Research Methods For The Behavioral Sciences 2nd Edition by Gregory J. Privitera -Test Bank

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Research Methods For The Behavioral Sciences 2nd Edition by Gregory J. Privitera -Test Bank

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Research Methods For The Behavioral Sciences 2nd Edition by Gregory J. Privitera -Test Bank

Privitera_Methods2e_TB_06

 

Multiple Choice (79)

 

  1. The specific methods and procedures used to answer a research question, is called:

 

  1. observation.
  2. research design.
  3. exploration.
  4. manipulation.

LO: 1, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.1 Designing a Study to Answer a Question

 

  1. The types of questions that researchers ask are categorized as all of the following except:

 

  1. exploratory.
  2. descriptive.
  3. relational.
  4. distinctive.

LO: 1, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.1 Designing a Study to Answer a Question

 

  1. Which of the following is an exploratory question?

 

  1. What if human memory has an infinite capacity for storage?
  2. How many pounds does a college student typically gain in their freshman year?
  3. Is personal income related to life satisfaction?
  4. What is the average time spent watching TV per year?

LO: 1, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: 6.1 Designing a Study to Answer a Question

 

  1. Questions that are concerned with simply describing variables and not concerned with relationships between variables, are called:

 

  1. exploratory questions.
  2. relational questions.
  3. descriptive questions.
  4. intangible questions.

LO: 1, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: 6.1 Designing a Study to Answer a Question

 

  1. Which of the following is not a category of research design?

 

  1. Non-experimental
  2. Quasi-experimental
  3. Experimental
  4. Fundamental

LO: 1, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: 6.2 Categories of Research Design

 

  1. Each research design used in behavioral research:

 

  1. will always eliminate bias or errors.
  2. is associated with high internal validity and high external validity.
  3. is categorized as an experiment.
  4. has strengths and limitations.

LO: 1, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 6.2 Categories of Research Design

 

  1. Which of the following research designs is used to determine the causes of behavior that help to explain why the behavior occurs?

 

  1. Non-experimental
  2. Quasi-experimental
  3. Experimental
  4. None of the above

LO: 1, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Experimental research designs

 

  1. The use of methods and procedures to make observations in which the behavior or event being observed is observed as-is or without any intervention from the researcher, is called:

 

  1. non-experimental research design.
  2. quasi-experimental research design.
  3. experimental research design.
  4. hypothetical research design.

LO: 1, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Nonexperimental research designs

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the non-experimental research design is true?

 

  1. Using a non-experimental research design. we can show that changes in a dependent variable are caused by an independent variable.
  2. Using a non-experimental research design. the behaviors or variables of interest are observed without an intervention or manipulation from the researcher.
  3. Using a non-experimental research design. the study is structured like an experiment, except that the conditions and experiences of participants are not under the full control of the researcher.
  4. Using a non-experimental design. we can manipulate a preexisting variable that differentiates the groups or conditions being compared in a research study.

LO: 1, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Nonexperimental research designs

 

  1. A non-experimental research design must be used to study which of the following situations?

 

  1. The extent to which changes in a dependent variable are caused by the manipulation of an independent variable.
  2. An analysis of the words used in presidential speeches in times of war at different times in history.
  3. The extent to which political affiliation (Republican, Democrat) is related to differences in ones concern for the economy.
  4. An analysis of fruit intake among children who live in poverty before and following an initiative to improve the availability of fruits in impoverished communities.

LO: 1, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Nonexperimental research designs

 

  1. Which of the following is a type of non-experimental research design?

 

  1. Time series
  2. Between-subjects
  3. Longitudinal
  4. Existing data

LO: 1, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Nonexperimental research designs

 

  1. Which of the following is a type of qualitative non-experimental research design?

 

  1. Phenomenology
  2. Correlational
  3. Naturalistic
  4. Existing data

LO: 1, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Nonexperimental research designs

 

  1. The use of methods and procedures to make observations in which the researcher fully controls the conditions and experiences of participants by using randomization, manipulation, and comparison/control, is called:

 

  1. non-experimental research design.
  2. quasi-experimental research design.
  3. experimental research design.
  4. hypothetical research design.

LO: 1, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Experimental research designs

 

  1. Which of the following research designs is capable of demonstrating that the levels of an independent variable cause changes in a dependent variable?

 

  1. Experimental research design
  2. Quasi-experimental research design
  3. Non-experimental research design
  4. Qualitative research design

LO: 1, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Experimental research designs

 

  1. Which of the following is a limitation of the experimental research design?

 

  1. Demonstrates cause-and-effect.
  2. The conditions or experiences of participants are not manipulated.
  3. It lacks the control needed to demonstrate cause-and-effect.
  4. Behavior observed in controlled conditions may not be the same as that in a natural environment.

LO: 1, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: Experimental research designs

 

  1. Which research design uses methods and procedures to make observations in a study that is structured similar to an experiment, but the conditions and experiences of participants lack some control because the study lacks random assignment, includes a preexisting factor, or does not include a comparison/control group?

