Saladin Anatomy & Physiology A Unity Of Form And Function 5th Ed By K. Saladin Test Bank

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Saladin Anatomy & Physiology A Unity Of Form And Function 5th Ed By K. Saladin Test Bank

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COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS
Saladins Anatomy & Physiology A Unity Of Form And Function 5th Ed By K. Saladin Test Bank
 
Sample  Question    

chapter 02

 

True / False Questions

1. Minerals are organic elements extracted from the soil by plants.

True    False

 

2. Molecules composed of two or more atoms are called compounds.

True    False

 

3. Hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium are three isotopes of hydrogen.

True    False

 

4. Potassium, sodium, and chlorine are trace elements.

True    False

 

5. Ionic bonds break apart in water more easily than covalent bonds do.

True    False

 

6. A solution is a mixture composed of two or more substances that are physically blended but not chemically combined.

True    False

 

7. Blood pH is approximately 7.4, which is slightly acidic.

True    False

 

8. The high heat capacity of water makes it a very ineffective coolant.

True    False

 

9. In an exchange reaction, covalent bonds are broken and new covalent bonds are formed.

True    False

 

10. All the chemical reactions in which larger molecules are broken down to smaller ones are called catabolic reactions.

True    False

 

11. The opposite of a dehydration synthesis is a hydrolysis.

True    False

 

12. Unsaturated fatty acids have as much hydrogen as they can carry.

True    False

 

13. A dipeptide is a molecule with two peptide bonds.

True    False

 

14. All amino acids have both a carboxyl group and an amino group attached to a central carbon.

True    False

 

15. ATP is the bodys most important form of long-term energy storage.

True    False

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

16. The most abundant element in the human body, by weight, is

A. nitrogen.

 

B. hydrogen.

 

C. carbon.

 

D. oxygen.

 

E. calcium.

 

17. Sodium has an atomic number of 11 and an atomic mass of 23. Sodium has

A. 12 neutrons and 11 protons.

 

B. 12 protons and 11 neutrons.

 

C. 12 electrons and 11 neutrons.

 

D. 12 protons and 11 electrons.

 

E. 12 electrons and 11 protons.

 

18. The chemical properties of an atom are determined by its

A. protons.

 

B. electrons.

 

C. neutrons.

 

D. protons and neutrons.

 

E. particles.

 

19. Sodium, which has an atomic number of 11, will react with chlorine, which has an atomic number of 17. When these two atoms react, both become stable. To become stable, sodium will ____________, while chlorine will ____________.

A. accept one electron; give up one electron

 

B. give up one proton; accept one proton

 

C. share one electron with chlorine; share one electron with sodium

 

D. become an anion; become a cation

 

E. give up one electron; accept one electron

 

20. Consider oxygen, which has an atomic number of 8 and an atomic mass of 16. How many valence electrons does it have?

A. 2

 

B. 4

 

C. 6

 

D. 8

 

E. 16

 

21. Oxygen has an atomic number of eight. When two oxygen atoms come together, they form a(n) __________ bond.

A. hydrogen

 

B. nonpolar covalent

 

C. polar covalent

 

D. ionic

 

E. Van der Waals

 

22. When table salt, sodium chloride (NaCl), is placed in water

A. Na+ and Cl form ionic bonds with each other.

 

B. Na+ and Cl form polar covalent bonds with each other.

 

C. Na+ and Cl form hydrogen bonds with water.

 

D. Ionic bonds between Na+ and Cl are broken.

 

E. Na+ and Cl become separated by their Van der Waals forces.

 

23. The bonding properties of an atom are determined by its

A. electrons.

 

B. protons.

 

C. positrons.

 

D. neutrons.

 

E. photons.

 

24. What type of bond attracts one water molecule to another?

A. an ionic bond

 

B. a peptide bond

 

C. a hydrogen bond

 

D. a covalent bond

 

E. a hydrolytic bond

 

25. Which of these is a cation?

A. O2

 

B. K

 

C. Na

 

D. Ca2+

 

E. Cl

 

26. ______ account for 98.5% of the bodys weight.

A. Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, sodium, potassium, and chlorine

 

B. Carbon, oxygen, iron, sodium, potassium, and chlorine

 

C. Carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, sodium, potassium, and chlorine

 

D. Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sodium, and potassium

 

E. Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus

 

27. Varieties of elements called ________ differ from one another only in number of neutrons and therefore in atomic mass.

A. cations

 

B. anions

 

C. isotopes

 

D. electrolytes

 

E. free radicals

 

28. When you jump off a high diving board into water, you notice great resistance of water. This resistance is called __________ and is caused by waters great ______.

A. surface tension; adhesiveness

 

B. surface tension; cohesiveness

 

C. hydrophobic tension; adhesiveness

 

D. hydrophilic tension; cohesiveness

 

E. hydrophilic tension; adhesiveness

 

29. Which of these is hydrophobic?

A. sugar

 

B. K+

 

C. Cl

 

D. water

 

E. fat

 

30. Consider a mixture of blood, which contains sodium chloride, protein, and cells or formed elements. The sodium chloride is in a(n) ____________, the protein is in a(n) __________, and the cells are in a ____________.

A. emulsion; solution; suspension

 

B. solvent; emulsion; colloid

 

C. colloid; suspension; solution

 

D. suspension; colloid; solution

 

E. solution; colloid; suspension

 

31. Which of these is the most appropriate to express number of molecules per volume?

A. molarity

 

B. volume

 

C. percentage

 

D. weight per volume

 

E. milliequivalents per liter

 

32. A solution with pH 4 has ______ the H+ concentration of a solution with pH 8.

A.

 

B. twice

 

C. 4 times

 

D. 10,000 times

 

E. 1/10,000

 

33. Which of these has the highest H+ concentration?

A. lemon juice, pH = 2.3

 

B. red wine, pH = 3.2

 

C. tomato juice, pH = 4.7

 

D. saliva, pH = 6.6

 

E. household ammonia, pH = 10.8

 

34. Blood has a pH ranging from 7.35 to 7.45. Slight deviations from this can cause major problems, even death. You are doing an intense workout, and your skeletal muscle cells are producing metabolic acids such as lactic acid. Your blood pH does not drop significantly in spite of the metabolic acids released into the blood. You maintain a constant blood pH because

A. metabolic acids are neutralized in muscle cells before released into the blood.

 

B. metabolic bases are produced at the same rate by muscle cells to neutralize the acids.

 

C. the respiratory system removes excess H+ from the blood before the pH is lowered.

 

D. the body contains chemicals called buffers that resist changes in pH.

 

E. endothelial cells secrete excess H+ to prevent a decrease in pH.

 

35. A solution that resists a change in pH when acid or base is added to it is

A. a buffer.

 

B. a catalyst.

 

C. a reducing agent.

 

D. an oxidizing agent.

 

E. a colloid.

 

36. Any chemical reaction that removes electrons from an atom is called

A. reduction.

 

B. condensation.

 

C. hydrolysis.

 

D. anabolism.

 

E. oxidation.

 

37. The most relevant free energy in human physiology is the energy stored in

A. electrolytes ionized in water.

 

B. free radicals with an odd number of electrons.

 

C. radioisotopes.

 

D. the chemical bonds of organic molecules.

 

E. Van der Waals forces.

 

38. The breakdown of glycogen (an energy-storage compound) is an example of a(n) ______ reaction.

A. exergonic

 

B. endergonic

 

C. exchange

 

D. synthesis

 

E. equilibrium

 

39. When ATP breaks down to ADP, potential energy stored in bonds is released. This energy stored in bonds is __________ energy.

A. electromagnetic

 

B. electrical

 

C. chemical

 

D. heat

 

E. kinetic

 

40. Glucose is broken down in most of your cells to form carbon dioxide, oxygen, and the energy currency of the cell called ATP. What type of chemical reaction is this?

