Psychology Applied To Modern Life Adjustment In the 21st Century By Weiten Dunn Test Bank

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Psychology Applied To Modern Life Adjustment In the 21st Century By Weiten Dunn Test Bank

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Psychology Applied To Modern Life Adjustment In the 21st Century By Weiten Dunn Test Bank

Chapter 6

THE SELF

 

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

 

Self-Concept

  1. Describe some key aspects of the self-concept.
  2. Cite two types of self-discrepancies and describe their effects.
  3. Describe two ways of coping with self-discrepancies.
  4. Discuss important factors that help form the self-concept.
  5. Understand how individualism and collectivism influence the self-concept.

 

Self-Esteem

  1. Clarify the implications of self-concept confusion and self-esteem instability.
  2. Understand how high and low self-esteem are related to adjustment.
  3. Distinguish between high self-esteem and narcissism, and discuss narcissism and aggression.
  4. Discuss some key influences in the development of self-esteem.
  5. Summarize the findings on ethnicity and gender regarding self-esteem.

 

Basic Principles of Self-Perception

  1. Distinguish between automatic and controlled processing.
  2. Define self-attributions, and identify the key dimensions of attributions.
  3. Explain how optimistic and pessimistic explanatory styles are related to adjustment.
  4. Identify four motives that guide self-understanding.
  5. Explain how downward comparisons and the self-serving bias can promote positive feelings about the self.
  6. Discuss how basking in reflected glory and self-handicapping contribute to self-enhancement.

 

Self-Regulation

  1. Define self-regulation and explain the ego-depletion model of self-regulation.
  2. Explain why self-efficacy is important to psychological adjustment.
  3. Discuss how individuals develop self-efficacy.
  4. Describe the three categories of self-defeating behavior.

 

Self-Presentation

  1. Explain why and when individuals engage in impression management.
  2. Cite some strategies people use to make positive impressions on others.
  3. Understand how high self-monitors are different from low self-monitors.

 

APPLICATION: Building Self-Esteem

  1. Explain when it is inadvisable to increase ones self-esteem and why this is so.
  2. List seven ways to build self-esteem.

 

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES Item Number
1.         Identify some key aspects of the self-concept. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, SG1, TF1
2.         Cite two types of self-discrepancies and describe their effects. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, TF2
3.         Describe two ways of coping with self-discrepancies. 15, 16, 17, TF3
4.         Discuss important factors that help form the self-concept. 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, SG2, SA1
5.         Understand how individualism and collectivism influence self-concept. 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, SG3, TF4
6.         Clarify the implications of self-concept confusion and self-esteem instability. 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, SA2
7.         Understand how high and low self-esteem are related to adjustment. 38, 39
8.         Distinguish between high self-esteem and narcissism, and discuss narcissism and aggression. 40, 41, 42
9.         Discuss some key influences in the development of self-esteem. 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, SG4, SA3
10.     Summarize the findings on ethnicity and gender regarding self-esteem. 48, 49, SG5, TF5
11.     Distinguish between automatic and controlled processing. 50, 51, SG6
12.     Define self-attributions, and identify the key dimensions of attributions. 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, SA4
13.     Explain how optimistic and pessimistic explanatory styles are related to adjustment. 59, 60, 61, 62, SG7
14.     Identify four motives that guide self-understanding. 63, 64, 65, 66, 67
15.     Explain how downward comparisons and the self-serving bias can promote positive feelings about the self. 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, SG8, TF6
16.     Discuss how basking in reflected glory and self-handicapping contribute to self-enhancement. 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, SA5
17.     Define self-regulation, and explain the ego-depletion model of self-regulation. 78, 79, 80, 81, TF7, SA6
18.     Explain why self-efficacy is important to psychological adjustment. 82, 83, SG9, TF8
19.     Discuss how individuals develop self-efficacy. 84, 85
20.     Describe the three categories of self-defeating behavior. 86, 87, 88, 89, SA7
21.     Explain why and when individuals engage in impression management. 90, 91, 92, TF9
22.     Cite some strategies people use to make positive impressions on others. 93, 94, 95, 96, TF10
23.     Understand how high self-monitors are different from low self-monitors. 97, 98, SA8
24.     Explain when it is inadvisable to increase ones self-esteem and why this is so. 99, 100, SA9
25.     List seven ways to build self-esteem. 101, 102, SG10, SA10

Key: Multiple-Choice question numbers appear first, followed by Study Guide question numbers (SG), True/False (TF), and Short Answer (SA).