 

  1. Pseudo-experimental research design
  2. Quasi-experimental research design
  3. Experimental research design
  4. Hypothetical research design

LO: 1, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Quasi-experimental research designs

 

  1. A preexisting variable with levels to which participants are not randomly assigned that differentiates the groups or conditions being compared in a research study, is called:

 

  1. an experimental variable.
  2. a hypothetical variable.
  3. a construct.
  4. a quasi-independent variable.

LO: 1, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Quasi-experimental research designs

 

  1. Which of the following research studies MUST include a quasi-independent variable?

 

  1. A researcher displays either negative or positive cues to participants, and then has participants rate their positivity toward a test object.
  2. A researcher assigns participants to consume a meal of equal size that was high or low in calories, then records fullness and amount consumed of the meal.
  3. A researcher records the number of tasks completed simultaneously by men and women.
  4. Participants read a vignette describing either a traditional or non-traditional student and then rate the student described in the vignette on a variety of personality measures.

LO: 1, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Quasi-experimental research designs

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a situation in which a quasi-independent variable is used?

 

  1. Random assignment can be used to assign participants to the levels of the variable.
  2. A research design is used that meets all three criteria for demonstrating cause-and-effect.
  3. A variable is measured that is inherent to the participant and so random assignment cannot be used.
  4. A variable is measured that is inherent to the participant and so random assignment can be used.

LO: 1, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Quasi-experimental research designs

 

  1. Which of the following is a limitation of the quasi-experimental research design?

 

  1. It demonstrates cause-and-effect.
  2. The conditions or experiences of participants are not manipulated.
  3. It includes random assignment.
  4. It allows researchers to study factors related to the unique characteristics of participants.

LO: 1, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: Quasi-experimental research designs

 

  1. Which of the following statements about scientific research design is true?

 

  1. Research designs are an essential and valuable tool that allows researchers to meet the goals of science.
  2. All research designs demonstrate cause-and-effect, or cause-and-effect can be inferred from the results obtained.
  3. All research designs involve some kind of manipulation of the variables that operate in a study.
  4. All research designs are quantitative.

LO: 1, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: Quasi-experimental research designs

 

  1. Researchers establish control by:

 

  1. manipulating a the levels of a variable.
  2. holding all other variables constant.
  3. manipulating a the levels of a variable and holding all other variables constant.
  4. observing quasi-independent variables.

LO: 1, 2, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.3 Internal and External Validity

 

  1. The level of control in a research design directly relates to:

 

  1. the certainty of truth.
  2. the internal validity of the study.
  3. the external validity of the study.
  4. the level of responsiveness in a study.

LO: 2, 3, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.3 Internal and External Validity

 

  1. Which of the following describes is extent to which a research design includes enough control of the conditions and experiences of participants that it can demonstrate a single unambiguous explanation for a manipulation?

 

  1. Certainty
  2. Internal validity
  3. External validity
  4. Constraint

LO: 3, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.3 Internal and External Validity

 

  1. Which of the following words tends to be synonymous with internal validity?

 

  1. Constraint
  2. Reliability
  3. Cause-and-effect
  4. Generalization

LO: 3, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 6.3 Internal and External Validity

 

  1. Which type of research design is associated with the highest internal validity?

 

  1. Experimental
  2. Quasi-experimental
  3. Non-experimental
  4. All research designs are associated with the same level of internal validity

LO: 3, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.3 Internal and External Validity

 

  1. Which of the following describes is the extent to which observations made in a study generalize beyond the specific manipulations or constraints in the study?

 

  1. Certainty
  2. Internal validity
  3. External validity
  4. Constraint

LO: 3, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.3 Internal and External Validity

 

  1. The generalizability of outcomes in a research design directly relates to:

 

  1. the certainty of truth.
  2. the internal validity of the study.
  3. the external validity of the study.
  4. the extent to which the study demonstrated cause-and-effect.

LO: 3, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.3 Internal and External Validity

 

  1. Which of the following words tends to be synonymous with external validity?

 

  1. Control
  2. Reliability
  3. Cause-and-effect
  4. Generalization

LO: 3, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 6.3 Internal and External Validity

 

  1. Which type of research design tends to be associated with the highest external validity?

 

  1. Non-experimental
  2. Quasi-experimental
  3. Experimental
  4. All research designs are associated with the same level of external validity

LO: 3, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.3 Internal and External Validity

 

  1. External validity is highest for studies with ____ constraints.

 

  1. many
  2. substantial
  3. obvious
  4. few

LO: 3, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 6.3 Internal and External Validity

 

  1. All of the following are key elements of control for demonstrating cause-and-effect in an experiment except?

 

  1. Random assignment of participants to groups
  2. Manipulation of variables that operate in an experiment
  3. Inclusion of a comparison or control group
  4. Exclusion of a comparison or control group

LO: 4, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: 6.3 Internal and External Validity

 

  1. A researcher uses a procedure to ensure that participants are observed in one of three groups entirely by chance. Which type of randomization did the researcher use in this example?

