Psychology Themes and Variations 10th Edition by Wayne Weiten Test bank

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Psychology Themes and Variations 10th Edition by Wayne Weiten Test bank

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Chapter 4 Multiple-Choice Items

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. While ____ involves the stimulation of sense organs, ____ involves the selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory input.
a. perception; sensation
b. sensation; perception
c. activation; sensation
d. activation; perception

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

2. Charlies eyes function normally, but he is unable to recognize objects. Charlie is suffering from
a. visual agnosia.
b. inattention.
c. inattentional blindness.
d. prosopagnosia.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

3. The wavelength of light mainly affects our perception of
a. color.
b. brightness.
c. saturation.
d. light purity.

ANS: A PTS: 1
REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight TOP: WWW
DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 85%

4. Our perception of the brightness of a color is affected mainly by
a. the wavelength of light waves.
b. the amplitude of light waves.
c. the purity of light waves.
d. the saturation of light waves.

ANS: B PTS: 1
REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 70%

5. Our perception of the richness, or saturation, of a color is affected mainly by
a. the wavelength of light waves.
b. the amplitude of light waves.
c. the purity of light waves.
d. the saturation of light waves.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

6. If the human eye were not responsive to differences in the wavelength of light, we would not be able to perceive differences in
a. brightness.
b. saturation.
c. color.
d. purity.

ANS: C PTS: 1
REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight DIF: Think Critically
NOTES: Correct = 81%

7. The area of a retina that effects firing of a cell is called the
a. cone.
b. foveal field.
c. rod.
d. receptive field.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

8. Which of the following is NOT an aspect of vision associated with cones?
a. high visual acuity
b. daytime vision
c. peripheral vision
d. color vision

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

9. If the human eye were not responsive to differences in the amplitude of light waves, we would not be able to perceive differences in
a. saturation.
b. purity.
c. color.
d. brightness.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Think Critically

10. Light, the stimulus for vision, is
a. a form of chemical energy.
b. a form of mechanical energy.
c. a form of electromagnetic energy.
d. the result of vibrations of molecules.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

11. A red light, green light, and blue light differ in
a. amplitude.
b. complexity.
c. wavelength.
d. purity.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

12. Petra looked directly into a very bright light and damaged her retina. The ophthalmologist has told her that she has sustained massive damage to her cones, but for the most part her rods have not been affected. One change that you could predict for Petras vision is that she will now have
a. poor vision in low illumination.
b. poor peripheral vision.
c. no color vision.
d. more accurate depth perception.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

13. Isaiah is having his eyes checked. The doctor has put drops in Isaiahs eyes that will cause the pupils to open wide. As the drops begin to work, Isaiah will MOST likely notice that
a. he will lose some of his color vision.
b. his vision will start to become quite blurry.
c. his vision will become extremely sharp and clear.
d. colors will appear to be super saturated.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

14. If a person views three lights that differ only in amplitude, the person would perceive the lights as
a. differing in brightness.
b. different colors.
c. differing in brightness and color.
d. different shades of the same color.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

15. The lens in the eye
a. converts light energy into neural energy.
b. controls the amount of light entering the eye.
c. bends enteringfocuses light rays and focuses them onto the retina.
d. is the part of the eye that gives it its color.

ANS: C PTS: 1
REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 88%

16. As people age, the lens of the eye loses its ability to accommodate, and it tends to remain flat instead of becoming fat and round. This suggests that as people age, they will
a. lose their ability to focus on objects in the distance.
b. be less likely to detect differences in light purity.
c. be more likely to detect differences in brightness and hue.
d. lose their ability to focus on objects that are close.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

17. When Joe looks at distant objects, the lens in his eye focuses light just short of his retina. Joe is likely to experience
a. farsightedness
b. nearsightedness
c. enhanced low-light vision
d. deficient low-light vision

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

18. The structure that controls the size of the pupil is the
a. lens.
b. iris.
c. cornea.
d. vitreous humor.

ANS: B PTS: 1
REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 62%

19. The amount of light entering the eye is regulated by changes in the size of the
a. pupil.
b. lens.
c. cornea.
d. retina.

ANS: A PTS: 1
REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 94%

20. Kims pupils have just become quite large. She is most likely looking at
a. something that makes her angry.
b. something that makes her afraid.
c. something she has seen many times before.
d. something that she is very interested in.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

21. In dim light, the pupil of the eye is
a. dilated, producing a sharper image.
b. constricted, producing a sharper image.
c. constricted, producing an image that is not as sharp.
d. dilated, producing an image that is not as sharp.

ANS: D PTS: 1
REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight DIF: Apply
NOTES: Correct = 64%

22. Courtney wears glasses to correct the farsightedness in her left eye. If she were not wearing her glasses,
a. the lens would focus images in front of the retina in her left eye.
b. the pupil in her left eye would dilate and let in too much light energy.
c. the lens would focus images behind the retina in her left eye.
d. the pupil in her left eye would constrict and not let in sufficient light energy.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

23. Light first enters the eye through a transparent structure on the surface of the eye called
a. the pupil.
b. the cornea.
c. the retina.
d. the lens.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

24. The process in which the lens adjusts its shape depending on the distance between the eye and the object viewed in order to project a clear image onto the retina is
a. accommodation.
b. focusing.
c. constriction.
d. dilation.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
TOP: WWW DIF: Understand

25. The optic disk is
a. where the optic nerve exits the retina.
b. the brain structure responsible for the merging of visual fields from both eyes.
c. where light enters the eye.
d. another term for the lens.

