|<< Test Bank For Organizations Behavior Structure Processes 14th Edition by James Gibson Robert Konopaske John Ivancevich||Race Ethnicity Gender and Class The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change 7th Edition by Joseph F. Healey Eileen O rien Test Bank >>|
Part 2: The Construction of Self and Society
Building Identity: Socialization
1. All of the following outcomes resulted from Mr. and Mrs. Smiths decision to pay Teresas school tuition except:
a. Carmen did not have to pay taxes on her income.
* b. Teresa could take French.
c. the Smiths relationship with Carmen and Teresa was de-commercialized.
d. the boundaries between employer and employee family blurred.
2. Which of the following is an example of paternalism?
*a. Mr. and Mrs. Smith paying for Teresas tuition instead of paying Carmens salary
b. Teresas visits to the Mexicano community
c. Teresas experience at the Altman residence
d. Carmens demand that Teresa stay in her mothers room
3. According to the author, Teresas immersion in the Mexicano community:
a. led to a rejection of bilingualism.
b. led to her complete assimilation into white society.
*c. kept her from internalizing negative attitudes toward Mexican culture.
d. made her more dependent on men.
4. Teresa felt betrayed because her mother:
a. left Mexico.
b. did not want Teresa to go to school.
*c. worked all the time.
d. didnt want her to stay in the same room.
5. The subjects in the Jones study were all _____ and _____.
a. incarcerated; single parents receiving state assistance
b. charged with a felony; bilingual
*c. enrolled in a violence intervention project; seen in the emergency department
d. high school dropouts; pregnant
6. Which data collection method was not utilized by Jones in her study?
a. Interviews with respondents family members
b. Ride-alongs with counselors
c. Observation of respondents interactions with others
*d. Examination of respondents medical records
7. Joness interviews with the girls revealed what surprising finding?
a. They were obsessed with beauty, similar to white, middle-class adolescents.
* b. They displayed a strong sense of self-confidence.
c. They were fearful of men, yet rejected their own femininity.
d. They often exhibited passivity in social situations.
8. Which ritual did Jones witness at the beginning of every school day?
a. Daycare drop off of respondents children
b. Alcohol consumption
* c. Police style pat downs
d. A greeting from the school principal
9. Betsy Stevenson found that females who participate in high school sports are more likely to:
a. Attend college
b. Enter the labor market
c. Go on to occupations previously dominated by males
*d. All of the above.
10. The first to break with the tradition of not keeping records for girls sporting events were
a. Racially segregated public schools
b. Racially segregated public schools
*c. Elite all-girls schools
d. The YMCAs Youth Sports Consortium
11. Which group of parents places greater emphasis on traditional femininity?
*a. Lower-middle-class and working-class families
b. same-sex male couples
c. middle-class and upper-middle-class families
d. bi-racial families
True or False
12. Teresa was expected to conform to female sex roles as part of her socialization in the residences of her mothers employers.
13. The Jones study on gender and violence took place over three years.
14. Jones states that gender is a significant factor in protecting girls from inner-city violence.
15. Upper-middle-class parents are more likely to enroll their daughters in cooperative activities, such as ballet or tap lessons.
16. According to a study by the Oppenheimer Foundation, of American women who earn more than $75,000 annually, less than 10% describe themselves as athletic.
17. Mothers whose daughters were involved in soccer were more likely than mothers whose daughters were involved in dance to link their concerns about obesity to the sport.
18. At the time this piece was written, there were three times more Girl Scouts than female soc-cer players in the United States.
19. Friedman has developed a kind of classification system for describing the girls and the sports that they play. She refers to the girls who play competitive chess as the pink warriors.
20. According to research by Leaper and Elizabeth Daniels, a number of girls who participate in sports have trouble reconciling their athleticism with conventional standards for femininity.
