Research Methods Process Inquiry 8th By Edition Graziano Raulin -Test Bank

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Research Methods Process Inquiry 8th By Edition Graziano Raulin -Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS

Research Methods Process Inquiry 8th By Edition Graziano Raulin -Test Bank

Graziano and Raulin Research Methods Test Bank

 

Chapter 2 Research is a Process of Inquiry

2.1 The Scientific Process

1) Which of the following is NOT true about the basic assumptions of science?

  1. A) We often do not know if the assumptions we make are true.
  2. B) The scientist treats the assumption as if it were true in order to proceed with further investigation.
  3. C) Some assumptions are shared by all scientists regardless of their discipline.
  4. D) There is now evidence to prove the truth of these assumptions.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 31 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

2) A scientific idea or statement that is tentatively accepted as being true is called

  1. A) an assumption.
  2. B) a corollary.
  3. C) an axiom.
  4. D) a paradigm.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 31 (PQ)

Skill: Factual

 

3) Research is scientific if

  1. A) it is carried out by a well-trained research scientist.
  2. B) it involves both empirical and rational processes.
  3. C) it uses models and constructs to generate ideas.
  4. D) the purpose is to understand the universe around us.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 31 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

4) In scientific research, facts are

  1. A) the knowledge gained through empirical observation.
  2. B) the behavior of the researcher.
  3. C) the opinion of the researcher.
  4. D) nonexistent; everything is open to interpretation.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 32 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

5) The empirical process of using sense data to recognize and note factual events is termed

  1. A) hypothesis testing.
  2. B) sensory perception.
  3. C) observation.
  4. D) cognition.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 32

Skill: Factual

 

6) The most basic unit in psychological research is

  1. A) computer hardware.
  2. B) computer software.
  3. C) observed facts.
  4. D) statistical analysis.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 32

Skill: Interpretive

 

7) Before 1974, systematic desensitization was used in work with

  1. A) children only.
  2. B) adults only.
  3. C) prison inmates only.
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 32

Skill: Factual

 

8) An inference

  1. A) often assumes that an observed behavior is the result of some unseen process.
  2. B) will be accurate if the behavioral observations on which the inference is based are accurate.
  3. C) follows directly from a given set of observations.
  4. D) is indistinguishable from the facts on which the inference is based.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 32 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

9) Inferences are

  1. A) one of many types of facts.
  2. B) scientifically valid.
  3. C) largely drawn from empirical observations.
  4. D) anything that cannot be replicated.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 32

Skill: Interpretive

 

10) Most facts in psychology are

  1. A) gained from nonverbal communication.
  2. B) associated with small and large muscle activity.
  3. C) behaviors.
  4. D) tested only in strict laboratory conditions.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 32

Skill: Interpretive

 

11) Which of the following represents the major category of facts in psychology?

  1. A) behavior of organisms
  2. B) human behavior
  3. C) motives and learned responses
  4. D) psychological theories

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 32 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

12) Which of the following would NOT be a fact?

  1. A) a persons score on a test
  2. B) the response of a participant to an anxiety producing situation
  3. C) a persons memory
  4. D) the time it takes a participant to complete a difficult task

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 32 (SG)

Skill: Applied

 

13) The major category of fact that is observed in psychology is

  1. A) the behavior of groups.
  2. B) the behavior of organisms.
  3. C) abnormal behavior.
  4. D) perceptual behavior.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 32

Skill: Interpretive

 

14) Since internal conditions are NOT observable, they must be

  1. A) invented.
  2. B) made external.
  3. C) inferred.
  4. D) nonexistent.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 32 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

15) The main facts observed in psychology are

  1. A) organismic facts.
  2. B) inferred facts.
  3. C) universal facts.
  4. D) behavioral facts.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 32

Skill: Factual

 

16) Inferences are largely drawn from

  1. A) experience.
  2. B) empirical observations.
  3. C) hypotheses.
  4. D) textbooks.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 33 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

17) Constructs are to inference as facts are to

  1. A) models.
  2. B) behavior.
  3. C) observation
  4. D) science

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 33 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

18) Events such as personality, intelligence, stress, and memory are

  1. A) avoided in scientific inquiry.
  2. B) rational ideas constructed by the researcher.
  3. C) accepted as true.
  4. D) facts from which scientific inferences can be drawn.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 33

Skill: Applied

 

19) The study of memory, emotion, and intelligence is an example of

  1. A) non-empirical research.
  2. B) the study of observable facts.
  3. C) the study of non-observable variables.
  4. D) a study of specific behavioral events.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 33

Skill: Applied

 

20) Emotions such as anger, sadness, and happiness are examples of

  1. A) observable events.
  2. B) constructs.
  3. C) facts.
  4. D) dependent variables.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 33

Skill: Applied

 

21) Which of the following is NOT a construct?

  1. A) intelligence
  2. B) gravity
  3. C) the ego
  4. D) age

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 33 (SG)

Skill: Applied

 

22) A construct

  1. A) is an idea created by the researcher.
  2. B) is often designed to explain and/or predict behavior.
  3. C) is often used by the researcher as if it were actually true.
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 33 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

23) Which of the following are examples of inferred constructs?

