Psychology An Introduction 11th edition by Benjamin Lahey test bank

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Psychology An Introduction 11th edition by Benjamin Lahey test bank

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1 INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. When referring to the essence of life, Aristotle used the term ______ translated from the Greek, meaning mind.
A) ludus
B) psyche
C) venus
D) cheiras
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 2
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

2. The writings of Aristotle are important to psychologys origins because they were concerned with the nature of
A) light.
B) life.
C) evolution.
D) energy.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 2
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

3. Aristotle is important to psychology, because he believed that to achieve full understanding of anything we must
A) use Platos philosophical methods.
B) use introspective techniques.
C) think and observe.
D) disregard outward behavior.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 2
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

4. The term psyche when translated from the Greek is most closely associated with the term
A) habit.
B) life.
C) study.
D) mind.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 2
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

5. Why is psychology a science?
A) It attempts to separate the elements of the mind.
B) It uses rigorous methods of observation.
C) It has more than one research method.
D) It uses thought to achieve understanding.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 2
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

6.Which of the following is a key term in the definition of psychology?
A) Behavior
B) Habit
C) Introspection
D) Induction
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 2
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

7. Strictly speaking, overt behaviors are actions that
A) are usually considered illegal.
B) happen when no one else is around.
C) you can directly observe.
D) you can infer from careful observation.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 2
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

8. What does psychology have in common with all other sciences?
A) It is based on Platos methods.
B) It offers proof of theoretical truths.
C) It uses rigorous methods of observation.
D) It directly measures thought processes.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 2
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

9. Which goal of psychology are clinical psychologists attempting when giving recommendations to parole boards about which prisoners to release early?
A) Prediction
B) Description
C) Influencing
D) Understanding
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 3
Style: Applied
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

10. Behaviors refer to actions that are ______, and mental processes refer to events that are ______.
A) public; private
B) legal; illegal
C) private; public
D) illegal; legal
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 3
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

11. Industrial psychologists who design tests to screen new job candidates for various companies in order to hire workers who should perform best are attempting which goal?
A) Prediction
B) Description
C) Influencing
D) Understanding
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 3
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

12. Workers are surveyed about their years of experience and level of job satisfaction. The goal of psychology best illustrated by this survey is
A) description.
B) prediction.
C) understanding.
D) influencing.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 3
Style: Applied
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

13. In psychology, the words describe, predict, understand, and influence relate to
A) descriptive methods.
B) correlational methods.
C) areas of psychology.
D) the goals of psychology.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 3
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

14. Which of the following is a goal of psychology?
A) Translate
B) Manipulate
C) Interpolate
D) Understand
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 3
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

15. Which of the following best describes truth and theory?
A) It takes at least three consistent truths to comprise a theory.
B) Theories that are upheld for at least 20 years are considered truths.
C) Truths are tentative conclusions at best.
D) Theories are not absolute and may be revised over time.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 3
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

16. A psychologist is developing a theoretical explanation about a behavior. To which goal of psychology are theoretical explanations important?
A) Control
B) Prediction
C) Understanding
D) Description
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 3
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

17. To say that a theory is tentative means that it
A) has the support of animal research but not human research.
B) has been proven in study after study.
C) is what we believe right now, but it could change.
D) has the support of human research but not animal research.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 3
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

18. Which of the following is an example of a psychologists attempt to predict behavior?
A) Conducting an experiment to test a theory about teenage sexual behavior
B) Determining whether a job applicant is likely to perform well on the job
C) Implementing a curriculum shown to reduce high school dropout rates
D) Surveying college students about their drinking habits
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 3
Style: Applied
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

19. Which of the following is an example of a psychologists attempt to understand behavior?
A) Conducting an experiment to test a theory about teenage sexual behavior
B) Determining whether a job applicant is likely to perform well on the job
C) Implementing a curriculum shown to reduce high school dropout rates
D) Surveying college students about their drinking habits
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 3
Style: Applied
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

20. A(n) ______ is a tentative explanation of the facts, findings, and relationship in any of the sciences.
A) edict
B) theory
C) law
D) declaration
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 3
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

21. In which time period did psychology became a recognized field of study?
A) When introduced by Aristotle about 2,000 years ago
B) When introduced in Greece around the year 384 BC.
C) When the first laboratory was established in the late 1800s
D) Soon after sciences emerged from philosophy
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 4
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