 

  1. Random sampling
  2. Random assignment
  3. Random comparison
  4. Random dancing

LO: 4, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: General elements and structure of experiments

 

  1. For which of the following types of variables can random assignment be used to assign participants to each level of that variable?

 

  1. Independent variable
  2. Quasi-independent variable
  3. Dependent variable
  4. Individual variable

LO: 4, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: General elements and structure of experiments

 

  1. Random assignment can be used to do all of the following except:

 

  1. assign participants to each level of an independent variable.
  2. assign participants to each level of a factor in which the levels of that factor were manipulated by a research.
  3. control for individual difference by making them about the same between groups in a study.
  4. eliminate individual differences to equalize the groups.

LO: 4, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: General elements and structure of experiments

 

  1. Random assignment controls for individual differences by:

 

  1. eliminating individual differences in all groups.
  2. removing individual differences in two or more groups.
  3. ensuring that individual differences in each group vary entirely by chance.
  4. fixing the probability that individual differences exist in each group.

LO: 4, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: General elements and structure of experiments

 

  1. Random assignment controls ________ in each group:

 

  1. the dependent variable
  2. the levels of the independent variable
  3. individual differences
  4. the likelihood of observing an effect

LO: 4, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: General elements and structure of experiments

 

  1. The variable that is believed to change in the presence of the independent variable is called the:

 

  1. independent variable.
  2. quasi-independent variable.
  3. dependent variable.
  4. individual variable.

LO: 4, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: General elements and structure of experiments

 

  1. What term describes situations in which researchers compensate a disadvantaged group to ensure that they receive the benefits afforded an experimental group, such as giving a control group access to the superior treatment at some time after a study?

 

  1. Manipulation compensation
  2. Individual differences equalization
  3. Random assignment
  4. Compensatory equalization of treatments

LO: 4, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 6.5 Ethics in Focus: Beneficence and Random Assignment

 

  1. Compensatory equalization of treatments specifically addresses which principle of the Belmont Report?

 

  1. Respect for persons
  2. Justice
  3. Beneficence
  4. Randomization

LO: 4, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.5 Ethics in Focus: Beneficence and Random Assignment

 

  1. An experiment that takes place in a laboratory setting in which the researcher has greatest control over variables, regardless of whether it is made to look natural or not is called a:

 

  1. field experiment.
  2. laboratory experiment.
  3. quasi-experiment.
  4. non-experiment.

LO: 5, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Laboratory and field experiments

 

  1. An experiment that takes place in an environment within which the behavior or event being observed would naturally operate is called a:

 

  1. field experiment.
  2. laboratory experiment.
  3. quasi-experiment.
  4. non-experiment.

LO: 5, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Laboratory and field experiments

 

  1. The ________ is generally associated with higher internal validity, whereas the _______ is generally associated with higher external validity.

 

  1. field experiment; laboratory experiment
  2. laboratory experiment; field experiment
  3. field experiment; field experiment
  4. laboratory experiment; laboratory experiment

LO: 5, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Laboratory and field experiments

 

  1. The laboratory experiment is generally associated with higher ____ validity, whereas the field experiment is generally associated with higher ____ validity.

 

  1. internal; external
  2. external; external
  3. internal; internal
  4. external; external

LO: 5, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Laboratory and field experiments

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a field experiment?

 

  1. A study on cognitive awareness in which participants respond to various cues presented on a computer screen.
  2. A study on increasing gym participation in which the number of patrons in a gym is manipulated to identify changes in gym participation.
  3. A study on dietary restraint in which participants taste and rate how likely they are to eat various comfort foods presented in random order.
  4. A study on the music enhance on memory in which participant listen to various types of music while viewing a complex image; the number of items recalled in that image after listening to the music is then recorded.

LO: 5, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Laboratory and field experiments

 

  1. Which of the following can be a threat to the internal validity of a study?

 

  1. Only history effects
  2. Only regression toward the mean
  3. Only regression toward the mean and heterogeneous attrition
  4. History effects, regression toward the mean, and heterogeneous attrition

LO: 6, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 6.6 Threats to the Internal Validity of a Research Study

 

  1. Factors that threaten ____ validity will vary systematically with the independent variable.

 

  1. internal
  2. population
  3. external
  4. sample

LO: 6, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 6.6 Threats to the Internal Validity of a Research Study

 

  1. A possible threat to internal validity in which an unanticipated event co-occurs with a treatment or manipulation in a study, is called:

 

  1. history effect.
  2. maturation.
  3. testing effect.
  4. desensitization.

LO: 6, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: History and maturation

 

  1. During the Halloween season, a researcher records candy intake when it is in close proximity or far proximity from a participant and finds that participants do not eat any candy at all regardless of where the candy is located. Which of the following provides a likely explanation for this outcome?