  1. A) electricity and gravity
  2. B) heart beats and blood pressure
  3. C) nonverbal gestures
  4. D) disruptive behavior

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 33

Skill: Applied

 

24) A construct is

  1. A) an observation.
  2. B) a fact observed independently.
  3. C) an idea held by the researcher.
  4. D) an experimental manipulation.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 33

Skill: Factual

 

25) Ideas constructed by researchers on the basis of observed events are called

  1. A) phantasms.
  2. B) observations.
  3. C) hypotheses.
  4. D) constructs.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 33

Skill: Factual

 

26) Ideas constructed by the researcher and used analogically (i.e., as if they existed) are termed

  1. A) existential ideas.
  2. B) ontological ideas.
  3. C) constructs.
  4. D) phenomena.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 33

Skill: Factual

 

27) Reification means

  1. A) confusing empirical observations with fact.
  2. B) confusing a construct for a fact.
  3. C) confusing reality and logic.
  4. D) believing that there is an afterlife.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 33

Skill: Factual

 

28) Many of the therapists who use psychoanalytic techniques have been accused of actually believing that there is an ego, superego, and an id. If this accusation were true, they would have committed a logical error known as

  1. A) reification of a construct.
  2. B) construct validity.
  3. C) construct confusion.
  4. D) None of the above

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 33 (SG)

Skill: Applied

 

29) Constructs are used

  1. A) only in poor research.
  2. B) as if they are reality.
  3. C) only in deductive models.
  4. D) only in inductive models.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 33

Skill: Interpretive

 

30) The logical error of confusing a construct for a fact is called

  1. A) petitio principii.
  2. B) reification.
  3. C) post hoc ergo propter hoc.
  4. D) begging the question.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 33

Skill: Factual

 

31) Mistaking the name of a phenomenon for the explanation of the phenomenon is called a

  1. A) Barnum statement.
  2. B) nominal fallacy.
  3. C) similarity-uniqueness paradox.
  4. D) evaluative bias.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 34

Skill: Interpretive

 

32) To see a statement as being either true of false is known as

  1. A) an evaluative language bias.
  2. B) a similarity paradox.
  3. C) an all-or-none bias.
  4. D) a nominal fallacy.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 34

Skill: Interpretive

 

33) Inductive reasoning relies on

  1. A) rationalization.
  2. B) making empirical observations.
  3. C) premises-conclusion arguments.
  4. D) making predictions.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 35

Skill: Interpretive

 

34) Which of the following is an example of inductive thinking?

  1. A) reasoning that a man will be able to hit a golf ball further than a woman because men generally have greater muscle development than women
  2. B) assuming that the sun will rise tomorrow morning because we know that the earth will continue to rotate and the sun will not burn out for billions of years
  3. C) assuming that there is something that we name intelligence because we notice that problem solving measures show differences between people that seem to be consistent over time
  4. D) None of the above

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 35 (SG)

Skill: Applied

 

35) Which of the following is an example of deductive thinking?

  1. A) figuring out who was the killer in a Perry Mason story by carefully considering all of the clues
  2. B) predicting what a friend would do in a particular situation based on your thorough knowledge of how this friend reacts
  3. C) developing a theory of planetary motion by observing the movement of planets in the night sky
  4. D) None of the above

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 35 (SG)

Skill: Applied

 

36) When we are reasoning from the specific to the general, we are using ________ reasoning. In contrast, when we are reasoning from the general to the specific, we are using ________ reasoning.

  1. A) theoretical; predictive
  2. B) deductive; inductive
  3. C) inductive; deductive
  4. D) predictive; theoretical

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 35 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

37) Predicting that an apple, if dropped, will fall to the ground is an example of

  1. A) deduction.
  2. B) induction.
  3. C) rationalization.
  4. D) observation.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 35

Skill: Applied

 

38) Reasoning from the particular to the general is called

  1. A) deductive thinking.
  2. B) inductive reasoning.
  3. C) conductive reasoning.
  4. D) predicate logic.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 35

Skill: Factual

 

39) If a researcher begins with an empirical observation and infers constructs on the basis of that observation, he or she is engaging in

  1. A) deductive reasoning.
  2. B) hasty generalization.
  3. C) inductive reasoning.
  4. D) modal logic.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 35 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

40) If a researcher uses inferred constructs as a basis on which to make a prediction about new and specific observations, he or she is engaging in

  1. A) guessing.
  2. B) inductive reasoning.
  3. C) the fallacy of the slippery slope.
  4. D) deductive reasoning.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 35 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

41) Reasoning from the general to the specific is termed

  1. A) deductive reasoning.
  2. B) inductive reasoning.
  3. C) telescopic reasoning.
  4. D) rational reasoning.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 35

Skill: Factual

 

42) Science is characterized by

  1. A) a combination of induction and deduction.
  2. B) deduction.
  3. C) induction.
  4. D) a separation of induction and deduction.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 35

Skill: Interpretive

 

43) The essence of science is

  1. A) not important in psychological research.
  2. B) a process involving inductive and deductive logic.
  3. C) trial and error.
  4. D) a process involving tenacity and deductive logic.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 35

Skill: Interpretive

 

44) The essence of science is

  1. A) its commitment to separation of church and state.
  2. B) its high ideals.
  3. C) its process of systematic thinking.
  4. D) the development of maxims.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 35

Skill: Interpretive

 

2.2 Models and Theories in Science

1) A formalized set of concepts that organizes observations and helps predict and explain phenomena is termed

  1. A) a maxim.
  2. B) an axiom.
  3. C) a hypothesis.
  4. D) a theory.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 35

Skill: Factual

 

2) A good theory is based on

  1. A) a hunch.
  2. B) solid empirical evidence.
  3. C) syllogistic reasoning.
  4. D) loose association of ideas.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 36

Skill: Interpretive

 

3) Theoretical thinking

  1. A) is the best way to obtain truth.
  2. B) always involves the use of complex constructs and statistical concepts.
  3. C) is a tool to help us understand the world.
  4. D) always depends on the data available.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 36

Skill: Interpretive

 

4) What can be studied scientifically?