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. An organized set of beliefs about ones personal qualities and typical behavior constitute ones
  2. self-ideal.
  3. public self.
  4. self-concept.
  5. self-actualization.

 

ANS: c             REF: 177

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Another term for self-concept is
  2. self-ideal.
  3. public self.
  4. self-actualization.
  5. self-schema.

 

ANS: d             REF: 177

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. The self-concept that you have in mind at a given time is referred to as a _________ self-concept.
  2. recent
  3. working
  4. public
  5. possible

 

ANS: b             REF: 177                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the factors that help shape our vision of our possible selves?
  2. Past experiences
  3. Biology
  4. Current behavior
  5. Future expectations

 

ANS: b             REF: 178

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. According to your textbook, people are motivated to maintain a(n) __________ view of the self.
  2. accurate
  3. positive
  4. creative
  5. consistent

 

ANS: d             REF: 178

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. Hazel Markus uses the term ______ selves to refer to ones conceptions about the kind of person one might become in the future.
  2. possible
  3. timeless
  4. potential
  5. expected

 

ANS: a             REF: 178

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Some researchers believe that self-concept is most likely to change when a person
  2. reaches puberty.
  3. moves to a new city.
  4. has his or her first sexual encounter.
  5. is faced with an approach-approach conflict.

 

ANS: b             REF: 178

OBJ: 1             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. A mismatching of self-perceptions is termed
  2. ideal self.
  3. self-discrepancy.
  4. self-complexity.
  5. self-awareness.

 

ANS: b             REF: 178

OBJ: 2             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. According to E. Tory Higgins, which of the following is NOT one of the three types of self-perceptions that people have?
  2. Unrealistic
  3. Actual
  4. Ideal
  5. Ought

 

ANS: a             REF: 178

OBJ: 2             KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

  1. According to E. Tory Higgins, a discrepancy between the actual self and the ideal self is most likely to trigger which of the following emotions?
  2. Dejection
  3. Agitation
  4. Apprehension
  5. Ambivalence

 

ANS: a             REF: 178                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 2             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Difficult

 

 

  1. A woman who describes herself as frank and honest but who, in fact, lies frequently is manifesting her
  2. self-concept.
  3. self-conflict.
  4. self-discrepancy.
  5. self-ambivalence.

 

ANS: c             REF: 178

OBJ: 2             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. If you are feeling anxious because you know that you should have visited your sick great aunt in the convalescent home over the holidays, you are experiencing a discrepancy between your actual self and your _________ self.
  2. unrealistic
  3. possible
  4. ought
  5. working

 

ANS: c             REF: 178

OBJ: 2             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

  1. Matt is slightly overweight and out of shape but would like to be lean and athletic. His most probable emotional reaction to this type of self-discrepancy would be
  2. anger.
  3. irritability.
  4. guilt.
  5. dejection.

 

ANS: d             REF: 178

OBJ: 2             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. As actual-ideal discrepancies outnumber actual-ideal congruencies, cheerfulness decreases and
  2. sadness increases.
  3. sadness decreases.
  4. anxiety increases.
  5. anxiety decreases.

 

ANS: a             REF: 178

OBJ: 2             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a coping technique used to deal with self-discrepancies?
  2. Consuming alcohol
  3. Being more optimistic about your actual abilities
  4. Avoiding situations that increase self-awareness
  5. Changing behaviors to be more in line with personal standards

 

ANS: b             REF: 179                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 3             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. Substance use in response to feelings of self-discrepancy is an example of a type of coping technique known as
  2. social comparison.
  3. blunting self-awareness.
  4. changing ones behavior.
  5. expanding the possible self.

