Sociological Theory in the Classical Era Text and Readings 3rd Edition by Laura D. Edles Scott Appelrouth Test Bank

<< Accounting Information Systems 10th Edition Gelinas, Dull, Wheeler Test Bank Solution Manual for Fundamental of Hydraulic Engineering System 4th edition by Robert J.Houghtalen Ned H. C. Hwang A. Osman Akan >>
Product Code: 222
Availability: In Stock
Price: $24.99
Qty:     - OR -   Add to Wish List
Add to Compare

Sociological Theory in the Classical Era Text and Readings 3rd Edition by Laura D. Edles Scott Appelrouth Test Bank

Description

Chapter Five: Symbolic Interactionism and Dramaturgy

Multiple-Choice

1. Which scholar originally coined the term symbolic interactionism in 1937?
@ Cognitive domain: Application; Answer location: Blumers Intellectual Influences and Core Ideas; Question type: MC
a. Erving Goffman
*b. Herbert Blumer
c. George Herbert Mead
d. Arlie Hochschild

2. Which of the following is not one of the basic premises that form the basis for Blumers understanding of a symbolic interactionist approach to social life?
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Blumers Intellectual Influences and Core Ideas; Question type: MC
a. Human beings act toward things on the basis of the meanings that the things have for them.
b. Meaning is derived from social interaction.
*c. Meaning is determined by the introduction of social structure.
d. Meaning is modified through an interpretation process.

3. Herbert Blumers theoretical orientation would most closely align with which of the following statements?
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Blumers Theoretical Orientation; Question type: MC
*a. Social life as a dynamic process with actors creating patterns of behavior
b. Actors approach social interaction motivated by a rationalist perspective
c. Meanings are fixed and external to actors within a social interaction
d. Institutions originate joint actions and their resultant routines and patterns

4. One of Goffmans central concepts impression management refers to
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Symbolic Interactionism: George Herbert Mead and William I. Thomas; Question type: MC
*a. Verbal and nonverbal practices we employ in an attempt to present an acceptable image our self to others.
b. Psychological work we adhere to on a daily basis to manage our emotional faculties.
c. Social etiquette practices individuals employ in large gatherings to stifle embarrassment.
d. Conscious verbal work individuals construct to clearly manage meanings of language.

5. For Goffman, the essence of the self is found not in the interior, cognitive deliberations of the interaction as ___________ believed it to be.
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Symbolic Interactionism: George Herbert Mead and William I. Thomas; Question type: MC
a. Emile Durkheim
b. Max Weber
*c. George Herbert Mead
d. Georg Simmel

6. Goffman differed from William I. Thomas when discussing the definition of the situation in that Goffman believes
@ Cognitive domain: Knowledge; Answer location: Symbolic Interactionism: George Herbert Mead and William I. Thomas; Question type: MC
a. definitions are largely the work of an individuals efforts.
b. definitions are largely due to subjective processes of examination and deliberation.
*c. definitions are largely a matter of convention built into situations themselves.
d. definitions are largely constructed by via introspective cognitive processes.

7. Durkheim influenced Warner, who in turn influenced Goffmans interest in exploring
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Social Anthropology: mile Durkheim, A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, and W. Lloyd Warner; Question type: MC
a. the economic division of labor in interaction within modern societies.
b. the increased rationalization of interaction in modern societies.
c. the fetishism and fad of interaction embodied in modern societies.
*d. the rituals that structure social life in modern societies.

8. Which of the following would not be utilized to denote deference?
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Social Anthropology: mile Durkheim, A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, and W. Lloyd Warner; Question type: MC
a. honor
*b. conduct
c. dignity
d. respect

9. Deference and demeanors relationship can best be described as
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Social Anthropology: mile Durkheim, A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, and W. Lloyd Warner; Question type: MC
a. parallel
b. inverse
*c. reciprocal
d. negative

10. The kitchen in your favorite restaurant can best be described as the ________ for the scene your waiter or waitress interacts within when you go to dine.
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Social Anthropology: Dramaturgy: A Synthesis; Question type: MC
a. character
*b. backstage
c. performer
d. front

11. Goffman suggests that the definition of the situation is based often on a working consensus. By this he means that
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Social Anthropology: Dramaturgy: A Synthesis; Question type: MC
*a. actors conceal their immediate feelings and want in order to maintain a surface of agreement.
b. actors feel free to express themselves honestly and candidly.
c. it is virtually impossible to alter the prevailing definition of the situation.
d. the self is divided between the character and the performer.