 

  1. Participants matured and now realize that candy has too much sugar and so do not eat candy anymore.
  2. It is a history effect in that participants may have been eating candy more often in general and so may be sick of eating candy, which is why they are not eating these foods in the study.
  3. It is a testing effect because participants realize that they are being tested on their ability to determine the nutritional content of candy.
  4. It is most likely that all participants do not like to eat candy because most people do not like the taste of foods that are high in sugar

LO: 6, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: History and maturation

 

  1. A possible threat to internal validity in which a participants physiological or psychological state changes over time during a study, is called:

 

  1. history effect.
  2. testing effect.
  3. maturation.
  4. internalization.

LO: 6, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: History and maturation

 

  1. A change or shift in a participants performance toward a level or score that is closer to or more typical of his or her true potential or mean ability on some measure, after previously scoring unusually high or low on the same measure, is called:

 

  1. history effect.
  2. testing effect.
  3. maturation.
  4. regression toward the mean.

LO: 6, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Regression and testing effects

 

  1. The improved performance on a test or measure the second time it is taken due to the experience of taking the test, is called:

 

  1. history effect.
  2. testing effect.
  3. maturation.
  4. regression toward the mean.

LO: 6, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: History and maturation

 

  1. A testing effect typically leads to an ____ in performance, whereas regression toward the mean typically lead to ____ in performance the second time an assessment is administered.

 

  1. increase; decrease
  2. decrease; increase
  3. increase; increase or decrease
  4. decrease; increase or decrease

LO: 6, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: History and maturation

 

  1. Suppose Team A is a new team and the graph below shows their performance on each of their first two nights playing basketball together. Team B is a veteran team who played exceptionally well in the first game, but not in the second game. The following graph depicts the outcomes for each team. Which of the following possible threats to internal validity are likely to be depicted in this graph?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. A testing effect for Team A and B
  2. A testing effect for Team B, but not Team A
  3. Regression toward the mean and a testing effect for Team B
  4. A testing effect for Team A; regression toward the mean for Team B

LO: 6, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: History and maturation

 

  1. A possible threat to internal validity in which the measurement of the dependent variable changes due to an error during the course of a research study, is called:

 

  1. history effect.
  2. testing effect.
  3. instrumentation.
  4. regression toward the mean.

LO: 6, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Instrumentation and measurement

 

  1. The instrumentation used to measure an outcome or dependent variable can be a possible threat to internal validity when it is inherently prone to:

 

  1. error in the measurement of the dependent variable varies systematically with the levels of the factor.
  2. precise measurements of a dependent variable at each level of a factor.
  3. accurate measurements of a dependent variable at each level of a factor.
  4. valid measurements of a dependent variable at each level of a factor.

LO: 6, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Instrumentation and measurement

 

  1. A possible threat to validity in which a participant does not show up for a study at a scheduled time or fails to complete the study, is called:

 

  1. history effect.
  2. attrition.
  3. instrumentation.
  4. regression toward the mean.

LO: 6, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Attrition or experimental mortality

 

  1. Which of the following types of attrition is specifically a threat to the internal validity of a study?

 

  1. Homogeneous
  2. Heterogeneous
  3. Homogeneous and heterogeneous
  4. Historical effects

LO: 6, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Attrition or experimental mortality

 

  1. A researcher randomly assigns participants to a high intensity exercise or a low intensity exercise program group. At the end of the study, she finds that about half the participants in the high intensity exercise group dropped out of the study, whereas no participants dropped out of the low intensity exercise group. Which statement about this research situation is true?

 

  1. The study demonstrates evidence of homogeneous attrition and so it will be associated with low external validity.
  2. The study demonstrates evidence of heterogeneous attrition and so will be associated with low external validity.
  3. The study demonstrates evidence of heterogeneous attrition and so will be associated with low internal validity.
  4. The study demonstrates evidence of homogeneous attrition and so it will be associated with low internal validity.

LO: 6, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Attrition or experimental mortality

 

  1. All of the following is an example of an environmental factor that should be controlled for to strengthen the internal validity of a study except?

 

  1. The time of day that a study is conducted.
  2. How participants are treated by the researcher in each group.
  3. The location in which a study is conducted.
  4. Type of research design.

LO: 6, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: Environmental factors

 

  1. An environmental factor can only threaten the internal validity of a study when it ________ with the levels of an independent variable.

 

  1. is held constant
  2. is equal
  3. varies systematically
  4. is eliminated

LO: 6, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Environmental factors

 

  1. Homogeneous attrition occurs when attrition rates are ____ in each group; heterogeneous attrition occurs when attrition rates are ____ in each group.

 

  1. the same; different
  2. different; the same
  3. the same; equal
  4. different; equal

LO: 6, 7, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Attrition or experimental mortality

 

  1. A researcher randomly assigns participants to a high volume or a low volume movie group and records food intake during the movie. At the end of the study, she finds that about half of the participants in each movie group dropped out of the study. Which statement about this research situation is true?