ANS: A PTS: 1
REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 73%

26. The blind spot in the eye is
a. where photoreceptor cells do not bleach.
b. the point at which ganglion cells synapse with bipolar cells.
c. where the optic nerve exits the back of the eye.
d. what leads to color blindness.

ANS: C PTS: 1
REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 82%

27. Imagine that biologists have discovered an animal that has eyes very similar to human eyes, but that the only receptor cells in the retina are rods; there are no cones. Based on what is known about human vision, you might expect that this animal would
a. have poor vision in low illumination.
b. have no color vision.
c. have poor peripheral vision.
d. be able to detect extremely fine details.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Think Critically

28. Night and peripheral vision depend mainly on ____, while daylight and acute vision depend mainly on ____.
a. rods; cones
b. cones; rods
c. rods; bipolar cells
d. bipolar cells; cones

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

29. Devin looked directly into a very bright light and damaged his retina. The ophthalmologist has told him that he sustained massive damage to his rods, but for the most part, his cones have not been affected. One change that you could predict for Devins vision is that he will now have
a. no color vision.
b. poor vision in bright illumination.
c. poor peripheral vision.
d. more accurate depth perception.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

30. Sally woke up in the middle of the night and turned on the light in her bedroom, forcing her to squint to ward off the bright light. Sally is experiencing
a. dark adaptation.
b. sensory adaptation.
c. light adaptation.
d. lateral antagonism.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

31. The receptive field of a visual cell refers to the
a. range of wavelengths of light the cell reacts to.
b. length of time necessary for the cell to integrate information at the ganglion level of the retina.
c. cells degree of sensitivity or receptivity.
d. retinal area that affects the firing of the cell.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

32. The structure of the eye that absorbs light, processes images, and sends visual information to the brain is the
a. fovea.
b. lens.
c. rods and cones.
d. retina.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

33. When you walk into a dark room your vision gradually improves so you can see more of your surroundings. This is an example of
a. feature detection.
b. center-surround processing.
c. dark adaptation.
d. retinal specialization.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

34. The fovea is the area of the retina where ____ is best in large part because the fovea contains only ____.
a. peripheral vision; cones
b. peripheral vision; rods
c. visual acuity; cones
d. visual acuity; rods

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

35. An animal species normally active at night (or nocturnal) would be expected to have a visual system that consists primarily of
a. rods.
b. cones.
c. bipolar cells.
d. ganglion cells.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Think Critically

36. The retinal area that, when stimulated, affects the firing of a visual cell is referred to as the
a. cells focal point.
b. fovea for that cell.
c. visual field.
d. cells receptive field.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

37. Cells in the visual cortex that respond selectively to specific features of complex stimuli are called
a. ganglion cells.
b. feature detectors.
c. selective detectors.
d. hypocomplex cells.

ANS: B PTS: 1
REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 34%

36. Cells in the visual cortex that respond selectively to very specific features of more complex stimuli have been characterized
a. hypercomplex processors.
b. triarchic cells.
c. feature detectors.
d. binary cells.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

38. After visual input has been processed in the primary visual cortex, signals are processed further along a number of pathways. The dorsal stream processes information about
a. form and color.
b. motion and depth.
c. brightness and contours.
d. complexity and contrast.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

39. After visual input has been processed in the primary visual cortex, signals are processed further along a number of pathways. Information about form and color is processed by the
a. ventral stream.
b. dorsal stream.
c. medial stream.
d. lateral stream.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

40. Bob has visual agnosia and is unable to recognize common, everyday objects. This condition MOST likely results from damage to the
a. lateral geniculate nucleus.
b. superior colliculus.
c. dorsal stream.
d. ventral stream.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Think Critically

41. Researchers investigating feature detectors have found individual neurons that are activated by images of faces. These neurons may be adaptive primarily because they allow us to
a. distinguish friends from foes.
b. distinguish people from animals.
c. distinguish animals from plants.
d. distinguish animals from food.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

42. The primary visual cortex is located in the
a. occipital lobes.
b. temporal lobes.
c. parietal lobes.
d. frontal lobes.

ANS: A PTS: 1
REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 68%

43. Which of the following statements MOST accurately describes how visual information is transmitted to the brain?
a. Signals from each eye only go to the corresponding (same) hemisphere of the brain.
b. Signals from both eyes go to both hemispheres of the brain.
c. Signals from each eye only go to the opposite hemisphere of the brain.
d. Signals from the fovea of each eye go to the left hemisphere, and signals from the remaining areas of the retina go to the right hemisphere.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

44. The main pathway visual signals travel from the eye to the visual cortex is
a. optic nerve optic chiasm thalamus temporal lobe.
b. optic nerve optic chiasm thalamus occipital lobe.
c. optic nerve thalamus optic chiasm temporal lobe.
d. optic nerve thalamus optic chiasm occipital lobe.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

45. As a result of the pathway through which visual information travels from the eye to the visual cortex, images seen in the left visual field are received in
a. both the left and right visual cortex.
b. only the right visual cortex.
c. only the left visual cortex.
d. only half of the right visual cortex and half of the left visual cortex.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

46. After visual information is processed in the primary visual cortex, it is often routed to other cortical areas for additional processing through two pathways characterized as the
a. form and color pathways.
b. what and when pathways.
c. what and where pathways.
d. motion and depth pathways.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

47. Recent research suggests that _______ can discriminate colors more effectively than _______.
a. men, women
b. women, men
c. children, adults
d. adults, children

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

48. The point where axons cross over from the inside half of each eye to the opposite half of the brain is the
a. optic disk.
b. optic chiasm.
c. visual solenoid.
d. optic nerve.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

49. While finger painting, Chris mixed yellow paint and blue paint and ended up with green, an example of
a. trichromatic theory.
b. additive color mixing.
c. subtractive color mixing.
d. multiplicative color mixing.