12. Which of the following would not be considered a total institution by Goffman?
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Goffmans Theoretical Orientation; Question type: MC
a. prisons
b. monasteries
*c. public schools
d. the military

13. The process of killing off the multiple selves possessed prior to ones entrance into the total institution is termed
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Introduction to Asylums; Question type: MC
a. impression management.
b. emotional labor.
*c. mortifications of self.
d. emotion work.

14. Goffman defines secondary adjustments as
@ Cognitive domain: Knowledge; Answer location: Introduction to Asylums; Question type: MC
a. attempts on the part of an individual to play a fictitious role like an actor on a stage.
b. the real self that appears backstage.
c. a second attempt on the part of actors to reduce feelings of embarrassment after a situation has broken down.
*d. distancing practices used to preserve an independent self beyond the grasp of an organization.

15. What Hochschild labeled the organismic model, focuses on
@ Cognitive domain: Knowledge; Answer location: Hochschilds Intellectual Influences and Core Ideas; Question type: MC
a. the role of social processes in shaping self-consciousness.
*b. how emotions are rooted in an individuals biological or psychological makeup.
c. how emotions interact systematically similar to organs within a body.
d. the role of cognitive processes in forming conceptions of the self.

16. Upon what three models did Hochschild build her emotion-management model?
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Introduction to Working on Feeling; Question type: MC
*a. Organismic, interactional, and impression management
b. Symbolic interactionism, organismic, and structural functionalism
c. Organismic, impression management, exchange theory
d. Interactional, exchange theory, symbolic interactionism

17. Efforts to alter or manage the intensity or type of feelings one is experiencing is referred to by Hochschild as
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Hochschilds Emotion-Management Model; Question type: MC
a. impression management.
b. emotional labor.
*c. emotion work.
d. organismic labor.

18. Hochschilds notion of emotional labor parallels
@ Cognitive domain: Application; Answer location: Introduction to Working on Feeling; Question type: MC
a. Durkheims concept of anomie.
*b. Marxs concept of alienation.
c. Meads concept of generalized other.
d. Webers concept of an iron cage.

19. When our natural capacity to engage in emotion work is sold for a wage and bought to serve the profit motive, we are experiencing according to Hochschild
@ Cognitive domain: Analysis; Answer location: Introduction to Working on Feeling; Question type: MC
a. rationalization of the self.
b. alienation.
*c. commodification of feelings.
d. emotional labor.

20. In The Managed Heart Hochschild connects emotive experiences to
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Introduction to The Managed Heart; Question type: MC
a. social structures such as institutions and interaction.
b. modern economic positions based on division of labor.
c. introspective cognitive processes individuals and small groups.
*d. gender identity and emotional inequality between men and women.

21. _________makes two jobs out of one in yet another sense when females are asked more often than males to appreciate jokes, listen to stories, and give psychological advice.
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: The Status Shield at Work; Question type: MC
*a. Gender
b. Sex
c. Status
d. Feelings

22. Being________, they may also act ________ and may sometimes experience themselves using the ________ act to win regard from others. In the same way, some women are sexually attractive and may act in ways that are sexually alluring.
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Estrangement From Sexual Identity; Question type: MC
a. sexual, interested, sex
*b. motherly, motherly, motherly
c. motherly, sexual, helpful
d. sexual, sexy, sex

23. According to Hochschild, on the job, the acceptance of a division between the real self and the self in a company uniform is often a way to avoid _______.
@ Cognitive domain: Application; Answer location: Estrangement From Sexual Identity; Question type: MC
a. work.
b. reality
*c. stress.
d. sex.