 

ANS: b             REF: 180

OBJ: 3             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Taking tennis lessons in response to a self-discrepancy in the area of athleticism is an example of a coping technique called
  2. improving self-awareness.
  3. blunting self-awareness.
  4. expanding the possible self.
  5. changing ones behavior.

 

ANS: d             REF: 179

OBJ: 3             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following researchers proposed social comparison theory?
  2. Albert Bandura
  3. E. Tory Higgins
  4. Leon Festinger
  5. Martin Seligman

 

ANS: c             REF: 180                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 4             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The term reference group refers to
  2. your library study partners.
  3. behavioral qualities of your ideal self.
  4. a set of people against whom you compare yourself.
  5. the group to which your ideal self might belong.

 

ANS: c             REF: 180

OBJ: 4             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. The most likely reference group for a first-year medical student would be
  2. first-year medical students.
  3. medical interns.
  4. first-year medical residents.
  5. newly board-certified doctors in the specialty that interests that student.

 

ANS: a             REF: 180

OBJ: 4             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. Social context affects self-concept in all of the following ways except
  2. being less self-conscious in some situations.
  3. how people think and feel about others.
  4. a situation can indirectly affect self-concept.
  5. only aspects of self that are central to who you are will be affected.

 

ANS: d             REF: 182                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 4             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Difficult

 

  1. Research has shown that childrens self-perceptions are more strongly related to their ______ than to their parents attitudes toward them.
  2. friends attitudes toward them
  3. siblings attitudes toward them
  4. perceptions of their physical appearance
  5. perceptions of their parents attitudes toward them

 

ANS: d             REF: 182

OBJ: 4             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Individuals early self-concept is ______ by the feedback they get from their parents.
  2. shaped more by friends than
  3. shaped significantly
  4. unaffected
  5. affected less by perceptions than

 

ANS: b             REF: 182

OBJ: 4             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. There is evidence that a close partners support and affirmation can bring a loved ones actual self-views and behavior more in line with his or her ideal self. Researchers refer to this as the
  2. Michelangelo phenomenon.
  3. stage-manage phenomenon.
  4. significant-construct experience.
  5. exceptional person experience.

 

ANS: a             REF: 182

OBJ: 4             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. ______ involves putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining ones identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships.
  2. Individualism
  3. Behaviorism
  4. Collectivism
  5. Humanism

 

ANS: a             REF: 183                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 5             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. Mainstream American culture would most accurately be described as
  2. collectivist.
  3. humanist.
  4. individualist.
  5. behaviorist.

 

ANS: c             REF: 183

OBJ: 5             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Individuals reared in individualistic cultures are less likely than individuals from collectivist cultures to perceive themselves as
  2. unique.
  3. self-contained.
  4. distinct from others.
  5. interdependent.

 

ANS: d             REF: 183

OBJ: 5             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Look out for number one is an attitude that is most likely associated with an individual
  2. from an individualistic culture.
  3. with an interdependent view.
  4. with a shared sense of responsibility.
  5. from a collectivistic culture.

 

ANS: a             REF: 183

OBJ: 5             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. People from a collectivistic culture are less likely than those from individualistic cultures to have which of the following traits?
  2. An interdependent view of self
  3. Adjust themselves to needs of the group
  4. Strive for self-satisfaction
  5. Sense of shared responsibility

 

ANS: c             REF: 183

OBJ: 5             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Your friend Tyra has decided to postpone starting business school for two years in order to help her family operate their small hardware store during her dads illness. She is exhibiting a characteristic behavior of persons from a(n) _____________ culture.
  2. individualistic
  3. collectivistic
  4. behavioristic
  5. humanistic

 

ANS: b             REF: 183                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 5             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. Research suggests that increases in a cultures affluence and social mobility tend to be accompanied by increases in
  2. collectivism.
  3. individualism.
  4. stereotyping.
  5. obedience.