ANS: C PTS: 1
REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight DIF: Apply
NOTES: Correct = 23%

50. If you project a red, a green, and a blue light into space, the point at which the three lights cross will lead to the perception of
a. black light.
b. ultraviolet light.
c. white light.
d. infrared light.

ANS: C PTS: 1
REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight DIF: Apply
NOTES: Correct = 87%

51. If you mix red, green, and blue paint, you will get
a. purple.
b. white.
c. orange.
d. black.

ANS: D PTS: 1
REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight TOP: WWW
DIF: Apply
NOTES: Correct = 87%

52. At the musical he attended over the weekend, Andrew noticed that whenever the red and green spotlights overlapped, they seemed to change to a yellow spotlight. This can be explained using the principles of
a. additive color mixing.
b. subtractive color mixing.
c. hypercomplex feature detection.
d. opponent-processing of colors.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

53. Pairs of colors that produce gray tones when mixed together are known as
a. sedentary colors.
b. grayscale colors.
c. complex colors.
d. complementary colors.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

54. Television sets are able to recreate the entire visible spectrum by additively mixing three primary colors. This process is similar to the view of human color vision called
a. opponent-process theory.
b. saturation theory.
c. complementary color theory.
d. trichromatic theory.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

55. The action of the visual receptors supports the
a. Hering theory of color vision.
b. opponent-process theory of color vision.
c. James-Lange theory of color vision.
d. trichromatic theory of color vision.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

56. Eric has been wearing red welding goggles for the past 30 minutes. Based on the opponent-process theory of color vision, when Eric takes off the red goggles, he should expect that objects will temporarily appear to be
a. blue.
b. yellow.
c. orange.
d. green.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

57. While visiting the art museum, Laura stared at a black and white photograph in a red frame for over a minute. When she looked away from the photograph she saw an afterimage of a rectangle. Consistent with the opponent process theory the image she saw was
a. green.
b. red.
c. blue.
d. yellow.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

58. If a child mixes yellow and blue fingerpaints together to produce green, the child is using
a. subtractive color mixing.
b. primary color mixing.
c. complementary color mixing.
d. additive color mixing.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

59. After having your picture taken with a yellow flash, you momentarily see blue spots floating before your eyes. This phenomenon is best explained by
a. subtractive color mixing.
b. opponent-process theory.
c. additive color mixing.
d. trichromatic theory.

ANS: B PTS: 1
REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight DIF: Apply
NOTES: Correct = 80%

60. The __________ theory of color vision holds that we perceive colors because of pairs of receptors that make antagonistic responses.
a. opponent-process
b. trichromatic
c. color mixing
d. binocular

ANS: A PTS: 1
REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight DIF: Apply
NOTES: Correct = 80%

61. Which theory of color vision BEST explains why the color of an afterimage is the complement of the original color?
a. The trichromatic theory.
b. The opponent-process theory.
c. Both theories explain this phenomenon equally well.
d. Neither theory adequately explains this phenomenon.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

62. In explaining color vision, contemporary researchers claim that at the level of the cones, color vision occurs via a(n) ____ process, but along the neural pathway from the LGN to in the thalamus and visual cortex, the process is a(n) ____ one.
a. opponent-process; trichromatic
b. trichromatic; opponent-process
c. trichromatic; additive
d. opponent; subtractive

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

63. MOST accurately, additive color mixing occurs when combining
a. two or more colors.
b. the three primary colors.
c. lights of different colors.
d. pigments of different colors.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

64. Which theory of color vision states that color perception depends on receptors that make antagonistic responses to three pairs of colors?
a. additive color theory
b. opponent-process theory
c. trichromatic theory
d. subtractive color theory

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

62. Research suggests that which of the following colors tends to HINDER performance in situations that demand achievement?
a. green
b. red
c. blue
d. yellow

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

63. The color red tends to have positive effects in ________ contexts and negative effects in ________ contexts.
a. academic; athletic
b. athletic; musical
c. sexual; achievement
d. achievement; dating

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

65. A visual image the persists after the stimulus is removed is known as a(n)
a. post visualization.
b. afterimage.
c. residual signal.
d. aftereffect.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

66. The theory that best explains visual afterimages is the
a. trichromatic theory.
b. center-surround theory.
c. opponent process theory.
d. reconciliation theory.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

67. Three people look at the same sketch and report seeing three different things. This illustrates the contribution to perception of
a. stimulus ambiguity.
b. interpretation.
c. sensory readiness.
d. cognitive dissonance.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

68. Our past experiences and current expectations often influence the way we perceive sensory information because they create
a. bottom-up processing.
b. a phi phenomenon.
c. feature detectors.
d. a perceptual set.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Think Critically