24. Goffman studied embarrassment as less than an inner emotional state and more for what it contributes to the flow of __________.
@ Cognitive domain: Analysis; Answer location: Goffman and Impression Management; Question type: MC
a. impression.
b. dramaturgy.
*c. interaction.
d. preservation.

25. For Blumer, actors are vessels for the mechanical expression of conduct prescribed by roles and norms.
@ Cognitive domain: Analysis; Answer location: Introduction to The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life; Question type: TF
a. True
*b. False

26. Goffman explored how social arrangements themselves and the actual physical copresence of individuals shape the organization of the self.
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Estrangement From Sexual Identity; Question type: TF
*a. True
b. False

27. Deference refers to ones conduct while demeanor to honor, dignity, or respect.
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Social Anthropology: mile Durkheim, A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, and W. Lloyd Warner; Question type: TF
a. True
*b. False

28. Goffman defines the performer as a dramatic effect arising diffusely from a scene that is presented.
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: The Role of Expression Is Conveying Impressions of Self; Question type: TF
a. True
*b. False

29. Merchants of morality is Goffmans term for leaders of traditional religious sects.
@ Cognitive domain: Application; Answer location: The Role of Expression Is Conveying Impressions of Self; Question type: TF
a. True
*b. False

30. According to Goffman, the self is realized only in and through the social arrangements that alone create the conditions for its expression.
@ Cognitive domain: Application; Answer location: The Role of Expression Is Conveying Impressions of Self; Question type: TF
*a. True
b. False

31. Hochschilds emotion management focuses on deep acting inner efforts to produce a real feeling.
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Arlie Russell Hochschild (1940 ): A Biographical Sketch; Question type: TF
*a. True
b. False

32. Emotion work is engaged in primarily for the purposes of deceit or manipulation.
@ Cognitive domain: Analysis; Answer location: Introduction to Working on Feeling; Question type: TF
a. True
*b. False

33. The demands for emotion management are shaped by both class and gender relations.
@ Cognitive domain: Knowledge; Answer location: Arlie Russell Hochschild (1940 ): A Biographical Sketch; Question type: TF
*a. True
b. False

34. Estrangement from aspects of oneself as a defense mechanism ultimately relinquishes a healthy sense of wholeness according to Hochschild.
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Estrangement From Sexual Identity; Question type: TF
*a. True
b. False

35. Gender can make two jobs out of one.
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: The Status Shield at Work; Question type: TF
*a. True
b. False

36. Males are asked more often than females to appreciate jokes, listen to stories, and give psychological advice.
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: The Status Shield at Work; Question type: TF
a. True
*b. False

37. Being motherly, they may also act motherly and may sometimes experience themselves using the motherly act to win regard from others. In the same way, some women are sexually attractive and may act in ways that are sexually alluring.
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Estrangement From Sexual Identity; Question type: TF
*a. True
b. False

38. According to Hochschild, On the job, the acceptance of a division between the real self and the self in a company uniform is often a way to avoid work.
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Estrangement From Sexual Identity; Question type: TF
a. True
*b. False

39. Goffman studied embarrassment as less than an inner emotional state and more for what it contributes to the flow of __________.
@ Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Goffman and Impression Management; Question type: TF
a. impression.
b. dramaturgy.
*c. interaction.
d. preservation.

40. Blumer is known for his study of backstage.
@ Cognitive domain: Knowledge; Answer location: Goffman and Impression Management; Question type: TF
a. True
*b. False

