of intelligence.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 290
Style: Factual

147. Individuals with higher levels of g tend to have fewer neuronal connections.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 292
Style: Factual

148. Better reasoners take more time to complete the encoding component of problem solving than poor reasoners.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 292
Style: Factual

149. If your mental age is considerably lower than your chronological age, then you would be considered very bright.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 294
Style: Applied

150. Fluid intelligence declines from middle age on.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 293
Style: Factual

151. The WISC-R and the WAIS-R are measures of language acquisition.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 293
Style: Factual

152. One definition of intelligence is what intelligence tests measure.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 294
Style: Factual

153. When large numbers of people complete an IQ test, the scores tend to fall into a normal distribution.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 295
Style: Factual

154. Deviation IQ is calculated by subtracting mental age from chronological age.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 295
Style: Factual

155. Binets approach to measuring intelligence, the ratio IQ, is still the most-used way of measuring intellectual ability.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 295
Style: Factual

156. Norms are used as the basis of comparison for scores on a test.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 296
Style: Factual

157. Objectification is the process of giving a new intelligence test to a large sample of people representative of the general population.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 296
Style: Factual

158. A test of tacit intelligence tests a persons ability to solve everyday problems.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 297
Style: Factual

159. General intelligence is a better predictor of breadth of knowledge than the depth of knowledge in any one area.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 297
Style: Factual

160. IQ scores of monozygotic twins are more similar than IQ scores of dizygotic twins.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 298
Style: Factual

161. The average IQ of doctors and lawyers is approximately 100.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 299
Style: Factual

162. Generally speaking, IQ scores have been declining for several generations.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 299
Style: Factual

163. On average, Asian Americans score higher on intelligence tests than white Americans.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 302
Style: Factual

164. Desegregation is positively correlated with the educational level of adults in African American families.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 303
Style: Factual

165. A child who is classified as gifted usually has a high IQ and high levels of creativity.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 305
Style: Factual

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