69. A perceptual set implies that
a. people often see what they expect to see.
b. visual perception is based on a bottom-up processing strategy.
c. feature analysis is a hard-wired process.
d. the focused-attention stage of processing is often overridden by preattentive processes.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

70. Meg was talking on her cell phone while driving to work. After hitting a parked car, she told the police officer that she did not even see the car before she hit it. Meg seems to have experienced
a. bottom-up processing.
b. top-down processing.
c. perceptual set.
d. inattentional blindness.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

71. Of the following factors, our perceptual sets are probably MOST affected by
a. inattentional blindness.
b. our first language.
c. what we hope to see.
d. our level of intelligence.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Think Critically

72. The process of detecting specific elements in visual input and assembling them into a more complex form is known as
a. perceptual set.
b. inattentional blindness.
c. feature analysis.
d. top-to-bottom processing.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Understand

73. You are sitting in an arena watching the end of a very close basketball game, and you fail to notice that one of the referees has removed his shirt. This an example of
a. a visual illusion.
b. inattentional blindness.
c. retinal disparity.
d. attentional blindness

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

74. Inattentional blindness is MOST likely to occur when a person is
a. watching television.
b. consuming caffeine.
c. studying.
d. talking on a cell phone.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

75. The process of detecting specific elements in visual input and assembling them into a more complex form is
a. accommodation.
b. feature analysis.
c. feature detection.
d. sensation.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

76. Feature analysis assumes that we progress from individual elements to the whole in the formation of our perceptions. This is a case of
a. bottom-up processing.
b. bottom-down processing.
c. top-down processing.
d. top-to-bottom processing.

ANS: A PTS: 1
REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes TOP: WWW
DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 86%

77. Psychologists who took the structuralist approach to the study of consciousness believed that the best way to understand an individuals conscious experiences was to understand all the component parts that combined to produce the experience. This view is most consistent with
a. the top-down processing model of perception.
b. the eclectic model of perception.
c. the bottom-up processing model of perception.
d. the opponent-process model of perception.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Think Critically

78. Vanessa describes a new melody that she heard at a concert by telling you each of the individual notes in the order that they were played. In providing this type of description, it appears that Vanessa processed the melody using
a. top-down processing.
b. figure-ground processing.
c. opponent-processes.
d. bottom-up processing.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

79. Ashlynn was listening to a tape recording of a famous speech that was being played backward. She just heard gibberish until a classmate said the phrase, Meet me in St. Louis, was clearly spoken. The tape was rewound and as Ashlynn listened this time, she also clearly heard the same phrase. Ashlynns ability to detect the phrase the second time through the tape illustrates
a. the opponent-process model of perception.
b. the top-down processing model of perception.
c. the bottom-up processing model of perception.
d. the eclectic model of perception.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Think Critically

80. The ability to rapidly process words in reading depends MOST on
a. top-down processing.
b. bottom-up processing.
c. bottom-to-top processing.
d. lateral processing.

ANS: A PTS: 1
REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes DIF: Apply
NOTES: Correct = 62%

81. Reversible figures illustrate the observation that
a. individuals may fail to see fully visible objects.
b. expectations do not influence perceptions.
c. the same visual input can result in different perceptions.
d. there is a one-to-one correspondence between sensory input and perception.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Understand

82. If an radio play-by-play announcer describing each pitch during a baseball game fails to notice a naked fan running across the infield, the announcer would be demonstrating
a. inattentional blindness.
b. attentional blindness.
c. perceptual set.
d. feature analysis.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

83. Rather than provide details about the party she just attended, Patty tried to give her overall impression. Patty was Ooperating on the assumption of ____, that the whole may be greater than the mere sum of its parts.
a. psychophysics
b. holistic psychology
c. Gestalt psychology
d. psychodynamics

ANS: C PTS: 1
REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes DIF: Apply
NOTES: Correct = 88%

84. The successive blinking on and off of the lights on the neon sign gave the impression of beer filling a glass. This illusion of motion is the
a. phi phenomenon.
b. constancy principle.
c. common-fate principle.
d. motion parallax effect.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

85. The lights around the movie marquee flashed on and off in succession. However, Jerome did not perceive them as separate lights flashing, but instead saw a continuous band of light moving around the edge of the marquee. Jeromes perception illustrates
a. the phi phenomenon.
b. bottom-up processing.
c. feature detection.
d. preattentive processing.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

86. It is difficult to see a chameleon that has blended in with its background because
a. of the principle of common fate.
b. we cannot easily distinguish between figure and ground.
c. of the perceptual principle of shape constancy.
d. of the illusion of relative size.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

87. We often perceive a series of dots on a printed form as a solid line because of the Gestalt principle of
a. constancy.
b. similarity.
c. closure.
d. symmetry.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
TOP: WWW DIF: Apply

88. The Gestalt principle of proximity refers to the idea that
a. people tend to gravitate toward a common interaction distance.
b. center-surround cells that are closer fire more often.
c. perception occurs in discrete time frames.
d. objects nearer to each other are seen as forming a unitbelong together.