  1. A) only natural events
  2. B) only areas of previous study
  3. C) almost anything
  4. D) only inferred events

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 36

Skill: Interpretive

 

5) Theory-building relies on

  1. A) integration of what is known about the phenomena in question.
  2. B) guesses and hunches.
  3. C) deductive logic.
  4. D) a thorough knowledge of mathematical models.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 36-37

Skill: Interpretive

 

6) A theoretical approach to flying would involve

  1. A) imitating bird behavior.
  2. B) using existing knowledge and ideas.
  3. C) risk-taking behavior.
  4. D) the use of tenacity.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 37

Skill: Applied

 

7) Before the Wright brothers, there had been

  1. A) successful glides starting with George Cayley.
  2. B) no other work done on flight.
  3. C) no successful glides or powered flights.
  4. D) successful glides starting with Otto Lilienthal.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 37

Skill: Factual

 

8) The Wright brothers studied the work of all of the following in the development of their aircraft EXCEPT

  1. A) Burt Rutan.
  2. B) Otto Lilienthal.
  3. C) Octave Chanute.
  4. D) George Cayley.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 37

Skill: Factual

 

9) Samuel Langley

  1. A) was not successful in attempts at unpiloted powered flight.
  2. B) successfully flew a piloted powered airplane before the Wright brothers.
  3. C) was never successful in attempts at powered flight.
  4. D) successfully flew an unpiloted powered aircraft before the Wright brothers flight.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 37

Skill: Factual

 

10) The history of scientific and technological advances that led to the Wright brothers success began with

  1. A) John Blanchard.
  2. B) Leonardo da Vinci.
  3. C) Benjamin Franklin.
  4. D) George Cayley.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 37

Skill: Factual

 

11) The first person (people) to make controlled, heavier-than-air-flights was (were)

  1. A) Octave Chanute.
  2. B) George Cayley.
  3. C) Otto Lilienthal.
  4. D) the Wright brothers.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 37

Skill: Factual

 

12) The airplane was invented by

  1. A) Wilbur and Orville Wright.
  2. B) Chanute and Lilienthal.
  3. C) Langley.
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 37

Skill: Factual

 

13) The airplane was invented by the Wright brothers as a result of

  1. A) their clever mechanical skills.
  2. B) a burst of Yankee ingenuity.
  3. C) systematic scientific study and experimentation.
  4. D) mechanical skill and a sudden stroke of genius.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 37

Skill: Factual

 

14) Skinners theories

  1. A) were typically extended only as far as his data would allow.
  2. B) were not constrained by his data.
  3. C) expanded beyond his data.
  4. D) ignored the data.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 38

Skill: Interpretive

 

15) Meehls theories

  1. A) stay within the bounds of what is known.
  2. B) expand on what is known.
  3. C) are primarily functional.
  4. D) are primarily inductive.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 38

Skill: Interpretive

 

16) The inductive theorist

  1. A) follows his/her hunches.
  2. B) prefers to go well beyond the data.
  3. C) follows the data wherever they may lead.
  4. D) considers constructs to be of major importance.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 38

Skill: Interpretive

 

17) The deductive theorist

  1. A) begins with empirical observations and builds to abstract explanations.
  2. B) is not concerned with prediction or explanation.
  3. C) is not interested in making empirical observations.
  4. D) makes deductions based on guiding constructs.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 38

Skill: Interpretive

 

18) Which type of psychological theory does Skinners work epitomize?

  1. A) deductive theory
  2. B) inductive theory
  3. C) functional theory
  4. D) model

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 38

Skill: Applied

 

19) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a model?

  1. A) Models are simplified representations of a phenomenon and have point-to-point correspondence with some of the characteristics of that phenomenon.
  2. B) Models provide a convenient, manageable and compact representation of the larger complex, and mostly unknown reality.
  3. C) Models are complete linear representations that can be used to statistically analyze data.
  4. D) Manipulating models help us organize information, to illustrate relationships among parts, and to create new ideas and predict new observations.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 38

Skill: Interpretive

 

20) Most psychological theories are

  1. A) inductive theories.
  2. B) based on rational and deductive thinking.
  3. C) functional theories involving deduction.
  4. D) functional theories based on induction and deduction.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 38

Skill: Interpretive

 

21) The term model has come to mean in science

  1. A) an accurate representation of the true state of nature.
  2. B) a mathematical representation of reality.
  3. C) a miniature representation of reality.
  4. D) a more complex version of simple phenomena.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 38

Skill: Factual

 

22) Models are useful because

  1. A) they represent reality.
  2. B) they help us to understand something that can be complex.
  3. C) they help us to organize knowledge.
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 38

Skill: Interpretive

 

23) In science, conceptual models ________ reality.

  1. A) duplicate
  2. B) nullify
  3. C) challenge
  4. D) represent

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 38

Skill: Interpretive

 

24) Which of the following is true about models in science?