Type: E
41. List and briefly discuss the three major premises of symbolic interaction. Based on the logic of the premises, how would you solve the problem of order?
*a. The first premise is that human beings act toward things on the basis of the meanings that the things have for them. Such things include everything that the human being may note in his worldphysical objects, such as trees or chairs; other human beings, such as a mother or a store clerk; categories of human beings, such as friends or enemies; institutions, such as a school or a government; guiding ideals, such as individual independence or honesty; activities of others, such as their commands or requests; and such situations as an individual encounters in his daily life. The second premise is that the meaning of such things is derived from, or arises out of, the social interaction that one has with ones fellows. The third premise is that these meanings are handled in, and modified through, an interpretative process used by the person in dealing with the things he encounters. (Blumer 1969:2) Blumers remarks reveal a clear picture of the problem of order. Social life is seen as a dynamic process in which actors, through interpreting the gestures of others as well as their own, are at every moment creating and recreating the patterns of behavior that form the basis for the social order. However, when we turn to the problem of action (what motivates individuals or groups to act), the same explicitness is, unfortunately, not to be found.
Cognitive domain: Application; Answer location: Blumers Intellectual Influences and Core Ideas; Question type: SA

Type: E
42. Define Goffmans term impression management and how it is connected to the work of George Herbert Mead.
*a. Impression management refers to the verbal and nonverbal practices we employ in an attempt to present an acceptable image of our self to others. While Mead contends that the central elements of social interaction are rooted in ones imagination, Goffman looks to the scene within which individuals orient their actions to one another.Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Symbolic Interactionism: George Herbert Mead and William I. Thomas; Question type: SA

Type: E
43. Explain how Goffman deviates from William I. Thomass conception of definition of the situation.
*a. While arguing that the definition of the situation plays a central role in interaction, particularly as it affects our attempts to manage impressions, Goffman nevertheless parts with Thomass original understanding of the concept in important ways. Goffmans point is that definitions are less a matter of an individuals efforts to assign meaning to a situation or to the subjective processes of examination and deliberation as Thomas maintains. Instead, definitions are largely a matter of convention that are given or built into situations themselves.Cognitive domain: Knowledge; Answer location: Symbolic Interactionism: George Herbert Mead and William I. Thomas; Question type: SA

Type: E
44. Discuss the connection between avoidance/presentational rituals and the concepts of demeanor and deference.
*a. Through the tactful observance of avoidance rituals and presentational rituals, the individual is able to proffer the deference owed to the recipient. Avoidance rituals take the form of proscriptions, interdictions, and taboos, which imply acts the actor must refrain from doing lest he violate the right of the recipient to keep him at a distance (1967:73). Presentational rituals encompass acts through which the individual makes specific attestations to recipients concerning how he regards them and how he will treat them in the on-coming interaction (ibid.: 71). For much of interaction is guided by an attempt to avoid embarrassment and the discrediting of one anothers self as an object worthy of receiving deference.Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Social Anthropology: mile Durkheim, A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, and W. Lloyd Warner; Question type: SA

Type: E
45. Use an example from your own life that demonstrates Goffmans vocabulary front, backstage, character, and performer.
*a. Students may provide variations on the following example. In my role as assistant night manager at my job, my front consists of both the personal (serious posture, professional clothing, name badge) and the setting (my managers station, walkie-talkie, phone number to the owner, keys to all parts of the building). The backstage may include a space at work or back home after their shift where the performer can drop their front and relax. The character inhabits front stage while the backstage is the area for the performer component of the self.
Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Social Anthropology: Dramaturgy: A Synthesis; Question type: SA

Type: E
46. Define and explain Goffmans concept merchant of morality.
*a. This connection between impression management and the moral standards to which it is subject is captured in Goffmans notion of the merchant of morality. Individuals are concerned not with the moral issue of realizing these standards, but with the amoral issue of engineering a convincing impression that these standards are realized. Our activity, then, is largely concerned with moral matters, but as performers we do not have a moral concern with them. As performers we are merchants of morality . . . [T]he very obligation and profitability of appearing always in a steady moral light, of being a socialized character, forces one to be the sort of person who is practiced in the ways of the stage. (1959:251)
Cognitive domain: Application; Answer location: The Role of Expression Is Conveying Impressions of Self; Question type: SA