 

ANS: b             REF: 183

OBJ: 5             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is the best description of the way that men and women tend to get their social needs met?
  2. Both men and women display relational interdependence.
  3. Both men and women display collective interdependence.
  4. Men are more likely to display collective interdependence, and women are more likely to display relational interdependence.
  5. Women are more likely to display collective interdependence, and men are more likely to display relational interdependence.

 

ANS: c             REF: 184

OBJ: 5             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Difficult

 

  1. People assess personal worth through
  2. authentic self.
  3. public self.
  4. self-esteem.
  5. self-ideal.

 

ANS: c             REF: 184

OBJ: 6             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true of research on self-esteem?
  2. Most of the data are correlational.
  3. Self-esteem may be both a cause and an effect.
  4. Information is usually derived from self-reports.
  5. Self-esteem measures are accurate.

 

ANS: d             REF: 185-186

OBJ: 6             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following must be kept in mind when one interprets the results of research on self-esteem?
  2. Self-esteem is only a fair predictor of happiness.
  3. One cannot draw causal conclusions regarding self-esteem based on the research.
  4. It is a fascinating topic related to psychological adjustment.
  5. Self-esteem is a popular concept in psychology.

 

ANS: b             REF: 185-186              MSC: WWW

OBJ: 6             KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true of self-esteem according to the research?
  2. Self-esteem is generally stable over time.
  3. People vary in the degree to which they experience self-esteem as stable.
  4. Self-esteem may fluctuate in the short term in response to situational factors.
  5. All of these are true according to the research.

 

ANS: d             REF: 185

OBJ: 6             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The self-views of those who appear to have low self-esteem are _____________ than those of people with high self-esteem.
  2. more confused
  3. more negative
  4. less accurate
  5. less culturally based

 

ANS: a             REF: 185

OBJ: 6             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT consistent with empirical data?
  2. Self-esteem is strongly related to happiness.
  3. Low self-esteem has been shown to be a reliable cause of improvement in academic performance.
  4. Self-esteem is unrelated to how quickly love relationships end.
  5. Objective data gathered from peers indicates that people with high self-esteem are more likeable and make better impressions than those with low self-esteem.

 

ANS: d             REF: 186                     NOT: New

OBJ: 7             KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

  1. Sociometer theory suggests that self-esteem is
  2. an objective measure of ones worth and competence.
  3. a subjective measure of ones interpersonal popularity and success.
  4. an unstable measure of ones worth and accomplishments.
  5. a stable measure of ones strengths and weaknesses.

 

ANS: b             REF: 186                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 7             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. _______________ is a sense of grandiose self-importance.
  2. Self-esteem
  3. Narcissism
  4. Individualism
  5. Self-efficacy

 

ANS: b             REF: 187

OBJ: 8             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. Baumeisters research suggests that a narcissist who experiences an ego threat is likely to
  2. work hard to counter the threat.
  3. become aggressive or violent.
  4. quit trying.
  5. use indirect strategies to avoid the threat.

 

ANS: b             REF: 187

OBJ: 8             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Research on narcissism may have practical use for professionals who are trying to rehabilitate
  2. those who engage in domestic violence.
  3. drug addicts.
  4. women with eating disorders.
  5. college professors.

 

ANS: a             REF: 187

OBJ: 8             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Maccoby and Martins research suggests that parental ___________ and ___________ are major determinants of a childs self esteem.
  2. income; employment
  3. health; happiness
  4. narcissism; self-esteem
  5. acceptance; control

 

ANS: d             REF: 189

OBJ: 9             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Affectionate, accepting, involved, and democratic parents may well produce offspring who tend to be
  2. high in self-esteem.
  3. sensation-seekers.
  4. high self-monitors.
  5. emotionally dependent.

 

ANS: a             REF: 189

OBJ: 9             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Teds mother wears a t-shirt that says Because Im your mom, thats why! She is usually critical of her son and his friends, and only rarely allows him to give his opinion in family decision-making. Teds mom is exhibiting the traits associated with the __________ parenting style.
  2. permissive
  3. authoritative
  4. authoritarian
  5. neglectful

 

ANS: c             REF: 189                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 9             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. According to Baumrinds parental classification system, authoritative parents display
  2. high acceptance and high control.
  3. high acceptance and low control.
  4. low acceptance and low control.
  5. low acceptance and high control.