A. anabolic or endergonic

 

B. catabolic or exergonic

 

C. anabolic or exergonic

 

D. catabolic or endergonic

 

E. anabolic or exothermic

 

41. Which one of the following would not increase the rate of a reaction?

A. reactants being more concentrated

 

B. rise in temperature

 

C. presence of a catalyst

 

D. presence of an enzyme

 

E. decrease in reactant concentrations

 

42. Which of the following words includes all of the other terms?

A. catabolism

 

B. anabolism

 

C. metabolism

 

D. oxidative reactions

 

E. reductive reactions

 

43. Digestive enzymes breakdown the starch in a potato into thousands of glucose molecules. This exemplifies a(n) ______ reaction.

A. synthesis

 

B. decomposition

 

C. exchange

 

D. anabolic

 

E. reductive

 

44. Which of the following equations depicts an exchange reaction?

A. AB A + B

 

B. A + B AB

 

C. AB + CD AC + BD

 

D. AB A + B+

 

E. A + B AB C + D

 

45. A(n) ______ is a group of atoms that determines many of the properties of an organic molecule.

A. carboxyl group

 

B. functional group

 

C. hydroxyl group

 

D. amino group

 

E. phosphate group

 

46. ______ is not an organic compound.

A. C16H18N3ClS

 

B. Na2HPO3(H2O)5

 

C. CH4

 

D. C3H7O2N

 

47. A ______ converts a ______ to its monomers.

A. hydrolysis; polymer

 

B. dehydration synthesis; molecule

 

C. dehydration synthesis; polymer

 

D. polymer; molecule

 

E. condensation; reactant

 

48. The formula for an amino group is ________ whereas the formula of a carboxyl group is ___________

A. -COOH; -OH.

 

B. -CH3; -NH2.

 

C. -OH; -SH.

 

D. -NH2; -COOH.

 

E. -SH; -H2PO4.

 

49. Table sugar is a disaccharide called __________ and is made up of the monomer(s) __________.

A. maltose; glucose

 

B. sucrose; glucose and fructose

 

C. lactose; glucose and galactose

 

D. glycogen; glucose

 

E. glucose; galactose and fructose

 

50. Which of the following is a disaccharide?

A. galactose

 

B. lactose

 

C. glucose

 

D. fructose

 

E. amylose

 

51. ______ is a monosaccharide, whereas ______ is a polysaccharide.

A. Fructose; sucrose

 

B. Galactose; maltose

 

C. Lactose; glycogen

 

D. Glucose; starch

 

E. Cellulose; glucose

 

52. In general, ______ have a 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen.

A. enzymes

 

B. proteins

 

C. lipids

 

D. carbohydrates

 

E. nucleic acids

 

53. Proteoglycans are macromolecules that form gels, which help hold cells and tissues together, lubricate joints, and account for the tough rubbery texture of cartilage. Proteoglycans are composed of

A. carbohydrates and fats.

 

B. nucleic acids and fats.

 

C. carbohydrates and proteins.

 

D. proteins and fats.

 

E. nucleic acids and proteins.

 

54. Triglycerides are molecules consisting of one 3-carbon compound called ________ bound to three ________.

A. eicosanoid; fatty acids

 

B. steroid; glycerols

 

C. eicosanoid; steroid

 

D. glycerol; fatty acids

 

E. steroid; fatty acids

 

55. ______ are major components of cell membranes, and are said to be ______.

A. Triglycerides; hydrophobic

 

B. Steroids; hydrophilic

 

C. Bile acids; fat-soluble

 

D. Eicosanoids; water-soluble

 

E. Phospholipids; amphiphilic

 

56. Which of these is (are) always hydrophobic?

A. glucose

 

B. cholesterol

 

C. amino acids

 

D. proteins

 

E. disaccharides

 

57. Proteins can serve all of the following functions except

A. catalyze metabolic reactions.

 

B. give structural strength to cells and tissues.

 

C. produce muscular and other forms of movement.

 

D. regulate transport of solutes into and out of cells.

 

E. store hereditary information.

 

58. A drastic conformational change in proteins in response to conditions such as extreme heat or pH will lead to loss of a proteins function. This drastic change in three-dimensional shape is called

A. contamination.

 

B. denaturation.

 

C. saturation.

 

D. sedimentation.

 

E. deconformation.

 

59. Proteins are ______ built from ______ different amino acids.

A. monomers; 10

 

B. molecules; 10

 

C. polymers; 20

 

D. macromolecules; 40

 

E. polypeptides; 80

 

60. The folding and coiling of proteins into globular and fibrous shapes determines the ______ structure of the protein.

A. primary

 

B. secondary

 

C. tertiary

 

D. quaternary

 

E. denatured

 

61. Enzymes are specific to substrates because of the shape of their

A. active sites.

 

B. receptors.

 

C. secondary structure.

 

D. terminal amino acids.

 

E. alpha chain.

 

62. ______ is the substrate of ______.