22. The beginning of psychology as a science began in the discipline of
A) philosophy.
B) physics.
C) chemistry.
D) biology.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 4
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

23. The launching of psychology as a separate field is usually credited to have occurred during the
A) 1500s.
B) 1800s.
C) 1900s.
D) 1700s.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 45
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

24. Which question were structuralists primarily interested in investigating?
A) What are the purposes of mental activity?
B) What influences people to do the things they do?
C) What are the individual components of the mind?
D) What is the basis of forgetting?
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 5
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

25. What was the goal of introspection?
A) To predict which individuals would develop either normal or abnormal personality traits
B) To understand the interplay between the components of the id, ego, and superego
C) To observe the contents of the mind as accurately and unemotionally as possible
D) To determine the fundamental differences between classical conditioning and operant conditioning
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 5
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

26. If you were a psychologist who was labeled a structuralist, you would be interested in the _______ of the mind, using ______ as you primary research method.
A) function; experimentation
B) structure; experimentation
C) function; introspection
D) structure; introspection
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 5
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

27. With which school of psychology are Wilhelm Wundt and his student, Edward Titchener, associated?
A) Functionalism
B) Structuralism
C) Introspection
D) Behaviorism
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 5
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

28. In which school of thought did researchers ask participants to report sensations they were experiencing?
A) Behaviorism
B) Functionalism
C) Structuralism
D) Cognitive
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 5
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

29 . J. Henry Alston was notable as an African-American psychologist and for his studies of the sensations of heat and cold. J. Henry Alston was an early
A) humanist.
B) behaviorist.
C) structuralist.
D) functionalist.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 56
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

30. Which school of psychology focused its studies on perception?
A) Structuralism
B) Functionalism
C) Psychoanalysis
D) Gestalt psychology
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 6
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

31. Which structuralist is best known for the study of heat and cold?
A) J. Henry Alston
B) Wilhelm Wundt
C) Edward Titchener
D) Raymond Cattell
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 56
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

38. Which school of psychology used the phi phenomenon to demonstrate its belief about human consciousness?
A) Gestalt psychology
B) Cognitive psychology
C) Functionalism
D) Psychoanalysis
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 6
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

39. Which approach to psychology would be apt to say the whole is greater than the sum of its parts?
A) Structuralist
B) Gestalt
C) Functionalist
D) Behaviorist
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 6
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

40. The phi phenomenon was used by psychologists to argue that
A) the rate of decay of items from short-term memory is unrelated to encoding strategy.
B) basic elements of human consciousness can be discovered through the process of introspection.
C) perception has meaning only when it is seen as a whole, rather than as a collection of elements.
D) isolating the elements of experience can give a true understanding of behavior.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 6
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

41. The ______ psychologists preferred to study behavior as a collection of elements, while the ______ psychologists preferred to study behavior as a whole, in its entire context.
A) behaviorist; Gestalt
B) structural; functional
C) Gestalt; structural
D) functional; behaviorist
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 6
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

42. In psychology, William James was highly influential in developing the school of thought known as
A) psychoanalysis.
B) Gestalt psychology.
C) structuralism.
D) functionalism.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 6
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

43. If an early psychologist believed that the study of psychology should focus on the purpose of the mind and not on its raw elements, that psychologist would most likely adhere to the school of thought known as
A) behaviorism.
B) psychoanalysis.
C) functionalism.
D) structuralism.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 67
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

44. If you are interested in the functionalist approach to psychology, you would be most interested in
A) how early childhood experiences helped to shape adult behavior.
B) the contingencies and relationships between stimuli and responses.
C) the parts of human consciousness and how they are organized.
D) how human consciousness works to help us exist and survive.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 67
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

45. Using William James analogy, the study of a flowing stream is like ______ as the study of individual water molecules is like ______.
A) functionalism; structuralism
B) structuralism; behaviorism
C) behaviorism; Gestalt psychology
D) Gestalt psychology; functionalism
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 67
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

46. What was the main contribution of Hermann Ebbinghaus to psychology?
A) He demonstrated that mental elements were more important than the concept of Gestalt.
B) He established the first scientific laboratory for the study of conscious processes.
C) He emphasized that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
D) He demonstrated that carefully controlled experimentation can be conducted.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 7
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