Type: E
47. What is the relationship between secondary adjustments and the self? Or, said differently, how can the self be seen as a product of secondary adjustments?
*a. The failure to cooperate with institutional demands that is expressed in each case is a normal attempt to preserve control over ones self. Each represents a secondary adjustment or a way of taking leave of a place without moving from it (1961:308). Secondary adjustments, then, are ways in which the individual stands apart from the role and the self that were taken for granted for him by the institution (ibid.:189). They are oppositional practices through which we refuse the official view of what we should be and thus distance ourselves from an organization.
Cognitive domain: Knowledge; Answer location: Introduction to Asylums; Question type: SA

Type: E
48. Discuss and differentiate between Hochschilds emotion work and emotional labor.
*a. We do emotions in the form of emotion work. This refers to efforts to alter (i.e., manage) the intensity or type of feelings one is experiencing. Emotion work involves attempts to either evoke particular feelings we want or think we should experience as well as attempts to suppress the experience of undesired feelings. Directly related to the notion of emotion work is emotional labor, in which ones deep acting is sold for a wage. Thus, inner feelings are managed in order to produce an outward display as part of ones job.
Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Hochschilds Emotion-Management Model; Question type: SA

Type: E
49. Explain and use an example from your own life on how gender and class relations can affect the demands for emotion management, especially commodification of feelings.
*a. The commercial reshaping of emotions, or commodification of feelings, is not experienced alike by all. The demands for emotion management are shaped by both class and gender relations such that middle-class workers and women are more susceptible to the commodification of their emotive experiences. Success within the people professions requires diligently controlling ones emotions in order to express the appropriate feeling state (trustworthy, dedicated, ambitious, caring, etc.) associated with the occupation. On the other hand, performance in blue-collar jobs is graded more in terms of the quality of ones manual labor. An irritable or abrasive plumber or assembly-line worker would likely keep his job so long as his finished product meets approval. In a corporate office, however, the same display of feelings would probably earn a pink slip.
Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Hochschilds Emotion-Management Model; Question type: SA

Type: E
50. Define Hochschilds feeling rules and how they are connected to our own private emotion work.
*a. Feeling rules are the shared, social (collectivist) conventions that determine what we should properly feel in a given situation (the direction of emotions), how intensely we should feel it (the extent), and how long we should feel (the duration) (2003:97). It is on the basis of feeling rules, and the sense of emotional entitlement or rights and obligations or duties they establish, that we guide our private emotion work (ibid.:56).
Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Introduction to Working on Feeling; Question type: SA

Type: E
51. In your own words, discuss Blumers following statement It is the social process in group life that creates and upholds the rules, not the rules that create and uphold group life.
*a. That joint actions, and the institutions that they sustain, take on repetitive and stable forms is a function not of an organizations inner dynamics or system requirements, but of the recurring use of schemes of interpretation and definition. Thus, even established patterns of group life are constantly formed anew because they are just as much a result of an interpretive process as is a new form of joint action that is being developed for the first time (ibid.:18). Whether the occasion of a joint action is a first-time collaboration between new coworkers or a weekly family dinner, fitting together lines of conduct is based on the shared meanings that participants ascribe to the situation.
Cognitive domain: Knowledge; Answer location: Introduction to The Methodological Position of Symbolic Interactionism; Question type: SA

Type: E
52. Explain how George Herbert Meads work informs Blumers own work on symbolic interactionism. In your answer, define the terms self, significant gestures, meaning, and interpretation when explaining how these two scholars work intersect. Finally, contrast this perspective to the one held by behavioral psychologists.
*a. At the center of symbolic interactionism is Meads view of the self. For Mead, the self does not passively react to its environment but, rather, actively creates the conditions to which it responds. Mead presented his views as a counter to those associated with behavioral psychology. It is against this picture of a passive, nonreflexive self that Mead developed his own theoretical framework, which he labeled social behaviorism. For Mead, an essential aspect of the self is the mind. Mead viewed the mind as a behavioral process that entails a conversation of significant gestures, that is, an internal dialogue of words and actions whose meanings are shared by all those involved in a social act. Mead locates the source of meaning in social interaction. He defines meaning as a threefold relationship between (1) an individuals gesture, (2) the adjustive response by another to that gesture, and (3) the completion of the social act initiated by the gesture of the first individual. Meaning develops through a social process.
Blumer also contrasts symbolic interactionism with the views of psychological behaviorism by emphasizing interpretation. Interpretation entails constructing the meaning of anothers actions as well as ones own, for meaning is not released by, or inherent in, the actions themselves, as the behaviorists would have us believe.
Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Symbolic Interactionism: George Herbert Mead and William I. Thomas; Question type: ESS