 

  1. The study demonstrates evidence of homogeneous attrition and so it may be associated with low internal validity.
  2. The study demonstrates evidence of heterogeneous attrition and so may be associated with low external validity.
  3. The study demonstrates evidence of heterogeneous attrition and so may be associated with low internal validity.
  4. The study demonstrates evidence of homogeneous attrition and so it may be associated with low external validity.

LO: 7, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Attrition or experimental mortality

 

  1. Which of the following types of attrition is specifically a threat to the external validity of a study?

 

  1. Homogeneous
  2. Heterogeneous
  3. Homogeneous and heterogeneous
  4. Unequal

LO: 7, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Attrition or experimental mortality

 

  1. Population validity, ecological validity, temporal validity, and outcome validity are all subcategories of:

 

  1. internal validity.
  2. external validity.
  3. causation.
  4. internal validity and causation.

LO: 7, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.7 Threats to the External Validity of a Research Study

 

  1. All of the following are subcategories of external validity except:

 

  1. population validity.
  2. temporal validity.
  3. outcome validity.
  4. maturation validity.

LO: 7, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.7 Threats to the External Validity of a Research Study

 

  1. The extent to which results observed in a study will generalize to the population from which a sample was selected, is called:

 

  1. population validity.
  2. temporal validity.
  3. outcome validity.
  4. distal validity.

LO: 7, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Population validity: Sampling and participant characteristics

 

  1. Which of the following would be most likely to threaten the population validity of a study?

 

  1. Homogeneous attrition
  2. Heterogeneous attrition
  3. History effect
  4. Random sampling

LO: 7, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Attrition or experimental mortality

 

  1. The extent to which results observed in a study will generalize across settings or environments, is called:

 

  1. population validity.
  2. temporal validity.
  3. ecological validity.
  4. outcome validity.

LO: 7, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Ecological validity: Research settings

 

  1. Ecological validity is generally high so long as observations made in a study:

 

  1. will generalize across different but related dependent variables.
  2. can be generalized to the population from which a sample was selected.
  3. are not limited to specific features of the research setting itself.
  4. are observed in the same way over time or at different points in time.

LO: 7, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Ecological validity: Research settings

 

  1. The extent to which results observed in a study will generalize across time and at different points in time, is called:

 

  1. temporal validity.
  2. population validity.
  3. ecological validity.
  4. outcome validity.

LO: 7, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Temporal validity: Timing of measurements

 

  1. Suppose a new drug was found in a study to reduce symptoms of depression immediate following treatment, and in a one month, six month, and one year follow-up test. Therefore, this study has demonstrated high:

 

  1. population validity.
  2. ecological validity.
  3. temporal validity.
  4. outcome validity.

LO: 7, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Ecological validity: Research settings

 

  1. The extent to which the results or outcomes observed in a study will generalize across different but related dependent variables, is called:

 

  1. ecological validity.
  2. population validity.
  3. temporal validity.
  4. outcome validity.

LO: 7, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Outcome validity: Operationalization of constructs

 

  1. Outcome validity is extent to which the results observed in a study:

 

  1. will generalize across different but related dependent variables.
  2. can be generalized to the population from which a sample was selected.
  3. are not limited to specific features of the research setting itself.
  4. are observed in the same way over time or at different points in time.

LO: 7, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Outcome validity: Operationalization of constructs

 

  1. Increasing the mundane and experimental realism of a study will increase the ____ of the study.

 

  1. external validity
  2. internal validity
  3. importance
  4. excitement

LO: 7, 8, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.8 External Validity, Experimentation, and Realism

 

  1. An experimental situation that looks and feels real is likely associated with:

 

  1. many threats to external validity.
  2. high mundane realism.
  3. high mundane realism and high experimental realism.
  4. many threats to external validity and high mundane realism.

LO: 8, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 6.8 External Validity, Experimentation, and Realism

 

  1. To enhance the experimental realism in a study, it is important that the manipulations in a study are:

 

  1. made obvious to participants.
  2. meaningful to participants.
  3. not noticed by participants.
  4. have no effect on participants.

LO: 8, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.8 External Validity, Experimentation, and Realism

 

  1. The extent to which a research setting physically resembles or looks like the natural or real-world environment being simulated, is called:

 

  1. external validity.
  2. mundane realism.
  3. experimental realism.
  4. internal validity.

LO: 8, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.8 External Validity, Experimentation, and Realism

 

  1. The extent to which the psychological aspects of a research setting are meaningful or feels real to participants, is called:

 

  1. internal validity.
  2. mundane realism.
  3. experimental realism.
  4. external validity.