47. Who was the early pioneer in memory research that used himself as his only research subject?
A) Max Wertheimer
B) Sigmund Freud
C) Alfred Binet
D) Hermann Ebbinghaus
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 7
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

48. You have learned a list of 20 nonsense syllables. You are tested at 20 minutes, 1 hour, 10 hours, and 24 hours. If you fit Hermann Ebbinghaus forgetting curve you will
A) remember approximately the same number of syllables at 10 hours and 24 hours.
B) have perfect recall only when tested at 20 minutes and 1 hour.
C) forget the largest number of syllables between 1 hour and 10 hours.
D) not remember any of the syllables after 24 hours.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: High
Page: 7
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

49. Who participated in Hermann Ebbinghaus studies of memory?
A) College students
B) Only himself
C) Faculty members
D) Community leaders
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 7
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

50. Why did Hermann Ebbinghaus make up nonsense syllables for his memory studies?
A) By using nonsense syllables comprised of the initials of his friends, he thought his memory performance would be improved.
B) He really didnt have a specific reason for using nonsense syllables, but he thought it was a good idea.
C) Because if he used real words, his prior experience with those words might influence his memory.
D) Because he did not have copyright permission to use words in actual use, so he had to make up his own nonwords.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 7
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

51. Which early researcher studied memory by having his/her participants pair a number and a color together?
A) Mary Whiton Calkins
B) Hermann Ebbinghaus
C) William James
D) Edward Titchener
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 8
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

52. The modern version of functionalism is known as
A) cognitive psychology.
B) neo-behaviorism.
C) neuropsychology.
D) applied genetics.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 8
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

53. In a memory study, you present a color that is presented alongside a number. These items are presented together, at the same time. Later you present the color, and ask the participant to recall (remember) the number. This is called a(n) _____ task.
A) motor memory
B) paired associate
C) limen of consciousness
D) introspection
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 8
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

54. The broad term that encompasses procedures such as perceiving, believing, thinking, remembering, knowing, and making decisions is called
A) consciousness.
B) introspection.
C) cognition.
D) motivation.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 8
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

55. A researcher counts the number of times a rat stands on its hind legs after being placed in a new environment. Given what you know about the schools of psychology, which viewpoint best suits her research technique?
A) Functionalism
B) Behaviorism
C) Gestalt psychology
D) Psychoanalysis
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 8
Style: Applied
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

56. Which contemporary viewpoint combines aspects of behaviorism with aspects from the cognitive perspective?
A) Skinners behaviorism
B) Psychoanalysis
C) Humanistic psychology
D) Social learning theory
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 9
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

57. Followers of Albert Banduras viewpoint would best be described as
A) contemporary psychoanalysts.
B) social learning theorists.
C) Gestalt psychologists.
D) neofunctionalists.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 9
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

58. Important aspects of behavior and mental processes are learned from others. Which psychologist most likely made a statement similar to this?
A) Albert Bandura
B) B. F. Skinner
C) J. B. Watson
D) Max Wertheimer
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: High
Page: 9
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

59. Who won a Nobel Prize for his work on digestion?
A) Ivan Pavlov
B) Sigmund Freud
C) Albert Bandura
D) William James
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 89
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

60. The term conditioning as used by Ivan Pavlov is another term for
A) instinct.
B) learning.
C) introspection.
D) maturation.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 8
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

61. Who is most closely associated with social learning theory?
A) Ivan Pavlov
B) Margaret Floy Washburn
C) John B. Watson
D) Albert Bandura
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 9
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

62. Which of the following is a basic belief of social learning theory?
A) We learn the most important aspects of our behavior from each other.
B) At birth, our behavioral patterns and preferences are established by genetics.
C) Our experiences from ages 05 continually shape the decisions we make as adults.
D) It is more important to understand the function of the mind rather than its structure.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 9
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

63. Which school of psychology was founded and developed by Sigmund Freud?
A) Behaviorism
B) Humanism
C) Psychoanalysis
D) Gestalt psychology
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 9
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

