Research Methods for Social Workers 7th Edition By Bonnie Laura L Test Bank

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Research Methods for Social Workers 7th Edition By Bonnie Laura L Test Bank

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Research Methods for Social Workers 7th Edition By Bonnie Laura L Test Bank

Chapter 6
Group Research Design
CHAPTER SUMMARY
A research design is a plan for conducting research. It is the way that a
researcher responds to certain questions about how the research is to be
conducted. As noted earlier, research can be described as basic or applied,
or as primarily qualitative or primarily quantitative. It can also be described
as cross-sectional, pretest-posttest, or longitudinal, suggesting (among
other things) how many times participants were observed or interviewed or
certain key variables were measured, and what questions the researcher
was attempting to answer. Research can be described as exploratory,
descriptive, or explanatory, suggesting (among other things) the kind of
knowledge that was sought and how the researcher went about seeking it.
Finally, specific research designs can be labeled as pre-experimental,
experimental, or quasi-experimental.
CORE COMPETENCIES IN THIS CHAPTER
Competencies in bold are addressed significantly in this chapter.
Professional
Identity
Ethical
Practice
Critical
Thinking
Diversity in
Practice
Human Rights
& Justice
Research
Based
Practice
Human
Behavior
Policy
Practice
Practice
Contexts
Engage,
Assess,
Intervene,
Evaluate
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
After completing the chapter, students will be able to:
Give examples of the characteristics of a good research design;
Distinguish between cross-sectional, pretest-posttest, and longitudinal
research studies;
Explain the different uses of exploratory, descriptive, and explanatory
research;
Use standard notation to describe group research designs;
Recognize the most common pre-experimental, experimental, and
quasi-experimental research designs.
SUGGESTED DISCUSSION PROMPTS
1. Ask students to briefly describe the nine common threats to internal
validity, ask them to give examples.
2. A research design is a response to what questions?
3. Using middle-school students as the sample, describe how a trend
study, a cohort study, and a panel study would differ in how research
participants
4. If you worked in a counseling center, what would be an ethical concern
with regard to randomly assigning participants to either the control or
the experimental group? Would the ethical concern change if you
worked in a psychiatric hospital?
5. Ask students to address the statement that exploratory studies are
likely to have smaller samples and mostly use qualitative methods of
data collection. Ask students if they believe these types of studies are
effective in social work practice settings.
SUGGESTED CHAPTER ACTIVITIES AND ASSIGNMENTS
1. Have students review What About the Dads? Child Welfare Agencies
Efforts to Identify, Locate, and Involve Nonresident Fathers
[http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/06/CW-involve-dads/report.pdf]. Have
students identify the research questions and the type of study. Ask
students to address if this study could have used a different design
and to describe that design.
2. Ask the students to visit Child Trends Research sites
[http://www.childtrends.org/_catdisp_page.cfm?LID=C7805546-9019-
4946-A3D7D63B797397CA] and to identify a research area and review
at least three of the studies. Have them identify the research
questions and the type of research study.
3. Ask the students to visit Harvard Family Research Project and to
review the Out-of-School Time (OST) Program Research
[http://www.hfrp.org/out-of-school-time/ost-databasebibliography/
database]. Have them look at three studies and identify
the research questions and the type of study.
SUGGESTED TEACHING TIPS
In this chapter, qualitative approach is summarized and its characteristics
are compared t with the more familiar qualitative approach to research.
This might be a good time to test whether your students really understand
what qualitative research attempts to learn and how it goes about doing it.
This will allow you to identify any misconceptions that may still exist. You
can then use discussion of the differences between quantitative and
qualitative methods to reinforce your students understanding of these two
approaches to acquiring knowledge. If students have previously been
exposed to research design in courses in other disciplines, they may have
accepted the belief that any design other than an experimental one is
inferior and necessarily flawed. They may need help in gaining appreciation
for the contributions to evidence- based practice that other designs can
make. It might be useful to provide examples of different research questions
for which a variety of designs would be appropriate. They can help students
to see the relationship between a research question and the best design to
examine it.