Short Answer and Essay
21. Explain Joness statement, Survival is still a gendered project.
*a. Varies. Responses should note that both males and females in her study drew on the code of the street. They were expected to be able to meet confrontation head-on and not back down. Their approaches to fighting, though, differed. Females were not expected to use weapons and when they did, they usually relied on box cutters or knives, rather than guns. Males often had to resort to firearms to settle a score.
22. What are some of the ambiguities of youth as identified by Jones?
*a. Varies. Discussions should reference the disjuncture between our expectations of childhood and youth and the realities of life in this violent setting. Jones observes that while these are children, they are subjected to very harsh and dangerous conditions. They begin each school day with a police-style frisking or pat-down. They are expected to stick up for and defend themselves. They seem to have few adults to rely on.
23. Describe the code of the street. Does this code differ according to gender? If so, how?
*a. Varies. Jones uses Elijah Andersons definition of the code of the street: a set of prescriptions and proscriptions, or informal rules, of behaviour organised around a desperate search for respect that governs public social relations, especially violence among so many residents, particularly young men and women. It is, a system of accountability that responds to violence with an equal or greater display of violence. There are 3 Rs of the code: retaliation, reputation, respect.
24. How did Teresa and Carmen experience boundaries of outsider and insider? Give specific examples.
*a. Varies. Answers should note that Carmen (the mother) remained an outsider even though she lived in the Smith family home. By living in the home, she developed insider knowledge of the family. Teresa (the daughter) had a much more ambiguous role. The Smiths did not treat her as a domestic laborer; she was not expected to perform cleaning or serving duties. In some respects, the Smiths treated her as part of the family. (This was especially true after Teresas mother was hospitalized for a long period.) Teresa was eventually given her own room while her mother remained in the maids room. The Smiths often played an active role in Teresas education and invited her to sit with them at the dinner table, where Teresa was, like the Smiths, served by Carmen. Teresa understood that there were occasions when she was expected to act like one of the family and occasions when she was supposed to act as the maids daughter.
25. In what ways did Carmens employers determine or shape Teresas activities?
a. Varies. Responses should note how the Smiths made decisions for and about Teresa: where Teresa would sleep, the classes she would take in school, and even how much time she could spend at the hospital when her mother was ill.
26. Friedman opens with a conversation she had with Charlottes mother about the value of sport for girls. Why does Charlottes mother (and mothers like her) believe it is good for female children to play a competitive sport?
*a. Varies Responses should include reference to the development of stereotypically male or masculine skills, such as toughness, confidence, aggression, and assertiveness.
27. Stephen Hinshaw observes that many females face a triple bind. What does he mean?
*a. Varies. Should reference that cultural expectations demand they are supportive, competitive and successfuland effortlessly beautiful.
28. What is aggressive kid capital?
*a. Varies. Responses should draw from the authors definition, which says it is a form of capital that consists in orientations, skills, and values that emphasize the importance of winning; the ability to bounce back from a loss to win in the future; to perform within time limits; to succeed in stressful situations; and to perform under the gaze of others . . .
29. In what sense do parents use sports (chess, soccer, dance) to prepare their children for the roles they (parents) occupy in the world?
*a. Varies. Responses should note class differences. Less affluent families enroll their girls in dance classes and lessons that emphasize more stereotypical feminine mannerisms and ways of presenting the self. More educated and affluent families promote competitive sports that stress competition and winning. These are the skills that reflect their class positions. They are, in some respects, preparing their daughters to occupy the positions they hold in the world of work. The author puts it this way: Girls from upper-middle-class families seem better equipped with the skills they need to succeed in more lucrative careers, and in leadership roles as adults.
30. Using what you learned in the article, how are the organized activities in which girls engage forms of socialization? How do dance, soccer, and chess prepare girls for the roles they may take on in adulthood?
31. Imagine that you are a parent of a school-age girl. What types of activities would you urge her to participate in? Describe your reasoning.
Once the order is placed, the order will be delivered to your email less than 24 hours, mostly within 4 hours.
If you have questions, you can contact us here