64. What differentiated Sigmund Freud from most of the other influential founders of psychology?
A) Freud was the only founder from a European country.
B) Freud was trained as a philosopher and teacher.
C) Freud was interested in the unconscious mind.
D) Freud was a physician and treated psychological problems.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 9
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

65. You have a friend who appears to be having frequent anxiety attacks. From what you know about the psychoanalytic school, what would a psychoanalyst say was at the heart of your friends problem?
A) Unconscious motives
B) Conscious conflicts
C) Freudian slips
D) Classical conditioning
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 9
Style: Applied
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

66. Which of the following statements is true regarding Sigmund Freuds theory of behavior?
A) Environmental factors influence our behavior much more than hereditary factors.
B) Unconscious sexual and aggressive motives greatly influence our behavior.
C) The best way to raise our children is to treat them like little adults.
D) Behavior can best be analyzed by breaking the mind into its structural elements.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 9
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

67. Which theorist would most likely accuse you of accidentally wrecking your dads car because (though you were not aware of this) you wanted to hurt your dad?
A) B. F. Skinner
B) Sigmund Freud
C) William James
D) Mary Whiton Calkins
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 9
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

68. How does contemporary psychoanalysis differ from the original form of psychoanalysis?
A) Contemporary psychoanalysts are no longer concerned with unconscious motives.
B) Contemporary psychoanalysts place greater importance on motives other than sexual or aggressive.
C) Contemporary psychoanalysis is a much more dominant force in psychology than the original form.
D) Contemporary psychoanalysis does not differ significantly from Sigmund Freuds approach.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 9
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

69. What do psychoanalytic and humanistic views have in common?
A) They believe self-concept is the most important human aspect.
B) They believe conscious processes are unimportant.
C) They view the unconscious mind as a source of human problems.
D) They have nothing but psychology in common.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 9
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

70. Which person is most closely associated with the study of human behavior as it pertains to the unconscious mind?
A) Albert Bandura
B) Sigmund Freud
C) Margaret Floy Washburn
D) Ivan Pavlov
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 9
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

71. According to Sigmund Freud, where do motives reside?
A) At the synaptic gap
B) In the conditioned reflex
C) In the unconscious mind
D) At the corpus callosum
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 9
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

72. Humanists believe that conscious processes are
A) important.
B) nonexistent.
C) unimportant.
D) negative.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 10
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

73. Self-concept refers to the idea of
A) how we came into the world.
B) our view of what we are like.
C) how we conceptualize other people.
D) the relationship we have with our parents.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 10
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

74. The most important aspect of study to a humanist is
A) social learning.
B) conditioning.
C) self-concept
D) neuron functioning.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 10
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

75. Which psychologist founded Frances first psychology laboratory and was a pioneer in intelligence testing?
A) Ren Descartes
B) Alfred Binet
C) Edward Titchener
D) Inez Prosser
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 10
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

76. The first intelligence test was developed to
A) provide France with a college entrance examination.
B) determine educational pathways for children.
C) test the memory abilities of U.S. workers.
D) diagnose mentally retarded criminals.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 10
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

77. If you are studying psychometrics, you are studying the
A) measurement of mental functions.
B) development of mental functions.
C) measurement of physical characteristics.
D) development of physical characteristics.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 10
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

78. Alfred Binets work originated in ______ but has been translated for use in ______.
A) Germany; Russia
B) Russia; France
C) France; the United States
D) the United States; Germany
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 10
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

79. Psychologists who study the role of the brain in psychological processes use the
A) neuroscience perspective.
B) psychoanalytic approach.
C) humanistic viewpoint.
D) sociocultural viewpoint.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 1011
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

80. Which of the following topics would be studied by a neuroscientist?
A) Correlations between behavior and weather patterns
B) Comparisons of scores on test of psychometrics
C) The role of hormones in the regulation of behavior
D) How the formation of gender identity differs between cultures
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 11
Style: Applied
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

81. Who was the first to publish a description of the cells of the brain, now called neurons?
A) Charles Darwin
B) Santiago Ramn y Cajal
C) Albert Bandura
D) Margaret Floy Washburn
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 1011
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

82. If you are interested in understanding the structures of the brain that influence emotion, reasoning, speech, and other psychological processes, then you are interested in studying psychology from the ______ perspective.
A) cognitive
B) evolutionary
C) neuroscience
D) sociocultural
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 1011
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