ASSESSMENT FOR IN-CLASS USE
The following assessment has been created for in-class use. This assessment
may be available through Pearsons MyTest websiteallowing for easy
access for creating your own tests. This assessment may also be offered in a
Blackboard/Angel/D2L/WebCT package. Please contact your local Pearson
sales representative to learn about the options available. Visit,
http://www.pearsonhighered.com/replocator.
Multiple Choice Questions
Difficulty: 1 = Easy; 2 = Medium; 3 = Challenging
Choose the BEST possible answer for each of the following.
1. In the standard notation for research designs, O stands for
A. independent variable.
B. measurement of the dependent variable.
C. random assignment of participants to a group.
D. nonrandom assignment of participants to a group.
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Competency: Research Based Practice
2. In the standard notation for research designs, R stands for
A. independent variable.
B. dependent variable.
C. random assignment of participants to a group.
D. nonrandom assignment of participants to a group.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Competency: Research Based Practice
3. One of the following is not a requirement of an experimental design:
A. Multiple measures must be taken before and after exposure to
the independent variable.
B. The independent variables are introduced or manipulated, one
at a time, by the researcher.
C. There are one or more control groups that are not exposed to
the independent variable.
D. Research participants are randomly assigned to experimental
and control groups.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Competency: Research Based Practice
4. Quasi-experimental groups designs are distinguished from true
experiments primarily because they:
A. always use only one measurement of the dependent variable.
B. do not involve exposure to an independent variable.
C. never use a comparison group.
D.fail to randomly assign participants to either the experimental
or the control groups.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Competency: Research Based Practice
5. Exploratory studies tend to use general research questions to
understand more about the issues that we are studying. They tend to
not emphasize why questions, but instead focus on the descriptors of
who or how. Which of the questions below could be used in an
exploratory study?
A. How many college students are retained each semester?
B. What is the relationship between college retention and income
C. College retention is related to income.
D. College retention is positively related to income.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Competence: Research Based Practice
6. Hypotheses are tested to determine if there are relationships among
variables. In explanatory research a hypothesis is basically an
educated guess of the relationships among variables. How is a
hypothesis generated?
A. Descriptive studies
B. Explanatory studies
C. Experimental studies
D. Empirical studies
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Competence: Research Based Practice
7. A social work researcher wants to know the impact of home visits on
hospital admissions. In designing the study it is hoped that some
explanations will be developed in order to reduce hospital admissions.
What type of research is this?
A. Exploratory
B. Explanatory
C. Descriptive
D. Qualitative
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Competence: Practice Contexts
8. The text states that there are three conditions that must be present in
relationships in order to conclude that one variable (x) causes the
changes in the other (y). Which of those below are not one of those
conditions?
A. x must actually precede y in time order.
B. x and y must consistently covary
C. it must be in a cross-sectional research design
D. All other explanations for changes in y must be ruled out
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Competence: Research Based Practice
9. Studies that to have smaller samples and mostly use qualitative
methods of data collection are:
A. Explanatory
B. Exploratory
C. Experimental
D. Descriptive
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Competence: Research Based Practice
10. Studies that tend to use larger samples and quantitative and/or
qualitative methods are:
A. Explanatory
B. Quasi-experimental
C. Experimental
D. Descriptive
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Competence: Research Based Practice
11. Natasha is studying the factors that contribute to getting good grades
in her research class. She wants to know if getting better grades is
related to biological factors or study habits. What kind of study does
Natasha need to develop?
A.An exploratory research
B. A descriptive research
C. An explanatory research
D. A medical research
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Competence: Critical Thinking
12. Research studies that develop techniques and a sense of directions for
more inquiries, and when there is very little know about the problem
could be described as:
A. Exploratory studies
B. Descriptive studies
C. Explanatory studies
D. Experimental studies
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Competence: Research Based Practice
13. I want to develop a research design that will I know little about. Also I
found very little about it in a literature review. I decided to go ahead
and study this topic and hope that other researchers will be able to
add to the knowledge in other ways. I will be using which research
design?
A. One-group posttest-only design
B. Cross-sectional survey design
C. Exploratory design
D. Posttest-only design
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Competence: Research Based Practice
14. A study was designed to see if AA and the 12 steps helped people
stop drinking. The researcher asked people who had attended AA and
completed the steps to take a test at the end of treatment. This test
design is which of the following?