A. Glucose; lactose

 

B. Lactase; glucose

 

C. Lactose; lactase

 

D. Galactose; lactose

 

E. Sucrase; sucrose

 

63. All enzymes are ______, but not all of those are enzymes.

A. cofactors

 

B. proteins

 

C. lipids

 

D. carbohydrates

 

E. nucleic acids

 

64. Nucleic acids are ______ of ______.

A. molecules; monosaccharides

 

B. monomers; ATP

 

C. polymers; nucleotides

 

D. polymers; cAMP

 

E. polymers; DNA

 

65. ATP ________ endergonic and exergonic reactions.

A. opposes

 

B. decomposes

 

C. reduces

 

D. links

 

E. dehydrates

 

 

chapter 02 Key
True / False Questions

1. Minerals are organic elements extracted from the soil by plants.

FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 02.01.c State the functions of minerals in the body.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

2. Molecules composed of two or more atoms are called compounds.

FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 02.01.b Distinguish between chemical elements and compounds.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

3. Hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium are three isotopes of hydrogen.

TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 02.01.d Explain the basis for radioactivity and the types and hazards of ionizing radiation.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

4. Potassium, sodium, and chlorine are trace elements.

FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 02.01.b Distinguish between chemical elements and compounds.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

5. Ionic bonds break apart in water more easily than covalent bonds do.

TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 02.01.f Define the types of chemical bonds.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

6. A solution is a mixture composed of two or more substances that are physically blended but not chemically combined.

TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 02.02.c Show how three kinds of mixtures differ from each other.
Section: 02.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

7. Blood pH is approximately 7.4, which is slightly acidic.

FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 02.02.e Define acid and base and interpret the pH scale.
Section: 02.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

8. The high heat capacity of water makes it a very ineffective coolant.

FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 02.02.b Describe the biologically important properties of water.
Section: 02.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

9. In an exchange reaction, covalent bonds are broken and new covalent bonds are formed.

TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 02.03.c List and define the fundamental types of chemical reactions.
Section: 02.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

10. All the chemical reactions in which larger molecules are broken down to smaller ones are called catabolic reactions.

TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 02.03.e Define metabolism and its two subdivisions.
Section: 02.03
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

11. The opposite of a dehydration synthesis is a hydrolysis.

TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 02.03.c List and define the fundamental types of chemical reactions.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

12. Unsaturated fatty acids have as much hydrogen as they can carry.

FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 02.04.e Discuss the types and functions of lipids.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

13. A dipeptide is a molecule with two peptide bonds.

FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 02.04.f Discuss protein structure and function.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

14. All amino acids have both a carboxyl group and an amino group attached to a central carbon.

TRUE

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 02.04.f Discuss protein structure and function.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

15. ATP is the bodys most important form of long-term energy storage.

FALSE

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 02.04.h Describe the structure, production, and function of ATP.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

16. The most abundant element in the human body, by weight, is

A. nitrogen.

 

B. hydrogen.

 

C. carbon.

 

D. oxygen.

 

E. calcium.

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 02.01.a Name the chemical elements of the body from their chemical symbols.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

17. Sodium has an atomic number of 11 and an atomic mass of 23. Sodium has

A. 12 neutrons and 11 protons.

 

B. 12 protons and 11 neutrons.

 

C. 12 electrons and 11 neutrons.

 

D. 12 protons and 11 electrons.

 

E. 12 electrons and 11 protons.

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 02.01.a Name the chemical elements of the body from their chemical symbols.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

18. The chemical properties of an atom are determined by its

A. protons.

 

B. electrons.

 

C. neutrons.

 

D. protons and neutrons.

 

E. particles.

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 02.01.b Distinguish between chemical elements and compounds.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

19. Sodium, which has an atomic number of 11, will react with chlorine, which has an atomic number of 17. When these two atoms react, both become stable. To become stable, sodium will ____________, while chlorine will ____________.