83. You are told that Dr. Doe researches the behavior patterns of a group of French descendants who live near the mouth of the Mississippi River. Dr. Doe is most likely a
A) humanistic psychologist.
B) biological psychologist.
C) cognitive psychologist.
D) sociocultural psychologist.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 1314
Style: Applied
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

84. A person can only be understood by studying the beliefs and the values of the community in which the person has lived. This statement best exemplifies the
A) behavioral approach.
B) sociocultural approach.
C) humanistic approach.
D) social learning approach.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 14
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

85. One of the values promoted by sociocultural psychologists is the belief that
A) genetics is more powerful than we think.
B) social roles help people know how to relate to each other more effectively.
C) might makes right.
D) different is OK.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 14
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

86. The basic foundation of the sociocultural approach is that our personalities, beliefs, attitudes, and skills are
A) imprinted at birth.
B) preprogrammed at conception.
C) innate from birth.
D) learned from others.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 14
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

87. The ______ perspective had its greatest influences from social anthropology.
A) sociocultural
B) neo-behavioristic
C) psychoanalytic
D) neuroscience
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 14
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

88. Sociocultural psychologists suggest that differences between cultural groups
A) need to be reduced so we can have better understanding of the individual.
B) are smaller than differences between individuals within a given group.
C) arise from biological differences associated with racial genetics.
D) are much greater than differences between individuals within the group.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 1415
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

89. The ______ perspective suggests that to understand someone, we must understand both their beliefs, attitudes, and skills learned from others as well as we must understand their culture, ethnic identity, and gender identity.
A) evolutionary
B) neuroscience
C) psychoanalytical
D) sociocultural
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 14
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

90. Cultural relativity suggests that we should view other cultures as ______ to our culture.
A) inferior
B) unrelated
C) superior
D) different
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 15
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

91. Why did women participate less in the development of psychology than men?
A) Sexual discrimination prevented women from contributing to psychology.
B) Women were not allowed to attend universities at the time psychology was founded.
C) Psychology did not intend to address womens issues, so women were not included.
D) Because politicians at the time would not let women study any of the sciences.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 15
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

92. What is the current enrollment pattern for men and women interested in graduate education in psychology?
A) Men outnumber women.
B) Women outnumber men.
C) Women and men are of equal number.
D) No one knows graduate education enrollments.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 16
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

93. Why does the sociocultural perspective promote cultural relativity?
A) To promote ethnic identity
B) To promote ethnic cleansing
C) To discourage passing judgment on other cultures
D) To discourage the recognition of ethnic differences
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 15
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

94. Persons born into different cultures
A) have very similar values as children.
B) are taught very different values from birth.
C) are quite different from other persons in their own culture in terms of habits and beliefs.
D) cannot and should not be thought of as having different worldviews.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 15
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 5.5

95. One reason that men greatly outnumbered women in the early history of psychology was that
A) the early topics in psychology were of interest only to men.
B) women could work only when they had supplemental income.
C) most women in psychology went into teaching.
D) institutions discriminated against women.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 16
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

96. What did Christine Ladd-Franklin and Mary Calkins have in common?
A) They completed a doctoral program in psychology, but never received a doctoral degree.
B) They challenged the assumption that mental events cannot be scientifically investigated.
C) They developed psychoanalytic theories that led to major changes in the treatment of mental illness.
D) They were the first two women to receive doctorate degrees in American psychology.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 1516
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

97. As psychology developed as a science in the late 19th century, the culture of this time
A) had no effect on its leadership.
B) played only a minor role in the scientific studies.
C) played a large role in the selection of white males as important theorists and researchers.
D) prevented the contributions of European research from being given influence in the field.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 16
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

98. Late 19th and early 20th century psychology
A) was free of racism/sexism because it was a science.
B) became a science because it was free of cultural influences.
C) was dominated by conflicting minority opinions of women.
D) was dominated by white-male thinking and cultural conditioning.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 16
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

99. At the beginning of the 20th century, women who had successful careers in psychology
A) were not married.
B) did not do research.
C) worked alone.
D) were therapists.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 16
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