 

ANS: a             REF: 189

OBJ: 9             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the correlation of parenting style with self-esteem from highest to lowest?
  2. Authoritarian > permissive > authoritative > neglectful
  3. Authoritative > authoritarian > permissive > neglectful
  4. Permissive > authoritative > neglectful > authoritarian
  5. Authoritative > permissive > neglectful > authoritarian

 

ANS: b             REF: 189

OBJ: 9             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following is most consistent with the research data?
  2. Self-esteem of Asians is higher than that of Hispanics.
  3. White females have higher self-esteem than white males.
  4. Minority females have lower self-esteem than minority males.
  5. Blacks have higher self-esteem than whites.

 

ANS: d             REF: 189                     NOT: New

OBJ: 10                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The largest gender differences in self-esteem have been found for
  2. 10-12-year-olds.
  3. 15-18-year-olds.
  4. 20-25-year-olds.
  5. 25-29-year-olds.

 

ANS: b             REF: 190

OBJ: 10                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Driving a car to work in normal traffic conditions is an example of a cognitive task that is done mainly by
  2. instinct.
  3. controlled processing.
  4. automatic processing.
  5. mindful processing.

 

ANS: c             REF: 190

OBJ: 11                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. _______ helps to explain the ability to pick out our name in a room full of chattering people.
  2. Selective attention
  3. Automatic processing
  4. Mindfulness
  5. Narrow attention

 

ANS: a             REF: 191

OBJ: 11                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following theorists was the first to suggest that people tend to attribute behavior to either internal or external causes?
  2. Fritz Heider
  3. Albert Bandura
  4. Erik Erikson
  5. Sigmund Freud

 

ANS: a             REF: 191

OBJ: 12                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. ________ are the inferences that people make about what causes their behavior.
  2. Automatic processes
  3. Controlled processes
  4. Self-attributions
  5. Explanatory styles

 

ANS: c             REF: 191                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 12                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Internal attributions ascribe causes of behavior to ______ factors.
  2. situational
  3. personal
  4. interpersonal
  5. environmental

 

ANS: b             REF: 191

OBJ: 12                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Research suggests that people who attribute their failures to internal causes while discounting external causes may be more prone to ______ than people who display opposite tendencies.
  2. shyness
  3. depression
  4. cognitive dissonance
  5. the fundamental attribution error

 

ANS: b             REF: 191

OBJ: 12                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. Which of the following would be considered an example of an internal-stable factor in attribution?
  2. Ones effort at the task
  3. Ones feelings about ones boss
  4. Ones health at the time of the task
  5. Ones ability for the task in question

 

ANS: d             REF: 191

OBJ: 12                       KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of an external-unstable factor in attribution?
  2. Bad luck
  3. Ones self-esteem
  4. Lack of ability
  5. The nature of the task

 

ANS: a             REF: 191

OBJ: 12                       KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. All of the following are dimensions of the attributional process except
  2. internal versus external.
  3. automatic versus controlled.
  4. stable versus unstable.
  5. controllable versus uncontrollable.

 

ANS: b             REF: 191-192

OBJ: 12                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The tendency to use similar causal explanations for a wide variety of events in ones life is known as
  2. self-attribution.
  3. explanatory style.
  4. self-categorization.
  5. homogeneity of attribution.

 

ANS: b             REF: 192

OBJ: 13                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Lisa thinks that the reason she didnt get the job was that the interviewer was prejudiced against people from the Midwest. This is an example of
  2. pessimistic explanatory style.
  3. optimistic explanatory style.
  4. lack of explanatory style.
  5. the fundamental attribution error.