  1. A) A model must be true in order to be scientifically useful.
  2. B) A model is always an incomplete representation of reality.
  3. C) Only true or accurate models will produce accurate predictions.
  4. D) None of the above are true.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 38 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

25) A model

  1. A) represents reality.
  2. B) is reality.
  3. C) necessarily distorts reality.
  4. D) can never represent reality.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 38

Skill: Interpretive

 

26) Which of the following is characteristic of models?

  1. A) Models represent an expanded version of the reality being represented.
  2. B) Models are incomplete, tentative, and analogical.
  3. C) Models are accurate and complete.
  4. D) Models cannot be constructed to deal with religious thinking.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 39 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

27) A model usually does NOT perform well in

  1. A) representing all of reality.
  2. B) theory construction.
  3. C) organizing existing information.
  4. D) predicting new observations or explaining phenomena.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 39

Skill: Interpretive

 

28) Science uses both

  1. A) rationalism and tenacity.
  2. B) tenacity and intuition.
  3. C) empiricism and tenacity.
  4. D) rationalism and empiricism.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 39

Skill: Interpretive

 

29) Scientists investigate the world by

  1. A) traveling extensively.
  2. B) scaling down reality.
  3. C) always using complex technology.
  4. D) always using scientific statistical procedures.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 38-39

Skill: Interpretive

 

30) Models must be true (i.e., accurately represent nature)

  1. A) to have scientific validity.
  2. B) to be valuable in future research.
  3. C) to satisfy publication requirements.
  4. D) None of the above

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 39

Skill: Interpretive

 

31) The classical model of memory is a good example of

  1. A) a genetic model.
  2. B) a behavioral structure.
  3. C) an abstract model.
  4. D) both A and C.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 39

Skill: Applied

 

32) Why is a model of human memory useful?

  1. A) It explains the unexplainable.
  2. B) It gives the researcher accurate factual information about the structure of the brain.
  3. C) It is a perfect model for studying memory.
  4. D) It makes accurate predictions about the relationships of behavior to observational events.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 39

Skill: Interpretive

 

33) In order to be useful, a conceptual model must

  1. A) be real and true.
  2. B) have a tripartite structure, as does the classical model of human memory.
  3. C) make accurate predictions about relationships between observable events.
  4. D) not be tied to any observational base.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 39 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

34) Theories are

  1. A) either right or wrong.
  2. B) evaluated on the basis of being right or wrong.
  3. C) not open to verification.
  4. D) always tentative statements.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 39

Skill: Interpretive

 

35) A theory is often judged on the basis of

  1. A) whether it is right or wrong.
  2. B) how often it is used and by whom.
  3. C) how useful it is in organizing the data.
  4. D) how sophisticated it is.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 39

Skill: Interpretive

 

2.3 A Model of the Research Process

1) Which comes first in the scientific inquiry process?

  1. A) data collection
  2. B) empirical observation
  3. C) creating and asking a question
  4. D) designing the study

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 42

Skill: Interpretive

 

2) The first phase of research is usually

  1. A) the idea-generating phase.
  2. B) the data-analysis phase.
  3. C) the observation phase.
  4. D) the problem-definition phase.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 42

Skill: Factual

 

3) According to the conceptual model of the research process presented in your textbook, which of the following is NOT a phase of research?

  1. A) the communication phase
  2. B) the interpretation phase
  3. C) the procedures design phase
  4. D) the a priori phase

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 42

Skill: Factual

 

4) In the idea-generating phase of a research project, premature criticism would most likely serve to

  1. A) sharpen and enhance a good research idea.
  2. B) interrupt and choke an emerging good idea.
  3. C) assist in designing adequate procedures.
  4. D) encourage and stimulate the research team.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 42 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

5) Which of the following gives the correct order of phases in scientific inquiry?

  1. A) defining, observing, analyzing, and communicating
  2. B) observing, defining, analyzing, and communicating
  3. C) communicating, observing, analyzing, and defining
  4. D) defining, observing, communicating, and analyzing

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 42

Skill: Interpretive

 

6) In the process of research, which of the following phases would come first?

  1. A) idea-generation
  2. B) problem-definition
  3. C) observation
  4. D) data-analysis

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 42

Skill: Factual

 

7) Psychological research generally is developed from

  1. A) the work of early Greek philosophers.
  2. B) unsystematic hunches.
  3. C) the work of Pythagoras.
  4. D) previous psychological research.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 42

Skill: Interpretive

 

8) The idea-generating phase of a research project is usually followed most closely by

  1. A) the data-analysis phase.
  2. B) the communication phase.
  3. C) the problem-definition phase.
  4. D) the procedures design phase.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 42

Skill: Interpretive

 

9) The initial phases of a research study would usually begin with

  1. A) observation.
  2. B) defining the problem.
  3. C) a detailed cost/benefit analysis.
  4. D) communicating your ideas to others.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 42

Skill: Applied

 

10) Defining a problem is

  1. A) a rational process.
  2. B) unstructured, that is, a hit or miss process.
  3. C) not limiting and often unstructured.
  4. D) relatively unimportant in the research process.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 42

Skill: Interpretive

 

11) In the procedures-design phase, we are first concerned with

  1. A) which instruments to use.
  2. B) humane treatment of participants.
  3. C) which observations are to be made.
  4. D) ethical considerations.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 43

Skill: Interpretive

 

12) In the problem-definition phase of a study, questions that we pose are important because

  1. A) they control the rest of the research procedure.
  2. B) they limit absolutely the parameters of the research.
  3. C) they make demands on scientists to only consider rational ideas.
  4. D) None of the above

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 43

Skill: Interpretive

 

13) If you had an idea for a research project, the initial process would involve

  1. A) the honing and manipulating of questions.
  2. B) determining what observations need to be made.
  3. C) deciding under what conditions data should be gathered.
  4. D) considering ethical issues and data analysis strategies.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 43

Skill: Applied

 

14) Assuming that the research question has been determined, a study of abused children would next need to focus on

  1. A) the feelings and legal rights of parents.
  2. B) ethical considerations.
  3. C) whether the researcher liked children.
  4. D) how to remove abused children from home.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 43

Skill: Applied

 

15) What is the difference between an idea and a hypothesis?