100. Mamie Phipps Clark and Kenneth Clark were African-American psychologists who conducted research that
A) influenced a decision by the Supreme Court.
B) supported the ideas of the structuralists.
C) discouraged the use of hypnosis.
D) led to the discovery of the neuron.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 16
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

101. Who was the first African American to be elected president of the American Psychological Association?
A) Mary Whiton Calkins
B) Kenneth Clark
C) Gilbert Jones
D) George Sanchez
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 16
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

102. Choose the researchers who provided scientific evidence used by the U. S. Supreme Court to decide the Brown v. Board of Education ruling.
A) Clark and Clark
B) Sanchez and Cajal
C) Calkins and Ebbinghaus
D) Prosser and Brown
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 16
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

103. In the U. S. Supreme Court decision of Brown v. Board of Education, segregated school systems could no longer be considered
A) supported by vouchers.
B) separate but equal.
C) a work in progress.
D) good enough for all.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 16
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

104. Contemporary psychologists can be roughly divided into two groups:
A) cognitive and developmental.
B) basic and applied.
C) sociocultural and evolutionary.
D) structuralists and functionalists.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 17
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

105. A ______ psychologist is interested in changes that take place during the life span.
A) health
B) social
C) developmental
D) cognitive
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 17
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

106. Although related, school psychologists ________ and educational psychologists ______.
A) study the ways children learn; teach future teachers
B) teach future teachers; consult about behavioral problems and test
C) select which students will attend which school; teach future teachers.
D) consult about behavioral problems and test; study the ways children learn
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 18
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

107. There is a specialty in the basic experimental area of psychology that emphasizes reasoning, thinking, and the mental processes associated with perception, language, and problem solving. What is this area called?
A) Sociocultural psychology
B) Neuroscience
C) Cognitive psychology
D) Social learning theory
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 17
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

108. Studying the nervous system as a basis for understanding behavior is characteristic of
A) the structuralists.
B) humanistic psychology.
C) biological psychology.
D) cognitive psychology.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 17
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

109. Psychological research that focuses on uncovering new information without regard to the possible applications is called
A) basic research.
B) spurious research.
C) clinical research.
D) unethical research.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 17
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

110. Of the total number of psychologists, about one-fourth work in
A) basic areas.
B) applied areas.
C) clinical areas.
D) counseling areas.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 17
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

111. All of the following represent applied psychology EXCEPT
A) industrial/organizational psychology.
B) health psychology.
C) developmental psychology.
D) clinical and counseling psychology.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 18
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

112. Psychologists who are trained to test school childrens abilities and consult with teachers would best fit into the category of
A) health psychology.
B) basic research.
C) developmental psychology.
D) applied psychology.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 18
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

113. Psychologists who do their work in industrial settings, medical centers, and school systems often use psychological information obtained from
A) basic research.
B) introspection.
C) counseling sessions.
D) philosophers.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 18
Style: Applied
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

114. Therapists and psychological consultants are considered
A) applied psychologists.
B) basic psychologists.
C) research psychologists.
D) experimental psychologists.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 18
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

115. Job dissatisfaction would be a problem best dealt with by _______ psychologists.
A) applied
B) developmental
C) personality
D) sociocultural
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 18
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

116. Which is the correct order of completion for a psychiatrist, from first to last?
A) Complete medical school, internship in general medicine, residency in psychiatry
B) Internship in general medicine, residency in psychiatry, complete medical school
C) Residency in psychiatry, complete medical school, internship in general medicine
D) Internship in general medicine, complete medical school, residency in psychiatry
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Hard
Page: 18
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

117. Why can a psychiatrist prescribe drugs but a clinical psychologist cannot?
A) Because the psychiatrist was in school longer
B) Because the psychiatrist has received medical training
C) Because the clinical psychologist has not studied human behavior broadly enough
D) Because insurance companies will not let clinical psychologists prescribe drugs
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Hard
Page: 18
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

118. Which is the correct order of completion for a clinical psychologist, from first to last?
A) Completed an internship, attended graduate school, obtained doctorate
B) Completed an internship, obtained doctorate, attended graduate school
C) Attended graduate school, obtained doctorate, completed an internship
D) Obtained doctorate, completed an internship, attended graduate school
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Hard
Page: 1819
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