 

ANS: b             REF: 192

OBJ: 13                       KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Difficult

 

 

  1. People who attribute their setbacks to internal, stable, and global factors are exhibiting a(n) ______ explanatory style.
  2. irrational
  3. coherent
  4. pessimistic
  5. optimistic

 

ANS: c             REF: 193                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 13                       KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. People who tend to attribute their setbacks to external, unstable, specific factors are exhibiting
  2. an optimistic explanatory style.
  3. a pessimistic attributional style.
  4. poor self-image and low self-esteem.
  5. the fundamental attribution error.

 

ANS: a             REF: 192

OBJ: 13                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Research indicates that people with negative self-views preferred partners who viewed them
  2. positively.
  3. negatively.
  4. realistically.
  5. unrealistically.

 

ANS: b             REF: 193

OBJ: 14                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Advertisers of personal care products are tapping into the _____________ motive.
  2. self-enhancement
  3. self-improvement
  4. self-assessment
  5. self-verification

 

ANS: b             REF: 193                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 14                       KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

  1. Illusions of control and the better than average effect are examples of
  2. self-enhancement.
  3. self-improvement.
  4. self-assessment.
  5. self-verification.

 

ANS: a             REF: 194

OBJ: 14                       KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. Who of the following does NOT provide an illustration of self-enhancement?
  2. Juan asserts that he has above average intelligence.
  3. June prefers to be with partners who hold a similar view of her as she does of herself.
  4. Jimmy picks his own lottery numbers.
  5. Janey predicts that she will have below average problems in her future.

 

ANS: b             REF: 194

OBJ: 14                       KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Difficult

 

  1. Margaret earned a C on her psychology paper. She began to reassure herself that at least she did not get a D like Debbie. This is an example of which strategy for self-enhancement?
  2. Self-serving bias
  3. Downward comparison
  4. Self-handicapping
  5. Reflected glory

 

ANS: b             REF: 194                     NOT: New

OBJ: 14                       KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

  1. The tendency to use various strategies to maintain a positive view of the self is called
  2. self-verification.
  3. self-serving bias.
  4. self-enhancement.
  5. fundamental attribution error.

 

ANS: c             REF: 194

OBJ: 15                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. An individual who recently had preventive bypass surgery might think, At least I didnt have a serious heart attack like my older brother did. This thinking exemplifies the strategy known as
  2. self-serving bias.
  3. pessimistic explanatory style.
  4. downward social comparison.
  5. basking in reflected glory.

 

ANS: c             REF: 194

OBJ: 15                       KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Self-serving bias is the tendency to take credit for our ______ and disavow responsibility for ______.
  2. failures; our successes
  3. successes; our failures
  4. own successes; our friends successes
  5. own successes; the successes of those we dont like

 

ANS: b             REF: 194

OBJ: 15                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. Which of the following is consistent with the self-serving bias?
  2. The tendency to attribute ones successes to situational factors

b          The tendency to attribute ones successes to the ease of the task

  1. The tendency to attribute ones failures to situational factors
  2. The tendency to attribute ones failures to dispositional factors

 

ANS: c             REF: 194                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 15                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. In contrast to Americans, Japanese are likely to exhibit a _____________ in explaining successes.
  2. self-serving bias
  3. self-effacing bias
  4. self-efficacious bias
  5. self-enhancing bias

 

ANS: b             REF: 194

OBJ: 15                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. The notion of basking in reflected glory was proposed by
  2. Albert Bandura.
  3. Robert Cialdini.
  4. Roy Baumeister.
  5. Martin Seligman.

 

ANS: b             REF: 195

OBJ: 16                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The tendency to sabotage ones performance to provide an excuse for possible failure is called
  2. self-centered bias.
  3. self-serving bias.
  4. self-handicapping.
  5. basking in reflected failure.

 

ANS: c             REF: 196

OBJ: 16                       KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

  1. Someone who says, I probably wont do well on the exam because I was up all night with a sick friend, is using the strategy of
  2. projection.
  3. reaction formation.
  4. self-handicapping.
  5. basking in reflected glory.