ANS: D PTS: 1
REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 84%

86. Zachary is looking at a reversible figure, which first appears to be a vase and then appears to be two faces. His perception of the figure keeps switching between these two interpretations. This switching perception is caused by the fact that
a. reversible figures cause people to experience the phi phenomenon.
b. the Gestalt principle of simplicity doesnt work for reversible figures.
c. the Gestalt principles of proximity and closure are both at work in reversible figures.
d. the figure-ground distinction in reversible figures is often ambiguous.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

89. Natalie sat on her porch looking out at the field of soybeans. The fact that Natalie perceived the soybean plants as being grouped into a series of separate rows is consistent with the Gestalt principle of
a. closure.
b. simplicity.
c. proximity.
d. similarity.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

90. When Justin looked up at the night sky, he perceived the three stars that make up the belt in the constellation Orion as a single complete figure, rather than as individual stars. Justins perception of the night sky illustrates the Gestalt principle of
a. proximity.
b. closure.
c. similarity.
d. figure-ground.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

91. Blake was at a football game and even though people wearing green jackets were spread fairly evenly throughout the stands, he still perceived all the people in green jackets as a single group of visiting fans. Blakes perception is most consistent with the Gestalt principle of
a. proximity.
b. similarity.
c. closure.
d. simplicity.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

92. The Gestalt principle of ____ implies that people organize visual perception in the ____.
a. continuity; most complex manner possible
b. proximity; top-down processing manner
c. closure; bottom-up processing manner
d. Pragnanz; simplest manner possible

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Understand

93. Christina was skiing down a hill when the track brokedivided into two separate trails. One trail turned off at a 90-degree angle; the second trail appeared to continue in the same general direction she had been headed. If Christina takes the second trail, her actions would be consistent with the Gestalt principle of
a. continuity.
b. closure.
c. proximity.
d. common region.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

94. The perceptual tendency to group together objects that are near each other is called
a. proximity.
b. similarity.
c. continuity.
d. common fate.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Understand

95. Which of the following is the MOST general of the Gestalt principles describing how individual elements are grouped into good figures?
a. continuity
b. proximity
c. similarity
d. simplicity

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Understand

96. You may interpretinfer that the trapezoid shape projected on your retina ais a rectangular book, in which case you are formulating a
a. Gestalt principle.
b. perceptual hypothesis.
c. psychophysical law.
d. phenomenological principle.

ANS: B PTS: 1
REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes DIF: Apply
NOTES: Correct = 88%

97. The perceptual tendency to perceive a pile of change as being composed of pennies, nickels, and dimes is the result of
a. closure.
b. similarity.
c. proximity.
d. continuity.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Apply

98. Our ability to tell how far away objects are is known as
a. depth perception.
b. sensory accommodation.
c. visual acuity.
d. rod-cone refractance.

ANS: A PTS: 1
REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 87%

99. The binocular depth cue that relies on the fact that objects within 25 feet project images to slightly different locations on the right and left retinas, so that the right and left eyes see slightly different views of the object, is known as
a. convergence.
b. retinal disparity.
c. accommodation.
d. relative size.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Understand

100. Glasses used to watch 3D movies are based on the principle of
a. binocular cues.
b. monocular cues.
c. opponent process.
d. agnosia.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Understand

101. Sydney had an operation on his right eye and has to wear an eye patch for three weeks. While he is wearing the eye patch, Sydney will lose his ability to
a. utilize binocular depth cues.
b. perceive colors accurately.
c. utilize any depth cues.
d. perceive motion parallax.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

102. Timothy was painting a picture of a jet on a runway; however, in his painting, the sides of the runway are parallel to each other. Timothys picture will seem to lack depth because he has failed to make use of the monocular depth cue of
a. convergence.
b. motion parallax.
c. linear perspective.
d. height in plane.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

103. The sand at Jasons feet appeared coarse, and he could see the individual grains of sand. However, the sand down the beach appeared to be much finer and less granular. This apparent difference in the sand may have partially resulted from the depth cue of
a. interposition.
b. light and shadow.
c. relative size.
d. texture gradient.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

104. Photographers use special filters to cloud the image and give the perception of distance to photographs. Which monocular cue of depth perception does this demonstrate?
a. interposition
b. light and shadow
c. relative size
d. texture gradient

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

105. Gabriella was looking for shelter from the sudden cloudburst, but she had difficulty judging whether the old barn or the farmhouse was closer. However, when she noticed that the barn partially obscured the corner of the house, she headed for the barn. She was able to judge which building was closer based on
a. texture gradient.
b. interposition.
c. relative size.
d. linear perspective.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

106. Larger images tend to be perceived as closer due to the depth perception cue known as
a. accommodation.
b. foveal disparity.
c. phrenetic search.
d. relative size.

ANS: D PTS: 1
REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 78%

105. Recent studies suggest that people see __________ objects as closer to them than other objects.
a. threatening
b. desirable
c. undesirable
d. lightly colored

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Understand

107. The interpretation of visual cues that indicate how near or far away objects are defines
a. perceptual constancies.
b. depth perception.
c. monocular cues.
d. binocular cues.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Understand

108. A painter wishing to create a perception of depth on a two-dimensional surface would have to use _________ cues.
a. monocular
b. binocular
c. accommodation
d. disparity

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

109. Which of the following is NOT one of the pictorial depth cues?
a. convergenceretinal disparity
b. linear perspective
c. relative height
d. texture gradients

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight
DIF: Understand

110. The depth perception cue based on the observation that parallel lines converge in the distance is
a. height in plane.
b. retinal disparity.
c. linear perspective.
d. interposition.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Understand

111. When your psychology professor is lecturing to your class, she can tell which students are sitting in the first, second, third, etc., row, in part because students in the closer rows obstruct her view of students in more distant rows. This illustrates the depth perception cue of
a. texture gradient.
b. interposition.
c. linear perspective.
d. relative size.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