  1. A) An idea is more precise and detailed.
  2. B) They are not different.
  3. C) A hypothesis is more precise and detailed.
  4. D) A lay person has ideas; the scientist has hypotheses.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 43 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

16) According to Linus Pauling, getting ideas for research is not a problem because

  1. A) one has only to rely on previous research.
  2. B) all ideas are valid for future research.
  3. C) ideas are abundant; you just have to exclude the bad ones.
  4. D) no single idea is unique, just an amalgam of other work.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 43

Skill: Factual

 

17) In which of the following phases of research does the researcher primarily use deductive reasoning?

  1. A) problem-definition phase
  2. B) procedures design phase
  3. C) data-analysis phase
  4. D) interpretation phase

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 43 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

18) In what phase of research is the empirical component of science most clearly visible?

  1. A) procedures design phase
  2. B) observation phase
  3. C) interpretation phase
  4. D) communication phase

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 43 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

19) The consideration of ethical concerns typically takes place during

  1. A) the idea-generating phase.
  2. B) the observation phase.
  3. C) the interpretation phase.
  4. D) the procedures-design phase.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 43

Skill: Interpretive

 

20) One is most apt to make use of the research literature in the

  1. A) idea-generation phase of research.
  2. B) problem-definition phase of research.
  3. C) data-analysis phase of research.
  4. D) interpretation phase of research.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 43-44

Skill: Interpretive

 

21) In which of the following phases of research is the researcher actually in contact with the participants under study?

  1. A) problem-definition phase
  2. B) procedures design phase
  3. C) observation phase
  4. D) communication phase

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 43 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

22) The data-analysis phase of a research project is preceded most closely by

  1. A) the observation phase.
  2. B) the interpretation phase.
  3. C) the idea-generating phase.
  4. D) the communication phase.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 42

Skill: Interpretive

 

23) Obtaining the data in a psychological research project takes place during the

  1. A) data-analysis phase.
  2. B) observation phase.
  3. C) interpretation phase.
  4. D) communication phase.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 43

Skill: Interpretive

 

24) At what phase of research would the Psychological Abstracts most likely be used?

  1. A) problem-definition
  2. B) observation
  3. C) data-analysis
  4. D) interpretation

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 43 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

25) Statistical procedures that help determine the statistical significance of the observations are performed during

  1. A) the interpretation phase.
  2. B) the statistical phase.
  3. C) the communication phase.
  4. D) the data-analysis phase.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 43-44

Skill: Interpretive

 

26) Relating the findings of a research project to other concepts and findings in the field takes place during

  1. A) the interpretation phase.
  2. B) the communication phase.
  3. C) the relational phase.
  4. D) the data-analysis phase.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 43-44

Skill: Interpretive

 

27) In terms of statistical data analysis, it is most important that a scientist has

  1. A) enough numerical data.
  2. B) an appropriate statistical procedure for the question being asked.
  3. C) an appropriate statistical procedure in line with current trends.
  4. D) an understanding of statistical computer techniques.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 43

Skill: Applied

 

28) In which of the following phases of research does the researcher primarily use inductive reasoning?

  1. A) idea-generating phase
  2. B) problem-definition phase
  3. C) data-analysis phase
  4. D) interpretation phase

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 43 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

29) In which of the following phases of research is the public aspect of science most obvious?

  1. A) idea-generating phase
  2. B) observation phase
  3. C) interpretation phase
  4. D) communication phase

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 44 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

30) Considerable doubt can be placed on research findings if the findings

  1. A) emerge in a cross-cultural context.
  2. B) cannot be duplicated exactly.
  3. C) cannot be replicated.
  4. D) are published in a language other than English or German.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 44

Skill: Interpretive

 

31) A disadvantage of publishing written reports is that

  1. A) they are difficult to locate.
  2. B) only a few people read them.
  3. C) it often takes a year or more to get them published.
  4. D) others can steal your ideas.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 44

Skill: Interpretive

 

32) Oral and poster presentations at scientific meetings offer advantages over books and journals in that

  1. A) they are a more immediate and interactive forum in which to present research findings.
  2. B) they help save money on books and journals.
  3. C) they are easier to understand than journal articles.
  4. D) the information presented is generally more accurate.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 44

Skill: Interpretive

 

33) Scientific communication is important because it

  1. A) prevents replication of previously studied areas.
  2. B) allows scientists to retire early.
  3. C) informs the general public about the importance of scientific method.
  4. D) allows for replication and evaluation by peers.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 44

Skill: Interpretive

 

34) The most formal methods of communicating research are

  1. A) going to conferences and presenting papers.
  2. B) books and scientific journals.
  3. C) interactive and oral communication.
  4. D) direct communication and lab work.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 44-45 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

35) What methods would be more effective in the speedy communication of research findings?

