Sociology Matters 6th edition by Richard Schaefer-Test Bank

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Sociology Matters 6th edition by Richard Schaefer-Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Sociology Matters 6th edition by Richard Schaefer-Test Bank

Chapter 02

Culture and Socialization

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Socialization is the process
    A.of mentally assuming the perspective of another.
    B. of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in ones life.
    C. whereby people learn the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular culture.
    D. whereby people normally being socialized are at the same time socializing their socializers.

 

Type: D

  1. The totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior is known as
    A.culture.
    B. society.
    C. socialization.
    D. social structure.

 

Type: D

  1. Which of the following is considered an aspect of culture?
    A.using American Sign Language (ASL)
    B. watching the Super Bowl game
    C. eating in fast-food restaurants
    D. all of these

 

Type: C


 

  1. Which one of the following is an example of a society?
    A.an Amish community in Pennsylvania
    B. the state of Alaska
    C. a British rugby team
    D. a small tribe on a remote South Pacific island

 

Type: C

  1. George Murdochs research indicated that which one of the following is a cultural universal?
    A.war
    B. astronomy
    C. medicine
    D. all of these

 

Type: I

  1. A list of cultural universals was compiled by anthropologist
    A.Max Weber.
    B. George Murdock.
    C. Margaret Mead.
    D. William F. Ogburn.

 

Type: S

  1. Which of the following is considered a cultural universal?
    A.athletic sports
    B. war
    C. money restrictions
    D. none of these

 

Type: C


 

  1. Discovery is
    A.the combination of existing cultural items into a form that did not previously exist.
    B. the process of introducing new elements into a culture.
    C. the process of making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality.
    D. the process by which cultural items spread to different groups.

 

Type: D

  1. Communism, the Episcopalian religion, and the microwave oven are examples of
    A.diffusion.
    B. innovation.
    C. invention.
    D. discovery.

 

Type: C

  1. The worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas is referred to as
    A.innovation.
    B. discovery.
    C. globalization.
    D. diffusion.

 

Type: D

  1. Diffusion is
    A.the combination of existing cultural items into a form that did not previously exist.
    B. the process of introducing new elements into a culture.
    C. the process of making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality.
    D. the process by which a cultural item is spread from group to group or society-to-society.

 

Type: D


 

  1. Which of the following is an example of cultural diffusion?
    A.McDonalds serving samurai pork burgers in Thailand.
    B. McDonalds maintaining separate sections for female and male customers in Saudi Arabia.
    C. McDonalds serving chicken tatsuta sandwiches (fried chicken spiced with soy sauce and ginger and served with cabbage and mustard mayonnaise) in Japan.
    D. The presence of McDonalds restaurants in Thailand, Saudi Arabia, and Japan.

 

Type: I

  1. Which sociologist coined the phrase The McDonaldization of society?
    A.Karl Marx
    B. George Ritzer
    C. Friedrich Engels
    D. William F. Ogburn

 

Type: S

  1. George Ritzers concept of the McDonaldization of society refers to
    A.the placement of a McDonalds franchise in every community over 5,000 inhabitants by the year 2010.
    B. the domination of numerous sectors of societies throughout the world by principles initially used by fast-food restaurants.
    C. the existence of a fast-food franchise in countries throughout the world.
    D. the diffusion of cartoon mascots to the developing world.

 

Type: I

  1. Which sociologist defined technology as cultural information about the ways in which material resources of the environment may be used?
    A.Seymour Martin Lipset
    B. Robin Williams
    C. George Murdock
    D. Gerhard Lenski

 

Type: S


 

  1. A basketball arena, an airliner, a slice of pizza, and a television set would all be considered examples of
    A.xenocentrism.
    B. nonmaterial culture.
    C. material culture.
    D. argot.

 

Type: C

  1. Nonmaterial culture
    A.is more resistant to change than material culture.
    B. is less resistant to change than material culture.
    C. changes at the same pace as material culture.
    D. does not change once it has been created.

 

Type: I

  1. Culture lag occurs in most societies when
    A.people frequently change their material culture.
    B. people frequently change their nonmaterial culture.
    C. people frequently modify cultural universals.
    D. people frequently change their folkways.