112. If, in a painting, a figure of a person is drawn larger than a house, the house will seem to be ____ because of ____.
a. closer; interposition
b. farther away; interposition
c. farther away; relative size
d. closer; relative size

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Think Critically

113. Studies that examine the ability of individuals from various cultures to take advantage of pictorial depth cues present in two-dimensional drawings indicate that the application of pictorial depth cues
a. is a skill that develops in all cultures.
b. is an acquired skill that depends on experience.
c. is a skill that develops naturally in early infancy.
d. is a skill shown only by adults.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

114. The phenomenon of perceptual constancy implies that
a. the perception of size is not related to the perception of distance.
b. the farther away an object is, the more we underestimate its true size.
c. two objects will be perceived as the same size whenever they produce the same size retinal image.
d. two objects may be perceived as being the same size even though they produce different sized retinal images.

ANS: D PTS: 1
REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes DIF: Apply
NOTES: Correct = 35%

115. Three-year-old Kevin was flying in a plane for the first time. As the plane descended for its landing, Kevin became very excited at all the toy houses and cars he saw, and he couldnt wait for the plane to land so he could play with the toys. Kevins misinterpretation of the true size of the houses and cars the plane passed over shows that he is still not fully utilizing
a. binocular depth cues.
b. linear perspective.
c. perceptual constancy.
d. visual accommodation.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

116. The fact that the corner of a building thrust toward the viewer looks shorter than an inside corner thrust away from the viewer can be accounted for by the
a. horizontal-vertical illusion.
b. Ponzo illusion.
c. Mller-Lyer illusion.
d. illusion of relative size.

ANS: C PTS: 1
REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes DIF: Apply
NOTES: Correct = 54%

117. Which of the following principles does the Ponzo illusion use to achieve its effect?
a. perceptual grouping
b. figure-ground relationships
c. linear perspective
d. selective attention

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Understand

118. Visual illusions tend to be
a. influenced by our experiences.
b. more pronounced in children.
c. less pronounced in adults.
d. genetically determined.

ANS: A PTS: 1
REF: 4.1 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes DIF: Apply
NOTES: Correct = 92%

119. The tendency to experience a stable perception of an object even though the sensory input we receive is continually changing is
a. a visual illusion.
b. feature analysis.
c. a possible figure.
d. a perceptual constancy.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
TOP: WWW DIF: Understand

120. When we view cars in a distant parking lot, we know that the cars are not actually the size of toy cars because of a perceptual
a. illusion.
b. disparity.
c. constancy.
d. theory.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

121. The Ames room, in which people are seen to get small or enlarge as they move about, demonstrates that our perception of the world depends strongly on
a. the assumptions we make about it.
b. the actual, distal stimuli.
c. the proximal stimulus elements.
d. bottom-up processing.

ANS: A PTS: 1
REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes DIF: Apply
NOTES: Correct = 38%

122. The moon illusion is that the moon appears ____ when near the horizon than when overhead and is explained by ____.
a. larger; size constancy
b. larger; texture gradient
c. smaller; size constancy
d. smaller; texture gradient

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Understand

123. The explanation of the Mller-Lyer illusion that relates the lines to inside and outside corners accounts for the observation that people from non-Western cultures
a. are more susceptible to the illusion than people from Western cultures.
b. are less susceptible to the illusion than people from Western cultures.
c. are equally susceptible to the illusion as people from Western cultures.
d. do not perceive any visual illusions the same way as people from Western cultures.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Apply

124. Sound is a ____ form of energy and is the result of ____.
a. wave; vibrating molecules
b. particle; photons
c. chemical; molecular breakdowns
d. moving; vibrating photons

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Understand

125. When a clarinet plays a high C followed by a low C, these two notes are perceived differently because they differ in
a. amplitude.
b. purity.
c. complexity.
d. frequency.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Apply

126. If a piano player softly taps a key and then hits the same key with a lot of force the second note will sound louder because of a difference in the ____ of the sound wave.
a. frequency
b. wavelength
c. amplitude
d. timbre

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Apply

127. The perception associated with the amplitude of a sound wave is
a. timbre.
b. loudness.
c. tonal quality.
d. richness.

ANS: B PTS: 1
REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 72%

128. The perception of timbre corresponds to a sound waves
a. pitch.
b. panache.
c. amplitude.
d. purity.

ANS: D PTS: 1
REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 75%

129. Hue is to pitch as brightness is to
a. timbre.
b. purity.
c. loudness.
d. retinal disparity.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Apply

130. If the human ear could not detect differences in the amplitude of sound waves, people would not be able to detect differences in the
a. pitch of sounds.
b. timbre of sounds.
c. loudness of sounds.
d. saturation of sounds.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Think Critically

131. The amplitude of sound waves is measured in ____; the frequency of sound waves is measured in ____.
a. hertz; wavelengths
b. decibels; hertz
c. centimeters; nanometers
d. wavelengths; hertz

ANS: B PTS: 1
REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 88%

132. Which of the following is NOT one of the perceived or psychological qualities of sound waves?
a. pitch
b. purity
c. timbre
d. loudness

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Understand

133. If two sounds vary in frequency, they are perceived as differing in
a. loudness.
b. pitch.
c. decibels.
d. timbre.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Understand