LO: 8, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.8 External Validity, Experimentation, and Realism

 

True/False (44)

 

  1. A research design is the specific methods and procedures used to answer a research question.

LO: 1, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.1 Designing a Study to Answer a Question

 

  1. The types of questions that researchers ask are exploratory, descriptive, and relational questions.

LO: 1, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.1 Designing a Study to Answer a Question

 

  1. The following question is a type of relational question: How often do college students change their major on average?

LO: 1, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: 6.1 Designing a Study to Answer a Question

 

  1. A manipulation is when a researcher creates the conditions in which participants are observed.

LO: 1, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.4 Demonstrating Cause in an Experiment

 

  1. Nonexperimental research designs are used in situations where the behavior or event being observed is observed as-is or without intervention from the researcher.

LO: 1, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Nonexperimental research designs

 

  1. The conditions and experiences of participants are under the full control of the researcher using the experimental research design.

LO: 1, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Experimental research designs

 

  1. Any research design, if used properly, can demonstrate cause-and-effect.

LO: 1, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: 6.4 Demonstrating Cause in an Experiment

 

 

  1. A quasi-independent variable is any factor in which the levels of that factor are created or manipulated by a researcher.

LO: 1, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Quasi-experimental research designs

 

 

  1. One strength of a quasi-experimental research design is that it allows researchers to study factors related to the unique characteristics of participants.

LO: 1, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Quasi-experimental research designs

 

  1. An experimental design is a superior design to nonexperimental and quasi-experimental research designs.

LO: 2, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Experimental research designs

 

  1. An experimental design is associated with the highest external and internal validity of any other research design because it can demonstrate cause-and-effect.

LO: 2, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: 6.4 Demonstrating Cause in an Experiment

 

  1. Categorization can oversimplify the complexity of research design.

LO: 2, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.2 Categories of Research Design

 

  1. Control in research design is requires holding all other variables constant and not the manipulation of an independent variable.

LO: 2, 3, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.2 Categories of Research Design

 

  1. Internal validity is to causality, as external validity is to generalization.

LO: 2, 3, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: 6.3 Internal and External Validity

 

  1. Experimental designs are generally associated with the highest internal validity, whereas nonexperimental designs are generally associated with the highest external validity of any other research design.

LO: 3, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 6.3 Internal and External Validity

 

  1. High internal validity means that observations made in a study will generalize beyond the specific constraints in the study.

LO: 3, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.3 Internal and External Validity

 

  1. High external validity means that observations made in a study demonstrate a single unambiguous explanation for the cause of a manipulation.

LO: 3, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.3 Internal and External Validity

 

  1. Internal validity is highest in experimental research designs; external validity is highest for studies with few constraints.

LO: 3, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 6.3 Internal and External Validity

 

  1. Two types of randomization are random selection and random assignment.

LO: 4, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: General elements and structure of experiments

 

  1. Randomization, manipulation and comparison/control are three key elements of control that allow researchers to draw cause-and-effect conclusions.

LO: 4, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: General elements and structure of experiments

 

  1. Random assignment ensures that individual differences will vary substantially between groups in a study.

LO: 4, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: General elements and structure of experiments

 

  1. A researcher manipulates the effects of bright and dull color on mood. In this example, the manipulated factor has one level.

LO: 4, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: General elements and structure of experiments

 

  1. A researcher manipulates the size of a group as individual, small, or large in size. In this example, the manipulated factor has three levels.

LO: 4, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: General elements and structure of experiments

 

  1. A confound is an unanticipated variable not accounted for in a research study, which can include individual differences when random assignment is not used.

LO: 4, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: General elements and structure of experiments

 

  1. Researchers use random assignment to control for individual differences between groups in a study.

LO: 4, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: General elements and structure of experiments

 

  1. A researcher manipulated the complexity of a lesson as being simple or complex, then records the time it takes to complete a memory task. In this example, the complexity of the lesson is the dependent variable.

LO: 4, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: General elements and structure of experiments

 

  1. Random assignment can ensure that participants in an experiment have an equal chance of receiving the benefits or taking the risks associated with participation in a group.

LO: 4, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: General elements and structure of experiments

 

  1. Laboratory experiments tend to be associated with high external validity, whereas field experiments tend to be associated with high internal validity.

LO: 5, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Laboratory and field experiments

 

  1. Laboratory experiments are not different at all from field experiments.

LO: 5, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: Laboratory and field experiments

 

  1. Laboratory experiments and field experiments largely differ in terms of the setting or where the research is conducted.

LO: 5, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: Laboratory and field experiments

 

  1. Factors that threaten internal validity vary systematically with the levels of an independent variable.

LO: 6, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.6 Threats to the Internal Validity of a Research Study

 

  1. An unanticipated event co-occurs with a treatment or manipulation in a study is called a history effect.

LO: 6, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: History and maturation

 

  1. Maturation can only be a threat to internal validity for changes observed in early childhood, but not later in adult life.

LO: 6, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: History and maturation

 

  1. Regression toward the mean usually occurs when participants are selected from the bottom or top percentile in a population.

LO: 6, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Regression and testing effects

 

  1. Testing effects are not a threat to internal validity so long as participants show improvement on a test or measure the second time they complete it.