119. In general, a clinical psychologist would hold a(n) ________ degree.
A) M.D.
B) Ph.D.
C) B.A.
D) M.S.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 18
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

120. What is the major difference between psychologists and psychiatrists?
A) Psychologists treat more severe mental problems.
B) Psychiatrists are medical doctors.
C) Psychologists have a terminal degree.
D) Psychiatrists do not use drug treatments.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 18
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

121. Dr. Ramirez often prescribes drugs to help relieve clients depression. Choose the credentials Dr. Ramirez must have to legally treat patients.
A) A psychiatrist with an M.D.
B) A clinician with a Psy.D.
C) A therapist with an M.S.
D) A clinician with a Ph.D.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 18
Style: Applied
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

122. The practice of psychiatry is most like the psychological specialty of
A) experimental psychology.
B) developmental psychology.
C) biological psychology.
D) clinical psychology.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 1819
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

123. The Psy.D. degree stands for
A) doctor of philosophy.
B) doctor of psychiatry.
C) doctor of psychology.
D) clinical psychologist.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: E
Page: 1819
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

124. What do we know to be true about human behavior?
A) Humans are social animals.
B) People do not have free will.
C) It can only be understood by psychologists.
D) Most human traits are innate.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 21
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

125. Because humans work to feed, shelter, and clothe themselves, we know that human behavior is
A) motivated.
B) maladaptive.
C) selfish.
D) simplistic.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 21
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

126. Most psychologists agree that biology
A) is the only influence of human behavior.
B) influences everyone equally.
C) influences human behavior.
D) does not influence human behavior.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 20
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

127. Most psychologists agree that people can only be understood by
A) recognizing sociocultural influences.
B) looking at brain differences.
C) comparing human behavior to animal behavior.
D) using formal experimentation.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 21
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

128. We passively let experiences teach us about the world and we let experiences mold our personalities. Which of the following is true regarding this statement?
A) The statement was made by a humanistic psychologist.
B) The statement was made by a social learning theorist.
C) The statement was made by a Gestalt psychologist.
D) Most psychologists would reject this statement.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 21
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

True/False Questions

129. Plato, a student of Aristotle, believed that to understand we need to observe.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 2
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

130. Psychology is a science because the government classifies it as a science.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 2
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

131. The ultimate goal of psychology is influence.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 3
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

132. All psychologists use the scientific method to study behavior.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 3
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

133. Theories are scientific truths.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 3
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

134. Understanding is one of the goals of psychology.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 3
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.1

135. Structuralism is an influential viewpoint in contemporary psychology.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 5
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

136. William James believed that introspection was the key to understanding the basic elements of consciousness.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 6
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

137. Gestalt psychologists did not believe human consciousness could be meaningfully broken down into raw elements.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 6
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

138. The work of William James and John B. Watson is sometimes known as mental chemistry.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 69
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

139. Psychometrics is considered an important and practical viewpoint in modern psychology.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 10
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

140. Hermann Ebbinghaus developed a memory testing strategy that involved nonsense syllables.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 7
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

141. Alfred Binets work in psychometrics was initiated by a request from the London Ministry of Education.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 10
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

142. In contemporary psychology, behaviorism is no longer considered a distinct school of thought.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 89
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

143. As a viewpoint, social learning theory has been replaced by the cognitive perspective.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 78
Style: Conceptual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

144. Social learning theory suggests that behaviors are learned from others in society.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 8
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

145. Neuroscientists are coming very close to understanding the connection between brain and behavior.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 1011
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

146. Santiago Ramn y Cajal is credited with the first published description of neurons.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 10
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

147. Humanists believe that people cannot change their own fate through conscious decisions.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 10
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

148. Sigmund Freud believed that conscious mental processes were of trivial importance.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 9
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

149. The sociocultural perspective is a relatively new viewpoint in psychology.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 14
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

150. Christine Ladd-Franklin was the first woman to be granted a Ph.D. in psychology.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 16
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

151. The sociocultural perspective in psychology emerged from another discipline, criminal justice.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 14
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

152. Applied psychologists conduct research in the basic areas of psychology, such as emotion, thinking, and learning.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 18
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

153. Psychiatrists must complete medical school
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 18
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

154. Human lives are a continuous process of change.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 21
Style: Factual
APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

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