134. Humans can hear sounds ranging in frequency from
a. 10-120 dB.
b. 20-2,000 dB.
c. 200-2,000 Hz.
d. 20-20,000 Hz.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Understand

135. Sensitivity to _________ sounds declines most as adults age.
a. low-frequency
b. middle-frequency
c. high-frequency
d. decibel

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Understand

136. You can detect the difference between a musical note played on a trumpet and the same note played on a trombone because the two instruments have a different
a. timbre.
b. key.
c. pitch.
d. loudness.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Apply

137. Which of the following is NOT a structure of the inner ear?
a. basilar membrane
b. eardrum
c. hair cells
d. cochlea

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Understand

138. The fluid-filled tunnel that contains the receptors for hearing is the
a. cochlea.
b. ossicles.
c. middle ear.
d. basilar membrane.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Understand

139. The structure of the ear that conducts sound waves to the middle ear is the
a. auditory canal.
b. auditory conduction tube.
c. auditory tract.
d. auditory lineal.

ANS: A PTS: 1
REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 94%

140. The retina is to the eye as the
a. eardrum is to the ear.
b. ossicles are to the ear.
c. pinna is to the ear.
d. cochlea is to the ear.

ANS: D PTS: 1
REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing DIF: Apply
NOTES: Correct = 69%

141. The visual cortex is to the auditory cortex as the occipital lobe is to the
a. occipital lobe.
b. frontal lobe.
c. temporal lobe.
d. parietal lobe.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Apply

142. The function of the middle ear is to
a. convert sound into neural energy.
b. amplify the sound.
c. collect and funnel the sound.
d. aid in maintenance of balance.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Apply

143. The actual, direct receptors for hearing are the
a. ossicles.
b. cochleas.
c. hair cells.
d. basilar cells.

ANS: C PTS: 1
REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 57%

144. The structure of the ear that transduces soundconverts vibrations into nerve impulses is the
a. cochlea.
b. oval window.
c. temporal lobe.
d. stirrup.

ANS: A PTS: 1
REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 83%

145. The correct order that auditory information travels as sounds enter the ear is from the auditory canal to
a. cochlea thalamus oval window ossicles eardrum.
b. cochlea ossicles thalamus oval window eardrum.
c. eardrum ossicles oval window cochlea thalamus.
d. eardrum thalamus oval window ossicles cochlea.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Understand

146. Which of the following BEST describes how we hear according to place theory?
a. Different sound frequencies vibrate different portions of the basilar membrane, producing different pitches.
b. Our perception of pitch corresponds to the rate or frequency at which the entire basilar membrane vibrates.
c. We perceive differences in pitch according to the number of hair cells that vibrate at any one time.
d. Different sound frequencies affect the intensity with which the eardrum vibrates, producing different pitches.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
TOP: WWW DIF: Understand

147. If Professor Trong were to argue that we discriminate different pitches because sound waves of different frequency displace different regions on the basilar membrane, which theory of auditory perception would Dr. Trong be arguing?
a. Place
b. Frequency
c. Volley
d. Opponent process

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Apply

148. Imagine that the basilar membrane in the human ear were longer. Based on place theory, you might expect that humans would be able to
a. hear a wider range of sounds.
b. hear a narrower range of sounds.
c. detect sound waves that had a lower amplitude.
d. localize sounds more accurately.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Think Critically

149. The theory of hearing that views the basilar membrane as being like a drumhead is
a. place theory.
b. timpani theory.
c. frequency theory.
d. opponent-process theory.

ANS: C PTS: 1
REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing DIF: Apply
NOTES: Correct = 59%

150. The maximum firing rate for individual neurons is 1,000 neural impulses per second. This biological limitation would make it difficult for
a. place theory to fully explain pitch perception.
b. opponent-process theory to fully explain color perception.
c. trichromatic theory to fully explain color perception.
d. frequency theory to fully explain pitch perception.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Think Critically

151. Which theory of hearing states that the perception of pitch depends on the rate at which the entire basilar membrane vibrates?
a. gate theory
b. place theory
c. frequency theory
d. opponent-process theory

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Understand

152. Given our present knowledge concerning pitch perception, which theory seems more accurate?
a. frequency theory
b. place theory
c. Neither the frequency nor place theories are plausible.
d. Both the frequency and place theories are partly correct.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Understand

149. The place theory of pitch perception BEST accounts for the perception of ____-frequency sounds.
a. low
b. medium
c. high
d. all

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Understand

153. Auditory localization is MOST analogous to what visual process?
a. depth perception
b. inattentional blindness
c. color perception
d. feature analysis

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing; 4.2 The Visual System: Perceptual Processes
DIF: Understand

154. Having two ears is MOST beneficial for
a. perceiving changes in pitch.
b. locating a sound source.
c. perceiving changes in amplitude.
d. determining a speakers sex.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.3 The Auditory System: Hearing
DIF: Think Critically

155. Which of the following is NOT one of the four basic tastes?
a. salty
b. citrus
c. sweet
d. bitter

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch
TOP: WWW DIF: Understand

156. The sense associated with the perception of taste is referred to as the
a. gustatory system.
b. olfactory system.
c. vagus system.
d. vestibular system.

ANS: A PTS: 1
REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 89%

157. Which statement about the gustatory system is NOT accurate?
a. Taste cells are concentrated in taste buds on the tongue.
b. The physical stimulus for taste is any molecularchemical substance.
c. Taste cells live only about ten days.
d. Taste cells are not distributed unevenly across the surface of the tongue.