Type: E
53. Discuss Durkheims research on religion and society and how it influenced W. Lloyd Warner. Explain how Goffman used these scholars work as an influence on his own being sure to define such vocabulary as deference and presentational rituals.
*a. Goffmans interest in exploring the rituals that structure social life in modern societies stems in part from the influence of W. Lloyd Warner, with whom he studied while earning his graduate degree at the University of Chicago. Warners community studies examined the ritual practices that shape modern status systems and the inequalities they sustain. Goffman followed Warners lead in applying the insights and methods of anthropology to urban society; however, he largely abandoned, at least overtly, his mentors emphasis on stratification and turned to a Durkheimian-inspired, functionalist interpretation of the ritual practices that guide interaction. Durkheims classic study of tribal religions, The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912/1965), that arguably had the most impact on Goffmans unique view of social interaction. In this work, Durkheim sought to uncover the origins of religion and, in doing so, to demonstrate the inevitable presence of religion in all societies, including allegedly secular, modern ones.
Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Social Anthropology: mile Durkheim, A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, and W. Lloyd Warner; Question type: ESS

Type: E
54. Explain Goffmans dramaturgical approach to the study of social life. Be sure to define all key vocabulary employed by Goffman. Connect this approach to the contemporary world embodied by mediated expressions of the self [e.g. text messaging, Facebook, etc.]. How do these new technologies confirm or alter Goffmans approach?
*a. Goffman analyzed interaction through analogy with the theater. Goffman claiming that life itself is a dramatically enacted thing (1959:72), turned his attention to the symbolic dimensions of social encounters in his effort to explore the nature of the self and its relation to the broader moral code that shapes interaction performances. Goffman introduced a vocabulary normally associated with the world of the theater: front, backstage, setting, audience, performance, and perhaps most provocatively, performer and character, are all part of his repertoire of terms used to examine the often unspoken and taken-for-granted subtleties that structure the interaction order. Goffmans notion of the front, which he labels as that part of the individuals performance which regularly functions in a general and fixed fashion to define the situation for those who observe the performance. Goffman divides the front into two parts: the setting and the personal front. The front is contrasted with the backstage, the region of the performance normally unobserved by, and restricted from, members of the audience. Goffman draws a distinction between the self as performer and as character. The character is found in the whole scene of his action; whereas the performer is a fabricator of impressions. Students should then provide examples from their own use of social media (online profiles), networked virtual environments (avatars), and mobile connectivity to either confirm Goffmans theories or problematize them.
Cognitive domain: Analysis; Answer location: Goffman and Impression Management; Question type: ESS

Type: E
55. Discuss Goffmans ideas concerning self and society from his quote our status is backed by the solid building of the world, while our sense of personal identity often resides in the cracks.
*a. Goffmans notion of secondary adjustments recalls the distinction he made in The
Presentation of Self in Everyday Life between the performer and character. While he arguably emphasized the fictional nature of the self in that work, here he contends that behind the performers mask lies a solid, stance-taking entity. Nevertheless, the self, contrary to the claims of psychologists and psychiatrists, is realized only in and through the social arrangements that alone create the conditions for its expression. And contrary to the claims of sociologists, the self is much more than a simple reflection of the groups to which it belongs: Without something to belong to, we have no stable self, and yet total commitment and attachment to any social unit implies a kind of selflessness. Our sense of being a person can come from being drawn into a wider social unit; our sense of selfhood can rise through the little ways we resist the pull. Our status is backed by the solid building of the world, while our sense of personal identity often resides in the cracks. (1961:320)
Cognitive domain: Analysis; Answer location: The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life; Question type: ESS