A. Cross sectional survey design
B. Post-test design
C. Pre-test/Post-test design
D. Longitudinal design
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Competence: Practice Contexts
15. Claire is doing a study on divorced people and their happiness. She
believes that reality therapy will help them to move on with their
lives. She decides to do a pretest/posttest design in order to see if the
therapy helped. During the group several of the members started
dating. At the end of the group the results were astounding and Claire
was excited that her hypothesis had proven correct. This is an issue
because it violates:
A. Researcher bias
B. Testing Effects
C. History, a threat to internal validity
D. History, a threat to external validity
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Competence: Practice Contexts
16. Which one is not a characteristic of a classic experiment?
A. Independent variable must be manipulated
B. Dependent variable must be manipulated
C. A control group
D. Random sampling
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Competence: Research Based Practice
17. The goal of an experimental design is to:
A. Generate ideas about treatment
B. To understand what it means to the participants
C. Establish the relationship between dependent and
independent variables
D. To publish an article
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Competence: Research Based Practice
18. The control group is the group that receives:
A. the treatment
B. the dependent variable
C. the independent variable
D. no treatment
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Competence: Research Based Practice
19. The experimental group is the group that receives:
A. The dependent variable
B. The most improvement
C. No treatment of any kind
D. The treatment
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Competence: Research Based Practice
20. Which threat to internal validity concerns how subjects may change
from internal factors during the study?
A. Random Sampling
B. Maturation
C. History
D. Testing-effect
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Competence: Research Based Practice
21. What is the current attitude about the value of qualitative and
quantitative research methods?
A. Quantitative research is better than qualitative research
because its findings tend to be more objective.
B. Qualitative research is better than quantitative research
because knowing how something is perceived or experienced
is more important than what actually happened.
C. Qualitative research is better than nothing, but it should only
be conducted when quantitative methods cannot be used.
D. Both quantitative and qualitative research studies are
valuable; many phenomena require both methods in order to
acquire a full understanding of them.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Competence: Research Based Practice
22. Which research question below could be answered best using
qualitative research methods?
A. What is the greatest need of children who are homeless?
B. What percentage of child abusers were themselves abused as
children?
C. How do verbally abused homosexual partners perceive their
abuse?
D. Is there a negative correlation between age and amount of
time required to become computer literate?
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Competence: Practice context
23. What is the primary data collection instrument in qualitative research?
A. a mailed questionnaire
B. the computer
C. the researcher
D. a standardized test
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Competence :Research Based Practice
24. External validity refers to an assessment of:
A. how well the researchers hypotheses were justified in the
review of literature.
B. the degree to which findings from the research can be
generalized to cases not included in the researchers sample.
C. the degree to which something else (other than the
independent variable) may have produced the different
values of the dependent variable.
D. the degree to which related research agrees with the
researchers findings
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Competence :Research Based Practice
25. What can a longitudinal explanatory study tell us that other designs
cannot tell us?
A. the amount of change in the dependent variable over the
course of the research
B. whether the independent variable caused the changes in the
dependent variable
C. what other variables might have caused the change in the
dependent variable
D. when and under what conditions the changes in the
dependent variable occurred
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Competence: Critical Thinking
Essay Questions
1. Identify a social work research problem that may best be studied using
longitudinal research. Discuss the optimal length of such a study and
the logistical, ethical, and/or financial obstacles that might preclude
conducting it.
2. If you wanted to obtain a sample of Native Americans in the United
States what would some of the challenges of trying to make your
sample representative.
3. Research designs can be labeled as pre-experimental, experimental,
or quasi-experimental describe the differences and give examples.
4. Describe the differences between internal and external validity and
gives examples of each.
5. In obtaining a sample of high school teachers in Florida, describe one
method of sampling that would have extremely poor external validity
and another that would have very good external validity.
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Books
Campbell, D. & Stanley, J. (1963). Experimental and quasi-experimental
designs for research. Chicago, IL: Rand-McNally
Cronbach, L. (1982). Designing evaluations of educational and social
programs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Engel, R. J, Schutt, R. K. (2010) Fundamental of social work research. Los
Angeles: Sage.
Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (2002). Experimental and
quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Journals
Bender, K, Tripodi, S.J. Sarteschi, C., Vaughn, M. G. (2011) A meta-analysis
of interventions to reduce adolescent cannabis use. Research on
Social Work Practice 21 (2) 153-164.
Parrish, D. E., Rubin, A. (2011) Validation of the evidence-based practice
process assessment scale-short version. Research on Social Work
Practice 21 (2) 181-192.
Websites
Child Trends, Research to improve childrens lives.
[http://www.childtrends.org/]
Child Trends is a nonprofit, nonpartisan research center that studies
children at all stages of development.
Harvard Family Research Project. Out-of-School Time (OST) Program
Research [http://www.hfrp.org/out-of-school-time/ost-databasebibliography/
database]
Helping stakeholders develop and evaluate strategies to promote the
well-being of children, youth, families and their communities.
Malm K., Murray J. and Geen R. (2006) What about the Dads? Child
Welfare Agencies Efforts to Identify, Locate and Involve Nonresident
Fathers. (Washington, D.C.: The U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and
Evaluation, [http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/06/CW-involve-dads/report.pdf]
This website is a copy of a study about locating and involving fathers
in their childrens lives.
Chapter 7
Single-System Evaluation Designs
CHAPTER SUMMARY
In this chapter, an evaluation method for practitioners who wish to receive
feedback about their practice effectiveness is reviewed. Single-system
evaluation involves a careful monitoring of changes in certain behaviors,
attitudes, perceptions, or other characteristics of clients or client systems.
Design variations are employed to attempt to answer different questions, to
attempt to control for the effect of other variables, and to be able to conduct
evaluation in a way that is not in conflict with professional values and
practice ethics. We discussed several of the designs that can be used,
stressing their specialized usage and individual strengths and shortcomings.
We demonstrated the importance (and the complexity) of interpreting the
evaluation findings.
CORE COMPETENCIES IN THIS CHAPTER
Competencies in bold are addressed significantly in this chapter.
Professional
Identity
Ethical
Practice
Critical
Thinking
Diversity in
Practice
Human Rights
& Justice
Research
Based
Practice
Human
Behavior
Policy
Practice
Practice
Contexts
Engage,
Assess,
Intervene,
Evaluate
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
After completing the chapter, students will be able to:
Recognize how single-system research designs can be used to
evaluate and/or improve social work practice;
Give examples of the differences between the baseline and
intervention phase;
Illustrate a line graph using data gathered from a client;
Identify the standard notations of single-system evaluations;
Summarize the advantages and limitations of single-system design.
SUGGESTED DISCUSSION PROMPTS
1. How could you translate the goal reduce the number of times the
student with ADHD disrupts the class to a more positive goal?
2. Discuss what the future may hold for single system research. Will it be
more widely accepted and used by social work practitioners? In what
fields of practice will it probably never be widely used?
3. List and discuss the requirements that all single-system designs must
have in order for them to be useful to social work practitioners and
researchers.
4. What are the purposes of single-system design?
5. Of all the single system research designs presented in this chapter,
which one do you think is used most often in social work research?
SUGGESTED CHAPTER ACTIVITIES AND ASSIGNMENTS
1. Using the case study Utilizing Single System Research Designs
To Measure Effective Interventions and Treatments: Case Study
http://www.ssa.uchicago.edu/publications/advforum/v6n1/gronen.htm
l Review the case Shane Combs and create a single system design
from the material presented. 1) Choose a client outcome variable to be
addressed in the above situation and provide an operational definition
and measure of the variable. 2) Choose an intervention and give an
operational definition and measure of the intervention. 3) Using a
graph, chart a hypothetical relationship between your intervention and
the outcome variable. Be sure to show the baseline and the
intervention phases with the client.
2. Ask students to locate a report of a single system design study in a
recent social work journal. In two or three paragraphs, have them
summarize the purpose of the study, the design used and the
usefulness of the findings. Ask them to speculate on what confounding
variables or threats to internal validity may have produced changes in
the target problem, and if there was any way that they could have
been controlled.