LO: 6, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Regression and testing effects

 

  1. Instrumentation is a possible threat to internal validity when an error in the measurement of a dependent variable varies systematically with the levels of a factor.

LO: 6, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Instrumentation and measurement

 

  1. Homogeneous but not heterogeneous attrition is a threat to internal validity.

LO: 6, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Attrition or experimental mortality

 

  1. How a researcher treats participants is an example of an environmental factor in a research study.

LO: 6, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Environmental factors

 

  1. Population validity, ecological validity, temporal validity, and outcome validity are all subtypes of internal validity.

LO: 7, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.7 Threats to the External Validity of a Research Study

 

  1. Factors that threaten the external validity vary systematically with the levels of an independent variable.

LO: 7, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.7 Threats to the External Validity of a Research Study

 

  1. Homogeneous attrition specifically threatens population validity.

LO: 7, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Population validity: Sampling and participant characteristics

 

  1. High external validity means that the results in a study generalize beyond the specific constraints in a study.

LO: 7, Ans: T, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: Outcome validity: Operationalization of constructs

 

  1. A study that looks real but does not feel real has high experimental realism, but low mundane realism.

LO: 8, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 6.8 External Validity, Experimentation, and Realism

 

  1. Having high internal AND high external validity is not a prerequisite for good research designs.

LO: 8, Ans: F, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 6.9 A Final Thought on Validity and Choosing a Research Design

 

Short Answer/Essay (20)

 

  1. State the three major categories of research design.

LO: 1, Ans: Experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental research designs, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.2 Categories of Research Design

 

  1. List the three major categories of research design in order from the least to the most control.

LO: 1, 2, Ans: Nonexperimental, quasi-experimental, and experimental research design, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: 6.2 Categories of Research Design

 

  1. Each major category of research design is distinguished by the level of ______ that is established in the design. [Fill in the blank]

LO: 1, 2, Ans: Control, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 6.2 Categories of Research Design

 

  1. Define the term control as it is applied in research design.

LO: 2, Ans: Control in research design is (a) the manipulation of a variable and (b) holding all other variables constant. When control is low, neither criterion is met; when control is high, both criteria are met, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: 6.2 Categories of Research Design

 

  1. Control is to ______ validity, as constraints are to ______ validity. [Fill in the blanks]

LO: 3, Ans: Internal; external, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: 6.3 Internal and External Validity

 

  1. Name the type of research design with the highest internal validity. Explain why your answer is true.

LO: 3, Ans: The experimental research design has the highest internal validity because it has the greatest experimental control, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 6.3 Internal and External Validity

 

  1. How does reducing the number of constraints generally influence external validity?

LO: 3, Ans: The fewer the constraints, the higher the external validity of a research study tends to be, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: 6.3 Internal and External Validity

 

  1. What are two types of randomization? Which is associated with assigning participants to groups using a random procedure?

LO: 4, Ans: Two types of randomization are random sampling and random assignment. Random assignment is associated with assigning participants to groups using a random procedure, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: General elements and structure of experiments

 

  1. State three key elements of control in an experiment that allow researchers to draw cause-and-effect conclusions.

LO: 4, Ans: Randomization (random sampling and random assignment), manipulation (of variables that operate in an experiment), and comparison/control (a control group), Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: General elements and structure of experiments

 

  1. What is the key threat to internal validity that is controlled for when using random assignment?

LO: 4, Ans: Individual differences., Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: General elements and structure of experiments

 

  1. Which type of experiment, laboratory or field experiment, is typically associated with higher internal validity?

LO: 5, Ans: Laboratory experiment, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: Laboratory and field experiments

 

  1. Identify how a laboratory experiment is different from a field experiment.

LO: 5, Ans: A laboratory experiment is an experiment that takes place in a laboratory setting in which the researcher has greatest control over variables, regardless of whether it is made to look natural or not. A field experiment, on the other hand, is an experiment that takes place in an environment within which the behavior or event being observed would naturally operate, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: Laboratory and field experiments

 

  1. A researcher measures the effectiveness of an anti-doping advertisement campaign by measuring the number of arrests for doping before and after the campaign. One problem is that police initiate a crackdown on doping during this same time. What type of threat to internal validity does this describe?

LO: 6, Ans: History effect, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: History and maturation

 

  1. A professor records the scores for ten students who took a midterm and a make-up midterm exam. She finds that scores improved on the make-up exam. Which two types of threats to internal validity may influence this result?

LO: 6, Ans: Regression toward the mean and testing effect, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Regression and testing effects

 

  1. All threats to internal validity vary ______ with the levels of the factor or independent variable. [Fill in the blank]

LO: 6, Ans: Systematically, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 6.6 Threats to the Internal Validity of a Research Study

 

  1. A researcher measures the influence of feedback (positive, negative) on likelihood to help others in a sample of college students. Their goal is to generalize the results to the general population. Given the chosen sample, what type of sub-validity for external validity is limited?