Type: E
56. Outline the two key models Hochschild draws upon for her work. Explain her emotion-management model being sure to define and differentiate between emotion work and emotional labor. Finally explain feeling rules and where they fit into her other concepts.
*a. In developing her theory of emotions, Hochschild draws from two distinct approaches. The first, which she labels the organismic model, focuses on how emotions are rooted in an individuals biological or psychological makeup. The second, the interactional model, stresses the role of social processes in shaping self-consciousness. The organismic model is derived primarily from the writings of Charles Darwin (18091882), Sigmund Freud (18561939), and William James (18421910). For Darwin emotive gesturesthat is, emotional expressionsare largely universal, as we all can be traced to the same ancestral gene pool. For his part, Freud connects emotions to instinctual drives, namely Eros (love or creation) and Thanatos (death or destruction). Freud also assigns an important signal function to anxiety, a function that would become central to Hochschilds theory of emotions. However, what Freud reserves primarily for anxiety, Hochschild extends to all emotions, arguing that the entire range of emotive experiencesfrom joy to sadness, pride to shameserve as signals through which we fit our prior expectations to our present situation. The interactional model is expressed in the work of a number of figures including John Dewey (18591952), George Herbert Mead, Hans Gerth (19081978) and C. Wright Mills (19161962), Herbert Blumer, and Erving Goffman. These theorists all share a conception of the individual as an active, conscious participant in the production and reproduction of social lifea view that provides a critical point of departure for Hochschilds own emotionmanagement perspective. Emotions are viewed, instead, as intimately connected to our conscious perceptions and interpretations of the situations in which we are involved. Emotions are directly tied to behavior; they are experienced as the body physiologically readies itself to engage in action. In addition to providing an orientation toward action, emotions also possess a cognitive component in the form of a signal function. In this way, emotions spring from our attempts to reconcile our prior expectations with the actuality of events. In an important sense, we do emotions in the form of emotion work. This refers to efforts to alter (i.e., manage) the intensity or type of feelings one is experiencing. Emotion work involves attempts to either evoke particular feelings we want or think we should experience as well as attempts to suppress the experience of undesired feelings. Directly related to the notion of emotion work is emotional labor, in which ones deep acting is sold for a wage. Thus, inner feelings are managed in order to produce an outward display as part of ones job. Feeling rules are the shared, social (collectivist) conventions that determine what we should properly feel in a given situation (the direction of emotions), how intensely we should feel it (the extent), and how long we should feel (the duration) (2003:97). They form the taken-for-granted backdrop (nonrational) according to which we manage our emotions and assess the emotive expressions of others.
Cognitive domain: Comprehension; Answer location: Introduction to Working on Feeling; Question type: ESS

Type: E
57. Discuss the following basic premise that forms the basis for Blumers understanding of a symbolic interactionist approach to social life: Meaning is determined by the introduction of social structure. Using an example of a social structure, consider the meaning attributed to said structure and social significance. Consider education or the military or policing.
*a. Blumers remarks reveal a clear picture of the problem of order. Social life is seen as a dynamic process in which actors, through interpreting the gestures of others as well as their own, are at every moment creating and re-creating the patterns of behavior that form the basis for the social order. However, when we turn to the problem of action and ask what motivates individuals or groups to act, the same explicitness is, unfortunately, not to be found. Like Mead, who was only casually and tangentially interested in the self as a source of motivational energy, or as an object of affective attachment (Wrong 1994:65), Blumers own casual interest on this issue leaves us with less to work with than we may like. Nevertheless, we can point out the general tendencies in Blumers symbolic interactionist perspective. Meaning is modified through an interpretation process.
Cognitive domain: Knowledge; Answer location: Blumers Theoretical Orientation; Question type: ESS

Write a review

Your Name:


Your Review: Note: HTML is not translated!

Rating: Bad           Good

Enter the code in the box below:



 

Once the order is placed, the order will be delivered to your email less than 24 hours, mostly within 4 hours. 

If you have questions, you can contact us here