A. accept one electron; give up one electron

 

B. give up one proton; accept one proton

 

C. share one electron with chlorine; share one electron with sodium

 

D. become an anion; become a cation

 

E. give up one electron; accept one electron

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 02.01.b Distinguish between chemical elements and compounds.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

20. Consider oxygen, which has an atomic number of 8 and an atomic mass of 16. How many valence electrons does it have?

A. 2

 

B. 4

 

C. 6

 

D. 8

 

E. 16

 

Blooms Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 02.01.b Distinguish between chemical elements and compounds.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

21. Oxygen has an atomic number of eight. When two oxygen atoms come together, they form a(n) __________ bond.

A. hydrogen

 

B. nonpolar covalent

 

C. polar covalent

 

D. ionic

 

E. Van der Waals

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 02.01.f Define the types of chemical bonds.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

22. When table salt, sodium chloride (NaCl), is placed in water

A. Na+ and Cl form ionic bonds with each other.

 

B. Na+ and Cl form polar covalent bonds with each other.

 

C. Na+ and Cl form hydrogen bonds with water.

 

D. Ionic bonds between Na+ and Cl are broken.

 

E. Na+ and Cl become separated by their Van der Waals forces.

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 02.01.f Define the types of chemical bonds.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

23. The bonding properties of an atom are determined by its

A. electrons.

 

B. protons.

 

C. positrons.

 

D. neutrons.

 

E. photons.

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 02.01.f Define the types of chemical bonds.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

24. What type of bond attracts one water molecule to another?

A. an ionic bond

 

B. a peptide bond

 

C. a hydrogen bond

 

D. a covalent bond

 

E. a hydrolytic bond

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 02.01.f Define the types of chemical bonds.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

25. Which of these is a cation?

A. O2

 

B. K

 

C. Na

 

D. Ca2+

 

E. Cl

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 02.01.e Distinguish between ions, electrolytes, and free radicals.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

26. ______ account for 98.5% of the bodys weight.

A. Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, sodium, potassium, and chlorine

 

B. Carbon, oxygen, iron, sodium, potassium, and chlorine

 

C. Carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, sodium, potassium, and chlorine

 

D. Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sodium, and potassium

 

E. Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 02.01.a Name the chemical elements of the body from their chemical symbols.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

27. Varieties of elements called ________ differ from one another only in number of neutrons and therefore in atomic mass.

A. cations

 

B. anions

 

C. isotopes

 

D. electrolytes

 

E. free radicals

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 02.01.d Explain the basis for radioactivity and the types and hazards of ionizing radiation.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

28. When you jump off a high diving board into water, you notice great resistance of water. This resistance is called __________ and is caused by waters great ______.

A. surface tension; adhesiveness

 

B. surface tension; cohesiveness

 

C. hydrophobic tension; adhesiveness

 

D. hydrophilic tension; cohesiveness

 

E. hydrophilic tension; adhesiveness

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 02.02.b Describe the biologically important properties of water.
Section: 02.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

29. Which of these is hydrophobic?

A. sugar

 

B. K+

 

C. Cl

 

D. water

 

E. fat

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 02.02.b Describe the biologically important properties of water.
Section: 02.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

30. Consider a mixture of blood, which contains sodium chloride, protein, and cells or formed elements. The sodium chloride is in a(n) ____________, the protein is in a(n) __________, and the cells are in a ____________.

A. emulsion; solution; suspension

 

B. solvent; emulsion; colloid

 

C. colloid; suspension; solution

 

D. suspension; colloid; solution

 

E. solution; colloid; suspension

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 02.02.c Show how three kinds of mixtures differ from each other.
Section: 02.02
Topic: Chemistry
 

 

31. Which of these is the most appropriate to express number of molecules per volume?

A. molarity

 

B. volume

 

C. percentage

 

D. weight per volume

 

E. milliequivalents per liter

 

Bloo

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