LO: 7, Ans: Population validity, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Population validity: Sampling and participant characteristics

 

  1. A researcher implements an intervention program at a local youth center and finds the program was effective (compared to a no program control). He tests the effectiveness of this program again at a youth center in another city and fails to show that the program was effective. What type of sub-validity for external validity is limited?

LO: 7, Ans: Ecological validity, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: Ecological validity: Research settings

 

  1. All threats to external validity are held ______ across groups in a study. [Fill in the blank]

LO: 7, Ans: Constant, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 6.7 Threats to the External Validity of a Research Study

 

  1. What type of realism is high when an experimental situation that looks real?

LO: 8, Ans: Mundane realism, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.8 External Validity, Experimentation, and Realism

 

  1. What type of realism is high when an experimental situation that feels real?

LO: 8, Ans: Experimental realism, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 6.8 External Validity, Experimentation, and Realism

 

Privitera_Methods2e_TB_07

Multiple Choice (110)

 

  1. A study conducted in the natural setting within which behavior would be expected to occur is called:

 

  1. an experiment.
  2. a naturalistic observation.
  3. a manipulation.

LO: 1, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 7.1 An Overview of Naturalistic Observation

 

  1. A naturalistic observation is the observation of behavior in the natural setting where all of the following occur except:

 

  1. the behavior is expected to occur.
  2. the behavior naturally operates.
  3. there is no attempt to overtly manipulate the conditions of the environment where the observations are made.
  4. manipulations are made to resemble the natural environment.

LO: 1, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Analysis, Answer Location: 7.1 An Overview of Naturalistic Observation

 

  1. Which of the following is an example that describes a naturalistic observation research study that uses unobtrusive observation?

 

  1. A psychologist randomly selects participants to complete a questionnaire regarding their study habits.
  2. A researcher observes student study habits by sitting in a library alone and recording the study habits of students during a two hour period.
  3. A researcher has students study alone or in groups and records their study habits during this 30-minute manipulation.
  4. A researcher sends an online survey to students regarding importance of studying before an exam.

LO: 1, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Application, Answer Location: 7.1 An Overview of Naturalistic Observation

 

  1. Which of the following is the best definition for naturalistic observation?

 

  1. The observation of behavior in the natural setting where it is expected to occur, with limited or no attempt to overtly manipulate the conditions of the environment where the observations are made.
  2. The observation of behavior in the natural setting where it is expected to occur, with a large attempt to overtly manipulate the conditions of the environment where the observations are made.
  3. The observation of behavior in the natural setting where it is not expected to occur, with a large attempt to overtly manipulate the conditions of the environment where the observations are made ethnography.
  4. The observation of behavior in the natural setting where it is not expected to occur, with limited or no attempt to overtly manipulate the conditions of the environment where the observations are made.

LO: 1, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 7.1 An Overview of Naturalistic Observation

 

  1. A(n) ________ is conducted in the natural setting or environment within which the behavior being studied would naturally occur.

 

  1. naturalistic observation
  2. meta analysis
  3. experiment
  4. quantitative study

LO: 1, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 7.1 An Overview of Naturalistic Observation

 

  1. The naturalistic research design is associated with ____ external validity and ____ internal validity.

 

  1. low; low
  2. high; high
  3. high; low
  4. low; high

LO: 1, Ans: C, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 7.1 An Overview of Naturalistic Observation

 

  1. Because behavior is observed in a natural setting using the naturalistic research design, this design is association with:

 

  1. low external validity.
  2. high external validity.
  3. low population validity.
  4. high internal validity.

LO: 1, Ans: B, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 7.1 An Overview of Naturalistic Observation

 

  1. Because we do not manipulate the conditions in a natural environment using the naturalistic observation research design, we typically have ________ control over other possible factors that could be causing the observations we make.

 

  1. limited
  2. full
  3. absolutely no
  4. strong

LO: 1, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Knowledge, Answer Location: 7.1 An Overview of Naturalistic Observation

 

  1. Can making naturalistic observations be an ethical alternative to conducting an experiment?

 

  1. Yes, because the behavior of a participant is not directed by the researcher.
  2. No, because the behavior of a participant is not directed by the researcher.
  3. No, not under no condition.
  4. Yes, because all naturalistic observations conducted in any circumstance is considered ethical.

LO: 1, Ans: A, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 7.1 An Overview of Naturalistic Observation

 

  1. Which of the following can be used to minimize bias when making naturalistic observations?

 

  1. Have multiple raters independently rate behaviors made in a setting.
  2. Make sure the observer is blind to the purpose of the study.
  3. The observer should make interpretations during an observation.
  4. Have multiple raters independently rate behaviors made in a setting

and make sure the observer is blind to the purpose of the study.

LO: 1, Ans: D, Cognitive Domain: Comprehension, Answer Location: 7.1 An Overview of Naturalistic Observation

 

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