3. Create an AB design that looks at a behavioral reward system used by
a teacher to help reduce the number of outbursts by a student in class.
Using the same student create an ABAB design. Give the strengths
and weaknesses of each design.
.
SUGGESTED TEACHING TIPS
This chapter should be especially interesting for students because it is so
clearly linked to social work practice single system design research is used
for evaluating a practitioners own intervention with a given client or client
system. The notion of measuring client change may be facilitated through
the presentation of structured instruments that you can bring to class or
otherwise refer to. For many students, this may be the first time they have
encountered single system design research. Thus, we have provided many
samples of different designs that can be used and the type of questions that
they can best answer. You can probably anticipate some skepticism about
the validity of any findings drawn from single system design studies,
especially among those students who have a strong research background in
other fields. This is best handled by candidly admitting that the method and
the findings that it produces have their detractors and that even those who
widely advocate its use readily acknowledge its limitations. You might
emphasize that the use of single system design research in ones practice is,
at the very least, a step in the direction of evidence-based practice.
ASSESSMENT FOR IN-CLASS USE
The following assessment has been created for in-class use. This assessment
may be available through Pearsons MyTest websiteallowing for easy
access for creating your own tests. This assessment may also be offered in a
Blackboard/Angel/D2L/WebCT package. Please contact your local Pearson
sales representative to learn about the options available. Visit,
http://www.pearsonhighered.com/replocator.
Multiple Choice Questions
Difficulty: 1 = Easy; 2 = Medium; 3 = Challenging
Choose the BEST possible answer for each of the following.
1. A social work is planning an ABAB single systems design with a client
who has moderate levels of anxiety. The social worker hopes that
meditation will help the client be more comfortable. What do the A and
B stand for in this single systems design?
A. A = Intervention; B = Outcome
B. A= Baseline; B = Outcome
C. A= Intervention; B = Baseline
C. A = Baseline; B = Intervention
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Competency: Research Based Practice
2. Stephen has reported to his social worker that he is having difficulty
getting to work due to what he describes as depression. His social
work gives him a Beck Depression Inventory and his results were in
the moderate/mild range. She immediately begins him on a program
to deal with his depression. He continues in treatment for the
depression for four weeks and she continues to monitor his results.
Stephen his unable to come to treatment for five weeks, but agrees to
take the scale weekly and report his results. Stephen reports after 4
weeks that his depression is returning and he begins treatment again.
Which case-level design is being utilized?
A. ABC Design
B. BCBC Design
C. ABA Design
D. BAB Design
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Competency: Ethical Practice
3. What is an example of a BC design?
A. William goes to an intervention once a week for 7 weeks then
begins to go twice a week for the next 6 weeks
B. William goes to an intervention once a week for 12 weeks
C. William goes to an intervention for 6 weeks then starts a
completely new intervention for the next 7 weeks
D. William goes to an intervention for 6 weeks then takes a week
of and then comes back to the same treatment.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Competency: Research Based Practice
4. A medical social worker wants her staff to evaluate their practice for
an upcoming audit. She is not sure what research design might work
best. She decides to do a pilot with one social worker and asks him to
assess his practice with one of his clients. What type of design will be
social work be implementing?
A. Pre/test design
B. Post/test design
C. Single systems design
D. Experimental design
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Competency: Research Based Practice
5. Referring to the scenario above, the medical social worker and her
staff member are trying to determine the best method to use. They
decide that an ABC design will be the best. What does the C stand for
in this design?
A. Intervention
B. Baseline
C. Second Intervention
D. Removal of Intervention
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Competency: Research Based Practice
6. A social worker is working with a client who is being seen for
depressive episodes. The social worker is working with increasing
exercise with the client to see if they helps to reduce the depressive
episodes. The intervention would be the exercise. When graphing this,
on which axis will be depressive episodes be plotted?
A. Y axis-vertical
B. X axis-horizontal
C. Y axis-horizontal
D. X axis- vertical
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Competence: Critical Thinking
7. Frederick is working with a mom who is having difficulty with stress.
Tom does not know if this is a chronic problem, or something that is
currently going on. He decides to do a baseline of three weeks before
implementing an intervention. During the three weeks her stress level
continues to rise. He begins his intervention on week four. Over the
next six weeks her stress level continues to drop, and she reports little
to no stress. What should Frederick do to ensure that the intervention
has helped?