 

Type: I

  1. A subculture is
    A.a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of customs, rules, and traditions that differs from the larger group.
    B. a large number of people who live in the same territory are relatively independent of people outside it, and participate in a common culture.
    C. the totality of learned, socially transmitted behavior.
    D. specialized language that is used by members of a group.

 

Type: D


 

  1. In the United States professional gamblers, Armenian Americans, teenagers, and nudists are all examples of
    A.cultures.
    B. countercultures.
    C. subcultures.
    D. contracultures.

 

Type: C

  1. An argot is a specialized language used by members of a subculture. Nurses and doctors, for example, have developed a language system that is not easily understood by patients but enables medical professionals to communicate more easily (rapidly and precisely) with each other. Which sociological perspective is likely to emphasize the value of this specialized medical language?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. feminist perspective

 

Type: P

  1. The use of the terms tic tac and King Kong vaults by athletes who play parkour is an example of
    A.argot.
    B. taboo.
    C. linguistics.
    D. nonverbal language.

 

Type: I


 

  1. Armed militia groups, terrorists, and hippies would all be examples of a
    A.subculture.
    B. counterculture.
    C. material culture.
    D. nonmaterial culture.

 

Type: C

  1. Culture shock is
    A.the act of viewing peoples behavior from the perspective of ones own culture.
    B. the feelings of disorientation, uncertainty, or fear that is experienced when people witness cultural practices different from their own.
    C. being unaware of the existence of other cultures.
    D. a set of beliefs and practices that help to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests.

 

Type: D

  1. A man goes to an urologist who has been recommended by his family physician. When the urologist greets him in the examining room, the man discovers that the urologist is a female, and he is startled that a woman will examine him. He is experiencing
    A.culture shock.
    B. cultural relativism.
    C. cultural universals.
    D. cultural integration.

 

Type: C

  1. The concept of ethnocentrism was originally formulated by
    A.Seymour Martin Lipset.
    B. W. I. Thomas.
    C. William F. Ogburn.
    D. William Graham Sumner.

 

Type: S


 

  1. The tendency to assume that ones own culture and way of life represent the norm or is superior to all others is called
    A.culture shock.
    B. cultural relativism.
    C. ethnocentrism.
    D. value stability.

 

Type: D

  1. A member of a new fundamentalist church believes that he or she has found the one true way to achieve salvation and members of other religions are pagans and will go directly to hell when they die. This individual is
    A.xenocentric.
    B. ethnocentric.
    C. culturally relative.
    D. monophobic.

 

Type: C

  1. A United States sociologist receives a grant to study racial and religious prejudice among the peoples of Southeast Asia. The sociologist makes a serious and unbiased effort to evaluate the norms, values, and customs of these Asian peoples in light of the distinctive cultures of which they are a part. This is an example of
    A.xenocentrism.
    B. ethnocentrism.
    C. cultural relativism.
    D. cultural deconstruction.

 

Type: C


 

  1. An abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture is called
    A.material culture.
    B. sanctions.
    C. language.
    D. argot.

 

Type: D

  1. In American society, we often formalize norms into
    A.folkways.
    B. mores.
    C. laws.
    D. values.

 

Type: I

  1. A law is
    A.a norm governing everyday social behavior whose violation raises comparatively little concern.
    B. an informal norm that is deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society.
    C. governmental social control.
    D. none of these

 

Type: C

  1. Norms that are generally understood but not precisely recorded are known as
    A.mores.
    B. sanctions.
    C. informal norms.
    D. formal norms.

 

Type: D


 

  1. While attending a prestigious lecture in a New York City museum, Bob noisily belches several times and picks his nose. He is violating
    A.mores.
    B. laws.
    C. informal norms.
    D. formal norms.

 

Type: C

  1. Mores are
    A.norms governing everyday social behavior whose violation raises comparatively little concern.
    B. norms that are deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society.
    C. norms that are made by government for society, interpreted by the courts, and backed by the power of the state.
    D. none of these

 

Type: D

  1. Norms governing everyday behavior whose violation raises comparatively little concern are known as
    A.mores.
    B. cultural universals.
    C. folkways.
    D. laws.