  1. A) publication in books and journals
  2. B) interactive communication informally among colleagues
  3. C) attending conferences and giving speeches
  4. D) taking courses at the invisible college

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 44-45

Skill: Applied

 

36) The invisible college refers to

  1. A) research reports that have gone unnoticed.
  2. B) the informal communication that takes place between research colleagues.
  3. C) the fact that the disadvantaged and handicapped can now get a college education.
  4. D) advanced placement science courses in high school.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 45 (PQ)

Skill: Factual

 

37) The invisible college helps to

  1. A) promote scientific study of psychic events and phenomena.
  2. B) protect researchers from malpractice suits.
  3. C) connect scientists into a communication network.
  4. D) connect scientists into a large computer network.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 45

Skill: Interpretive

 

38) The phases of research

  1. A) generally proceed in the sequence described in the text.
  2. B) always proceed in the sequence described in the text.
  3. C) never overlap in their sequencing.
  4. D) could be performed in random order and yield the same results.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 46

Skill: Interpretive

 

39) What is the invisible college?

  1. A) an organization promoting secret study
  2. B) a college dedicated to the scientific study of cybergenics
  3. C) an informal network allowing the discussion of ideas and research
  4. D) a network of professors dedicated to furthering study of the natural science

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 45

Skill: Factual

 

40) Empiricism is the center of

  1. A) all research.
  2. B) natural science research primarily.
  3. C) psychological research primarily.
  4. D) the universe.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 46

Skill: Interpretive

 

41) Which of the following approaches is the most demanding?

  1. A) empiricism
  2. B) intuition
  3. C) rationalism
  4. D) science

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 46

Skill: Interpretive

 

42) A major function of low-constraint research is

  1. A) to test inductive causal inferences.
  2. B) to establish a general proposition.
  3. C) to test causal hypotheses.
  4. D) to generate ideas.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 46

Skill: Interpretive

 

43) Flexibility in research is synonymous with

  1. A) precise and highly controlled research.
  2. B) low-constraint research.
  3. C) scientifically invalid research.
  4. D) better research.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 47

Skill: Interpretive

 

44) In scientific research, as we increase control, we impose ________ on our flexibility.

  1. A) rules
  2. B) constraints
  3. C) precision
  4. D) rationales

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 46

Skill: Interpretive

 

45) Low-constraint research is particularly relevant if a scientist is

  1. A) doing research in previously studied areas.
  2. B) breaking new ground in research.
  3. C) interested in predictive theories.
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 46

Skill: Interpretive

 

46) If a researcher is interested in learning about the social interactions of elderly nursing home residents, the best place to start is at the

  1. A) naturalistic observation level of constraint.
  2. B) differential level of constraint.
  3. C) case-study method level of constraint.
  4. D) experimental level of constraint.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 47 (PQ)

Skill: Applied

 

47) The degree to which the researcher imposes controls on any part of the research process is

  1. A) the level of compromise.
  2. B) the noise level.
  3. C) the acceptable level of contamination.
  4. D) the level of constraint.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 47

Skill: Factual

 

48) Levels of constraint

  1. A) do not affect the nature of the research study.
  2. B) are the same from study to study.
  3. C) are imposed by the researcher.
  4. D) are different in the study of natural events and psychological events.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 47

Skill: Interpretive

 

49) Of the following levels of research, which one represents the highest level of constraint?

  1. A) correlational research
  2. B) case-study research
  3. C) naturalistic observation
  4. D) differential research

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 47 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

50) Of the following levels of research, which one represents the lowest level of constraint?

  1. A) experimental research
  2. B) naturalistic observation
  3. C) case-study research
  4. D) differential research

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 47

Skill: Interpretive

 

51) Only high-constraint models of research can be scientific. Your textbook authors would argue that this statement is

  1. A) false
  2. B) true
  3. C) true in scientific disciplines other than the natural sciences.
  4. D) false in the social sciences, but true in the natural sciences.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 46-47

Skill: Interpretive

 

52) The use of the appropriate level of constraint is best determined by

  1. A) the nature of the question being asked.
  2. B) consulting an outside agency.
  3. C) a priori decisions of the project director.
  4. D) the realization that high-constraint research is the most scientific.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 46-47

Skill: Interpretive

 

53) The example given of Jane Goodalls research serves to illustrate

  1. A) how she failed to select the appropriate constraint level.
  2. B) the appropriateness of her decision to perform low-constraint naturalistic research.
  3. C) the fact that it is more difficult to study chimpanzees than humans.
  4. D) the difficulties one can encounter when applying for a federal research grant.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 48

Skill: Applied

 

54) All levels of research are considered scientific when they have been

  1. A) used by certified psychologists.
  2. B) combined with sophisticated data-analytic techniques.
  3. C) used in an appropriate way.
  4. D) approved by an ethics committee.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 47-48

Skill: Interpretive

 

55) The level of constraint used is determined by

  1. A) the type of statistical analysis to be used.
  2. B) previous research in that area.
  3. C) the type of question being asked.
  4. D) the natural sciences.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 48

Skill: Interpretive

 

56) Scientific research must always be precise and controlled.

  1. A) This is a true statement.
  2. B) This is an untrue statement.
  3. C) This is a mostly true statement.
  4. D) This is a mostly untrue statement.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 48

Skill: Interpretive

 

57) Which of the following is an accurate statement?