A. Keep doing the intervention because it is working.
B. Try a new intervention to see how that works
C. Discharge the client as she is better
D. Stop the intervention and continue testing to see if her stress
goes up or not.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 3
Competence: Assess, Intervene, Evaluate
8. Jake is having some troubles with his temper in school and his mother
comes to you for help. You begin an intervention to help Jake find over
ways to control his temper in school. The intervention appears to
work for the next few weeks. At that point the outburst surface again.
You decide to try something new. What kind of research design was
implemented?
A. ABC
B. AB
C. BC
D. ABAB
Answer: C
Difficulty: 3
Competence: Assess, Intervene, Evaluate
9. If you were performing a study and measured participants first without
an intervention, then implemented an intervention, then took it away
again, which design would you use for your graph to correctly show
your results?
A. AB design
B. ABAB design
C. ABA design
D. BC design
Answer: C
Difficulty:2
Competence: Critical Thinking
10. You are a school social worker and you want to help one of the
students his attention skills. You take a baseline measurement for 4
weeks, and find that the students attention skills are lacking. You
begin your intervention at that time and it appears that after four
weeks the intervention is making little success. You decide to start a
second intervention. This level of research design is:
A. AB
B. ABC
C. ABA
D. ABAB
Answer: B
Difficulty:2
Competence: Critical Thinking
11. Single system research is designed to be used by:
A. social work practitioners.
B. social work educators.
C. research consultants.
D. outside evaluators.
Answer: A
Difficulty:1
Competence: Assess, Intervene, Evaluate
12. In a single system research, the dependent variable is:
A. the intervention or treatment.
B. the target problem.
C. the agency.
D. the social worker.
Answer: B
Difficulty:1
Competence: Research Based Practice
13. What is a sample in single system research?
A. a group of clients all of whom have the same problem
B. a group of measurements of the target problem in either an A
phase or a B phase
C. a group of social workers who all attempt to use the same
intervention
D. a group of single system studies in which a social worker used
the same intervention each time
Answer: B
Difficulty:1
Competence: Assess, Intervene, Evaluate
14. In conducting single system research, when is the target problem
measured and its measurements recorded?
A. only during the first A phase
B. only during the A phases
C. only during the B phases
D. during all phases of the study (X)
Answer: D
Difficulty:1
Competence: Assess, Intervene, Evaluate
15. Which of the following research questions would be appropriate for a
single system research study?
A. Will my clients anxiety level be lower following one hour of
counseling than before counseling began?
B. Does reality therapy increase aggressiveness among sex
offenders?
C. Will a referral for homemaking services result in less verbal
abuse between the Smiths?
D. Will my use of name tags during group sessions produce an
increase in group participation?
Answer: D
Difficulty:2
Competence: Assess, Intervene, Evaluate
16. Single system research can be used for evaluating the effectiveness of
a social workers practice intervention with all except:
A. individual clients.
B. families or groups.
C. organizations or communities.
D. when comparing the differences between two individuals
Answer: D
Difficulty:2
Competence: Research Based Practice
17. The AB design is:
A. useful for determining if a client has become dependent on
the presence of an intervention.
B. useful when it would be hazardous to the client if the
introduction of the intervention were to be delayed.
C. useful if the target problem is non-reverting and selfreinforcing
once learned. (X)
D. rarely useful since it lacks control of confounding variables.
Answer: C
Difficulty:2
Competence: Research Based Practice
18. What single system research design examines the effectiveness of a
single intervention with two or more target problems?
A. multiple baseline (X)
B. ABAB
C. BAB
D. ABACAD
Answer: A
Difficulty:2
Competence: Research Based Practice
18. If the target problem is too narrowly operationalized in a single system
research study, what problem is likely to occur?