 

Type: D

  1. Norms can include
    A.rules governing specific behavior.
    B. rules deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society.
    C. rules commonly made by a government for the welfare of a society.
    D. all of these

 

Type: D


 

  1. Within the traditional Buddhist areas of Southeast Asia, which one of the following is a folkway that reinforces patterns of male dominance?
    A.In the sleeping cars of trains, women do not sleep in the upper berths above men.
    B. Hospitals that house men on the first floor do not place women patients on the second floor.
    C. On clotheslines, womens attire is hung lower than that of men.
    D. All of these

 

Type: I

  1. Norms are often violated when
    A.they are weakly enforced.
    B. a new context changes the relevance of the norm.
    C. they conflict with one another.
    D. all of these

 

Type: I

  1. A Girl Scout works hard on a difficult project, and when she has completed her work, she is given a badge that she can wear on her uniform. This is an example of
    A.a sanction.
    B. replication.
    C. mores.
    D. typology.

 

Type: C

  1. A worker is frequently late, takes extended coffee breaks, and makes numerous mistakes while working on important tasks. As a result of poor performance, the worker is fired. This is an example of
    A.sanctioning.
    B. law affirmation.
    C. cultural diffusion.
    D. replication.

 

Type: C


 

  1. An example of a positive, formal sanction is a
    A.salary bonus.
    B. demotion.
    C. smile.
    D. frown.

 

Type: I

  1. In surveys of first-year college students over the last 50 years, which value has shown the strongest gain in popularity?
    A.being very well off financially
    B. developing a meaningful life
    C. achieving fame
    D. finding true love

 

Type: I

  1. A dominant ideology is a
    A.set of cultural beliefs that help to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests.
    B. subculture that rejects societal norms and values and seeks an alternative lifestyle.
    C. specialized language used by members of a group or subculture.
    D. none of these

 

Type: D

  1. Which sociological thesis suggests that cultural and religious identities, rather than national or political loyalties, are becoming the prime source of international conflict?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. clash of civilizations
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. global perspective

 

Type: P


 

  1. The relative importance of cultural and biological factors in the socialization process is referred to as the debate over
    A.nature versus nurture
    B. role versus status
    C. manifest versus latent functions
    D. sociobiology versus biosociology

 

Type: I

  1. In the nature versus nurture debate, social scientists take which position?
    A.Environmental factors are more important than biological inheritance in human development.
    B. Biological inheritance is more important than environmental factors in human development.
    C. It is the interaction between environmental factors and biological inheritance that is important in human development.
    D. Biological factors are irrelevant in human development.

 

Type: I

  1. Social scientists now recognize that
    A.it is not enough to care for an infants physical needs; parents must also concern themselves with childrens social development.
    B. if young children are kept clean and warm, they will develop normally.
    C. social interaction for young children is not as important as was once believed.
    D. Isabelle was emotionally and socially healthy; individuals and the early researchers who believed otherwise were simply expressing their cultural biases.

 

Type: I


 

  1. Sociobiology is the systematic study of the
    A.social structure within the animal kingdom.
    B. interactions between humans and higher animal forms.
    C. social basis of biological behavior.
    D. biological basis of social behavior.

 

Type: D

  1. The self is the
    A.distinct identity that sets us apart from others.
    B. childs awareness of the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole.
    C. childs awareness of the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of the people who are most important in his or her life.
    D. persons typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior.

 

Type: D

  1. In forming a sense of ourselves, we imagine how we appear to others and how others perceive us, and finally we develop a feeling about ourselves as a result of these impressions. This sociological approach to the development of a self represents the views of which sociological perspective?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. feminist perspective

 

Type: P


 

  1. The looking-glass self is the
    A.sum total of a persons conscious perception of his or her identity as distinct from others.
    B. childs awareness of the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole.
    C. phrase used by Charles Horton Cooley to emphasize that the self is the product of our social interactions with others.
    D. persons typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior.

 

Type: D

  1. According to Cooleys concept of the looking-glass self, development of ones self-identity due to misperceptions of how others see us may lead to
    A.an increase of self-esteem.
    B. the sensorimotor stage of development.
    C. destruction of the looking-glass self.
    D. a negative self-identity.

 

Type: S

  1. According to George Herbert Mead, the preparatory stage occurs
    A.when children imitate the people around them, particularly family.
    B. when the children become able to pretend to be other people.
    C. when children grasp not only their own social positions but also those of others around them.
    D. when we observe ourselves through the looking-glass self.