  1. A) High-powered statistical analyses are preferable, even in low-constraint research.
  2. B) The researcher must refine the question so it can be answered using the highest constraint level possible.
  3. C) All truly important research questions are most appropriately investigated with high-constraint, complicated methods.
  4. D) Statistical analyses can appropriately be performed at a different level of constraint than the research itself.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 49

Skill: Interpretive

 

58) The level of constraint that employs the greatest level of control is

  1. A) differential
  2. B) experimental
  3. C) case study
  4. D) correlational

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 49 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

59) Which of the following describes naturalistic observation?

  1. A) flexible
  2. B) low-constraint
  3. C) high-constraint
  4. D) A and B

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 49

Skill: Interpretive

 

60) Case-study research is of a higher level of constraint than naturalistic observation because

  1. A) humans rather than animals are being studied.
  2. B) the researcher intervenes with the participants functioning.
  3. C) case-study research is always carried out in a lab.
  4. D) Both A and C.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 49-50

Skill: Interpretive

 

61) Of the following types of research, the lowest constraint is employed in

  1. A) experimental research.
  2. B) the case-study method of observation.
  3. C) correlational research.
  4. D) naturalistic observation.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 49

Skill: Interpretive

 

62) Of the following types of research, the highest constraint is employed in

  1. A) differential research.
  2. B) experimental research.
  3. C) correlational research.
  4. D) naturalistic research.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 49

Skill: Interpretive

 

63) If a researcher is interested in getting information on the combat experiences of Vietnam War veterans who suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the most appropriate research strategy would be

  1. A) to begin at the experimental level.
  2. B) to use the differential level of constraint.
  3. C) to use the case-study method.
  4. D) to begin at the naturalistic level.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 49-50

Skill: Applied

 

64) In correlational research, we are primarily concerned with

  1. A) quantifying the relationship between two or more variables.
  2. B) the effect of the natural environment on the participant.
  3. C) a comparison between two or more groups of participants.
  4. D) the randomized assignment of participants.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 49-50

Skill: Interpretive

 

65) Correlational research is useful because

  1. A) it allows us to predict the value of one variable from knowing the value of another.
  2. B) it establishes causal relationships.
  3. C) it can be applied to all research situations.
  4. D) it does not require constrained procedures for measurement.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 49

Skill: Interpretive

 

66) In experimental research, participants are assigned

  1. A) on the basis of preexisting conditions.
  2. B) randomly.
  3. C) according to age or IQ.
  4. D) non-randomly.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 50 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

67) In differential research, a ________ variable defines the groups.

  1. A) manipulated independent
  2. B) dependent
  3. C) confounding
  4. D) preexisting

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 50 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

68) In a study of the relationship between scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and academic performance, a researcher should begin at the

  1. A) correlational level.
  2. B) experimental level.
  3. C) differential level.
  4. D) case-study method.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 50

Skill: Applied

 

69) Once the constraint level has been determined,

  1. A) the research is essentially completed.
  2. B) any level of constraint can be used to complete the research.
  3. C) the same constraint level must be used consistently throughout the research.
  4. D) only the experimental or differential levels can then be used.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 50

Skill: Interpretive

 

70) The mixing of constraint levels is

  1. A) accepted procedure for low-constraint research.
  2. B) desirable in naturalistic research.
  3. C) not appropriate.
  4. D) None of the above

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 50

Skill: Interpretive

 

71) A researcher comparing adult children of alcoholics and adults with non-drinking parents would be most likely to use

  1. A) an experimental design.
  2. B) a differential design.
  3. C) a naturalistic design.
  4. D) a case study design.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 50 (PQ)

Skill: Applied

 

72) Differential research

  1. A) uses experimental designs to create differences between groups.
  2. B) makes comparisons between two or more groups of participants.
  3. C) compares the pretest-posttest difference scores of randomly assigned groups.
  4. D) None of the above

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 50

Skill: Interpretive

 

73) Which two levels of constraint involve the direct comparison of two or more groups of participants?

  1. A) naturalistic and case-study
  2. B) case-study and experimental
  3. C) experimental and differential
  4. D) correlational and differential

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 50 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

74) A major difference between differential research and experimental research is

  1. A) the statistical tests employed on the data.
  2. B) the way participants are assigned to the groups or conditions.
  3. C) that, in experimental research, the assignment of participants is based on a preexisting variable.
  4. D) that differential research is more difficult to get published.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 50

Skill: Interpretive

 

75) The most appropriate design for comparing relapse rates for people with depression and people with schizophrenia is most likely to be

  1. A) a case-study design.
  2. B) a naturalistic design.
  3. C) an experimental design.
  4. D) a differential design.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 50

Skill: Applied

 

76) When participants are randomly assigned to conditions, we are doing

  1. A) case-study research.
  2. B) experimental research.
  3. C) correlational research.
  4. D) differential research.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 50

Skill: Interpretive

 

77) In a large-scale comparison of the effects of several new medications on depression, the researcher must begin at

  1. A) the naturalistic level in order to observe participants in their natural environment.
  2. B) a highly constrained experimental level in order to exert the necessary controls.
  3. C) a lower constraint level in order to gather as much personal information as possible without exerting too much control.
  4. D) the differential level of constraint because depression is a preexisting variable.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 50-51

Skill: Applied

 

78) The danger of artificiality of laboratory research is called the

  1. A) imprecision problem.
  2. B) precision versus relevance problem.
  3. C) problem of the excluded factors.
  4. D) relevant data problem.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 51

Skill: Factual

 

79) Research on cell phone use while driving shows that

  1. A) all cell phones are safe to use while driving.
  2. B) only hands-free cell phones are safe to use while driving.
  3. C) any cell phone use interferes with driving.
  4. D) cell phone use affects driving about as much as listening to the radio.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 51-52

Skill: Applied

 

2.4 Ethical Principles

1) Frankenstein

  1. A) was an early eighteenth century monster movie.
  2. B) is a metaphor for the potential misuse of science.
  3. C) is an accurate account of early biological experimentation.
  4. D) originated in the early 1950s over concern about atomic power.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 53

Skill: Interpretive

 

2) When do ethical issues apply in psychological research?