A. treatment carryover
B. symptom substitution (X)
C. sampling bias
D. sampling error
Answer: B
Difficulty:1
Competence: Research Based Practice
19. Evidence-based practice dictates that the intervention be selected
after:
A. statistical analyses are defined.
B. a sample of participants is selected.
C. a review of the available research literature is completed.
D.measurement instruments are selected or created.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 3
Competence: Assess, Intervene, Evaluate
20. A research study that starts with a baseline phase and follows with an
intervention phase is a(n):
A. A design.
B. B design.
C. AB design.
D.BA design.
Answer: C
Difficulty:1
Competence: Research Based Practice
21. A research study that has no baseline phase, introduces an
intervention, withdraws the first intervention, and introduces a second
intervention is a(n)
A. ABC design.
B. AB design.
C. BA design.
D. BC design.
Answer: D
Difficulty:1
Competence: Research Based Practice
22. A multiple-baseline design requires that
A. the baselines are of differing length.
B. all of the interventions start at the same time.
C. more than one target problem must be measured.
D. more than one measurement instrument must be used.
Answer: C
Difficulty:1
Competence: Research Based Practice
23. When conducting a single-system design it is important for the social
worker to remember (priorities and ethics):
A. you should only use singe-system design as a last resort.
B. you are a practitioner first and a researcher second
C. everything you learn from one client can be transferred to
another client.
D. you must receive your certification in single-system designs
before you use it.
Answer: B
Difficulty:2
Competence: Ethical Practice
24. When measuring depression using frequency it would be:
A. the number of inpatient visits
B. the length of time in the hospital
C. the length of times between hospital visits
D. the intensity of the depression at time of admission
Answer: A
Difficulty:2
Competence: Human Behavior
25. A measurement issue that is unique to single-system designs (and
time series designs) are:
A. only in single-system design does the client need to agree to
use the instrument
B. the dependent variable does not have to be stated
C. single-system design interventions are the only ones that
make improvements in clients lives
D. the measurement is used repeatedly throughout the study.
Answer: D
Difficulty:1
Competence: Research Based Practice
Essay Questions
1. When is single-system design not appropriate to use? Make sure
you use social work examples.
2. How could depression be measured using frequency, duration,
interval, magnitude, and presence or absence? Draw a SDS graph
to show how each might be different.
3. How does an A phase serve the same general function as a control
group does in an experimental research design.
4. The most basic single-system design is the B design, which is the
intervention or treatment. In order for these to be considered a
single system evaluation what would the practitioner have to do.
5. Give examples of when taking time to gather a baseline would be
considered unethical. With each example discuss why it might be
unethical.
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Books
Bloom, M., Fischer, J., Orme, J. (2005) Evaluating practice: Guidelines for
the accountable professional (5th Edition.), Englewood Cliffs NJ:
Prentice-Hall
Blythe, B.J. (1999). Evaluating the treatment of a sexually assaulted child.
InC.W. LeCroy (Ed) Case studies in social work practice. Pacific Grove,
CA: Brooks-Cole.
Corcoran, K., Fischer, J. (2000). Measures for Clinical Practice : A
Sourcebook: Couples, Families, and Children. New York: The Free
Press.
Dudley, J. (2009). Social work evaluation: Enhancing what we do. Chicago:
Lyceum Books
Pawson, R., , Tilley, N. (1997). Realistic evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA:
Sage.
Posavac, E. J., . Carey, R. G. (2006). Program evaluation: Methods and case
studies. 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Thyer, B., , Meyers, L. (2003). Linking assessment to outcome evaluation
using single system and group research design. In C. Jordan and C.
Franklin (Eds.), Clinical assessment for social workers: Quantitative
and qualitative methods, 2nd ed. 385405. Chicago: Lyceum Books
Journals
Myers, L., Thyer, B. (1997). Should social work clients have the right to
effective treatment? Social Work, 42, 288-298.
Nelsen, J. (1985). Verifying the independent variable in single-subject
research, Social Work Research and Abstracts, 21, 3-8.
Websites
Metz, A., Bowie, L., , Blase, K. (2007). Seven activities for enhancing the
replicability of evidence based practices: Research to Results.
Publication #2007-30. Washington, D.C.: Child Trends
[www.childtrends.org]
Singer, J. (1996). Modified stress inoculation therapy treatment for an
anxious client with multiple diagnoses
[http://home.flash.net/~cooljazz/mssw/single_subject.htm]

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