 

ANS: c             REF: 196

OBJ: 16                       KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. Even though she never met him, Jane told all of her friends that the new mayor of their town was her second cousin. Jane was using the method of self-enhancement known as
  2. downward social comparison.
  3. upward social comparison.
  4. basking in reflected glory.
  5. CORFing.

 

ANS: c             REF: 195

OBJ: 16                       KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Some negative self-views can lead to success by
  2. strengthening resolve.
  3. working hard to avoid worst-case scenarios.
  4. providing emotional dividends when one outperforms ones goal.
  5. all of these.

 

ANS: d             REF: 196                     NOT: New

OBJ: 16                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Robert was trying to decide whether to go to the library for a study session or go to the local coffee shop for a break. He is facing
  2. self-handicapping.
  3. self-regulation.
  4. self-efficacy.
  5. self-esteem.

 

ANS: b             REF: 197

OBJ: 17                       KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate             NOT: New

 

  1. Self-regulation refers to
  2. directing and controlling ones behavior.
  3. maintaining a positive self-esteem in the face of adversity.
  4. consistently using internal attributions in an effort to take personal responsibility.
  5. using time-saving devices that promote self-efficiency.

 

ANS: a             REF: 197

OBJ: 17                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. If you use self-control resources by resisting temptation in a given situation,
  2. you are more likely to resist temptation in the future.
  3. you may have a hard time resisting the next temptation.
  4. you are more likely to be able to persist at a new and difficult task.
  5. you may have difficulty showing empathy for those who exhibit poor self-control.

 

ANS: b             REF: 197

OBJ: 17                       KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. Unlike her coworkers, Susan resisted the temptation to overeat at the company retreat potluck. Following the potluck, the coworkers were put into groups and asked to tackle some difficult work-related tasks. The likelihood that Susan would give up more quickly than her coworkers is consistent with
  2. the ego depletion model of self-regulation.
  3. the ego integrity model of self-efficacy.
  4. self-handicapping.
  5. self-sandbagging.

 

ANS: a             REF: 197

OBJ: 17                       KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Research indicates that self-efficacy is related to all of the following except
  2. career choice.
  3. responses to stress.
  4. performance on tasks.
  5. intelligence.

 

ANS: d             REF: 198

OBJ: 18                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Self-efficacy is most associated with
  2. skill level.
  3. beliefs.
  4. intelligence.
  5. encouragement.

 

ANS: b             REF: 198

OBJ: 18                       KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a source of self-efficacy?
  2. Mastering new skills
  3. Watching others perform a skill one wants to learn
  4. Soliciting encouragement and advice from others
  5. Comparing ones self to others who are less fortunate

 

ANS: d             REF: 198                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 19                       KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Difficult

 

  1. The best way for parents, teachers, and coaches to instill high self-efficacy in children is to
  2. set low, attainable goals to increase the probability of frequent success.
  3. set high, attainable goals and encourage children to persevere until they succeed and learn from their mistakes.
  4. set high, unattainable goals that teach children to persevere even when they cannot succeed.
  5. set high, unattainable goals that teach children how to accept defeat.

 

ANS: b             REF: 198-199

OBJ: 19                       KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. The habitual use of misguided or ineffective strategies for achieving desirable outcomes is called
  2. deliberate self-destruction.
  3. tradeoff.
  4. ingratiation.
  5. counterproductive.

 

ANS: d             REF: 200

OBJ: 20                       KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Self-defeating behaviors include all of the following except
  2. self-efficacy failure.
  3. counterproductive strategies.
  4. deliberate self-destruction.
  5. trade-offs.

 

ANS: a             REF: 199-200              NOT: New

OBJ: 20                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following does NOT typically underlie most self-defeating trade-offs?
  2. Poor judgment
  3. Emotional distress
  4. Intentional self-harm
  5. High self-awareness

 

ANS: c             REF: 200

OBJ: 20                       KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. People engage in counterproductive strategies because
  2. they are intent on self-defeat.
  3. they believe they will eventually be successful.
  4. they are masochistic.
  5. they are experiencing only minimal emotional arousal.

 

ANS: b             REF: 164

OBJ: 20                       KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

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