  1. A) Whenever we are using living organisms.
  2. B) Whenever we are using human participants.
  3. C) Whenever animals are used in research.
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 52

Skill: Interpretive

 

3) Which of the following best describe the attitude of scientists to ethical issues?

  1. A) Scientists have always been ethical.
  2. B) Scientists are becoming increasingly more sensitive to ethical issues in their work.
  3. C) Ethical issues are no longer a concern for scientists.
  4. D) Scientist believe that ethical issues are too strongly emphasized in todays litigious society.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 52

Skill: Interpretive

 

4) What role did Hitler and the Nazis play in the development of scientific ethics?

  1. A) Hitlers Third Reich actually proposed the first ethical code for scientists in 1937.
  2. B) The experiments of Nazi scientists on concentration camp inmates shocked the worlds scientists into looking at their own ethical principles.
  3. C) The advances in medicine from Nazi experiments provided support for the principle that all research should be judged based on a cost/benefit analysis.
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 53

Skill: Interpretive

 

5) The ethical principles of research

  1. A) were developed by people other than scientists and then legally mandated for all science.
  2. B) are continually discussed and modified as scientists and others become more sensitive to ethical issues.
  3. C) have changed little since they were first established in the early 1950s.
  4. D) have become more permissive as scientists discovered that the original guidelines were excessively strict.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 53

Skill: Interpretive

 

6) The American Psychological Association

  1. A) developed the first set of ethical guidelines in 1923.
  2. B) was one of the last organizations to develop ethical guidelines for research, but is generally recognized as having the most comprehensive set of guidelines.
  3. C) decided to adopt the guidelines of the American Medical Association (AMA) because those guidelines were comprehensive and entirely adequate to guide psychological research.
  4. D) was one of the first professional organizations to develop ethical guidelines for research.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 53

Skill: Interpretive

 

7) At what phase of research should the ethical researcher most thoroughly look at ethical issues?

  1. A) procedures-design phase
  2. B) interpretation phase
  3. C) observation phase
  4. D) communication phase

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 53

Skill: Interpretive

 

8) If a researcher detects an ethical problem in the research design, the researcher should

  1. A) inform potential research participants about the ethical problem.
  2. B) get a legal waiver before conducting the research.
  3. C) modify the research plan to avoid the ethical problem.
  4. D) get permission from the university or research center to conduct the ethically questionable research.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 53

Skill: Interpretive

 

9) In the 1950s and 1960s, criticism of the ethics of research methodology grew in the area of

  1. A) biomedical research.
  2. B) Russian medical research.
  3. C) work with animals.
  4. D) cigarette testing on beagles in England.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 53

Skill: Factual

 

10) Ethical concerns over possible inhumane treatment of human research participants arose in response to

  1. A) the conduct of German researchers during World War II.
  2. B) Hiroshima.
  3. C) the demands of Amnesty International.
  4. D) American involvement in Vietnam and Cambodia.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 53-54

Skill: Factual

 

11) The major criticism of biomedical research in the U.S. during the 1950s and 1960s was

  1. A) medical safeguards were not being used.
  2. B) more surgery was being performed.
  3. C) risky new techniques were being used without the participants permission.
  4. D) animals were being used for body parts for human transplantation.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 53-54

Skill: Factual

 

12) The two main issues to think about when considering ethical requirements in research are

  1. A) societal need and the rights of the individual participants.
  2. B) individual morality and the need for new medicines.
  3. C) the needs of wider society and the needs of subgroups within the society.
  4. D) the rights of government and the rights of the people.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 54

Skill: Interpretive

 

13) The American Psychological Association (APA) was one of the first professional organizations to

  1. A) ban research on laboratory animals.
  2. B) raise its fees.
  3. C) develop ethical guidelines for research.
  4. D) censure Nazi Germany.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 54

Skill: Factual

 

14) The American Psychological Associations (APA) position on ethical guidelines recognizes that some psychological research may

  1. A) violate the participants constitutional rights.
  2. B) cause serious bodily harm to a participant.
  3. C) cause a participants death.
  4. D) place a participant at risk for physical or emotional harm.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 54

Skill: Interpretive

 

15) The American Psychological Association identifies

  1. A) research as the sole area to which ethical considerations apply.
  2. B) seventeen general principles of ethical behavior.
  3. C) five general ethical principles for psychologists.
  4. D) high fees as the major ethical issue in clinical treatment.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 55

Skill: Factual

 

16) The American Psychological Association identifies major general ethical principle for psychologists to be

  1. A) high fees for service.
  2. B) taking care to do no harm.
  3. C) inadequate services for children.
  4. D) lack of sensitivity to womens issues.

Answer: B

Type: MC

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