ANS: B PTS: 1
REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch DIF: Apply
NOTES: Correct = 73%

153. Taste signals are routed through the thalamus and onto the insular cortex in the
a. temporal lobes.
b. frontal lobes.
c. parietal lobes.
d. hypothalamus.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch
DIF: Understand

158. A recently recognized fifth taste is known as umami, which is a _______ taste.
a. hot
b. savory
c. sweet
d. bitter

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch
DIF: Understand

155. A brain injury that affects an individuals ability to process different tastes MOST likely affected the
a. frontal lobe.
b. hypothalamus.
c. temporal lobe.
d. parietal lobe.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch
DIF: Think Critically

159. If one of a persons senses is subjected to prolonged stimulation, eventually
a. sensory overload will occur.
b. sensory adaptation will occur.
c. perceptual agnosia will occur.
d. perceptual inversion will occur.

ANS: B PTS: 1
REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch TOP: WWW
DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 75%

160. Recent research suggests the existence of a fifth basic taste referred to as
a. flavinoid.
b. savory.
c. nutty.
d. buttery.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch
DIF: Understand

161. Research suggest that compared with supertasters, nontasters tend to have
a. a stronger sense of smell.
b. a stronger sense of sight.
c. fewer taste buds.
d. a greater number of taste buds.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch
DIF: Understand

162. One key gender difference that has been found with respect to tasting is that
a. men are more likely than women to be supertasters.
b. women tend to react more to sweet tastes while men react more to bitter tastes.
c. men tend to react more to sweet tastes while women react more to bitter tastes.
d. women are more likely than men to be supertasters.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch
DIF: Understand

163. Eloise is an individual who is classified as a supertaster. She is likely to be especially sensitive to
a. sweet and salty tastes.
b. sweet and bitter tastes.
c. salty and sour tastes.
d. sour and bitter tastes.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch
DIF: Apply

164. One health disadvantage identified for supertasters is that they respond negatively to the taste of
a. most fruits.
b. dairy products.
c. many vegetables.
d. whole-grain products.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch
DIF: Understand

165. Food generally tastes bland when you have a severe head cold because
a. your cold will cause the sweet receptors in your mouth to become inactivated.
b. your high temperature will cause your brain to block signals from the taste buds in the mouth.
c. your naturally produced antibodies interfere with chemical molecules stimulated by your taste buds.
d. with a reduced sense of smell your sense of taste will be diminished.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.4 The Chemical Senses: Taste and Smell
DIF: Apply

166. The physical stimuli for the sense of taste
a. are chemical substances that are insoluble in water.
b. are chemical substances that are soluble in water.
c. are the vibrations of molecules.
d. are tactile stimulation.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch
DIF: Understand

167. The sensory receptors for smell are referred to as
a. smell buds.
b. gustatory bulbs.
c. olfactory cilia.
d. sciatic receptors.

ANS: C PTS: 1
REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 90%

168. Of the following, the only sensory system that does NOT project upward to the cerebral cortex through the thalamus is
a. vision.
b. hearing.
c. gustation.
d. olfaction.

ANS: D PTS: 1
REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 73%

169. Our sense of smell shows evidence of sensory adaptation. The perceived strength of an odor usually
a. fades to less than half its original strength within about four minutes.
b. increases to more than twice its original strength within about four minutes.
c. fades to less than half its original strength within a few seconds.
d. slowly increases over time, reaching a maximum in about 15 minutes.

ANS: A PTS: 1
REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 84%

170. Recent research suggests that humans can discriminate about _______ odors.
a. one hundred
b. one thousand
c. one million
d. one trillion

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch
DIF: Understand

171. Which of the following is NOT one of the primary skin sensations?
a. pressure
b. pain
c. temperature
d. wetness

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch
DIF: Understand

172. Skin patches are to touch as ____ are to vision.
a. cones
b. rods
c. receptive fields
d. feature detectors

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch
DIF: Apply

173. Stimulation of sensory receptors of the skin is processed byin the
a. septal cortex, which is located in the cerebellum.
b. limbic system, which is located in the hypothalamus.
c. somatosensory cortex, which is located in the parietal lobes.
d. medial forebrain bundle, which is located in the temporal lobes.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch
TOP: WWW DIF: Understand

174. A variety of physical stimuli including mechanical, thermal, and chemical energy are the stimuli for the sense of
a. touch.
b. smell.
c. taste.
d. both taste and smell.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch
DIF: Understand

169. Cells in the nervous system that respond to touch sensation convey touch information from a specific area of skin or from a
a. receptive field.
b. focal point.
c. target area.
d. tactile trigger.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch
DIF: Understand

175. The pathway for pain that results in the experience of pain being less localized and longer lasting is the
a. thalamic pathway.
b. endorphin pathway.
c. slow pathway.
d. generic pathway.

ANS: C PTS: 1
REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch DIF: Understand
NOTES: Correct = 64%

171. Sals friend dropped a brick on Sals foot. If Sal believes that his friend intentionally dropped the brick, Sal is likely to perceive the pain as
a. more intense.
b. less intense.
c. a dull ache.
d. a sharp sensation.

ANS: A PTS: 1
REF: 4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch DIF: Apply
NOTES: Correct = 64%

172. Recent research suggests that pain is experienced as less intense when looking

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