 

Type: D

  1. Gestures, objects, and language that form the basis of human communication are known as
    A.folkways.
    B. norms.
    C. rites of passage.
    D. symbols.

 

Type: D


 

  1. A child begins to become a doctor, a parent, a superhero, or a ship captain during the
    A.preparatory stage.
    B. game stage.
    C. play stage.
    D. sensorimotor stage.

 

Type: I

  1. Debbie attends her first day of school and when she returns, she plays school with her younger brother. As part of this play activity, Debbie duplicates all of the behaviors that were performed by her teacher during the day. Debbie is in which stage of development according to George Herbert Mead?
    A.the preparatory stage
    B. the imitative stage
    C. the play stage
    D. the game stage

 

Type: C

  1. Which sociologist suggested that during the second stage of development children become capable of assuming the perspective of another and are thereby able to respond from that imagined viewpoint?
    A.Erving Goffman
    B. George Herbert Mead
    C. Alvin Gouldner
    D. William F. Ogburn

 

Type: S


 

  1. The process of mentally assuming the perspective of another, thereby enabling one to respond from that imagined viewpoint, is known as
    A.role strain.
    B. resocialization.
    C. face-work.
    D. role taking.

 

Type: D

  1. The child of about 8 or 9 years of age begins to consider several tasks and relationships simultaneously. At this point in development children grasp not only their own social positions, but also those of others around them. Mead calls this stage the
    A.preparatory stage.
    B. play stage.
    C. imitative stage.
    D. game stage.

 

Type: D

  1. A child can respond to numerous members of the social environment and grasp his or her distinctive social positions when he or she reaches the
    A.preparatory stage.
    B. game stage.
    C. play stage.
    D. concrete operational stage.

 

Type: I


 

  1. Allison is playing in a high school field hockey game and passes the ball to Erika who appears to have a scoring opportunity. Allisons pass suggests that she is aware of her role as a member of a team and that she is now in which stage of development, according to George Herbert Mead?
    A.the preparatory stage
    B. the imitative stage
    C. the play stage
    D. the game stage

 

Type: C

  1. Which term was used by George Herbert Mead to refer to the childs awareness of the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole?
    A.generalized others
    B. significant others
    C. impression management
    D. symbolic others

 

Type: D

  1. An individual is sitting in a large college lecture hall with 300 other students. Although she has the urge to pick her nose, she refrains because she is afraid of how the other members of the audience will react. This persons behavior is being controlled by
    A.significant others.
    B. generalized others.
    C. their preparatory position.
    D. none of these

 

Type: C


 

  1. Significant others is
    A.Charles Horton Cooleys term for the childs awareness of the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole.
    B. George Herbert Meads term for altering the presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences.
    C. George Herbert Meads term for those individuals who are most important in the development of the self.
    D. George Herbert Meads term for the sum total of peoples conscious perception of their identity as distinct from others.

 

Type: D

  1. A _________ is the best example of a significant other.
    A.high school coach
    B. clerk in a fast-food restaurant
    C. bus driver
    D. casual acquaintance at school

 

Type: C

  1. Because of the influence of significant others in the development of self, young people
    A.are less likely to have a looking-glass self.
    B. may be drawn to the same kind of work their parents engage in.
    C. struggle to find romantic partners.
    D. all of these

 

Type: I


 

  1. Bob is on a first date with Mary, whom he really likes, and he tries to act in a manner that will cause her to like him, too, and to want to go out with him again. This is an example of
    A.face-work.
    B. impression management.
    C. idealization of the other.
    D. role taking.

 

Type: C

  1. The dramaturgical approach is
    A.a view of social interaction under which people are examined as if they were theatrical performers.
    B. a concept used to refer to peoples efforts to maintain the proper image and avoid embarrassment in public.
    C. a phrase used to emphasize that the self is the product of our social interaction with others.
    D. the process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in ones life.

 

Type: D

  1. Which sociologist is associated with the concepts of the dramaturgical approach and impression management?
    A.Charles Horton Cooley
    B. George Herbert Mead
    C. Erving Goffman
    D. Wilbert Moore

 

Type: S


 

  1. Which sociological perspective reminds us that socialization concerning not only masculinity and femininity, but also marriage and parenthood, begins in childhood as a part of family life? For example, children observe their parents as they express affection, deal with finances, quarrel, complain about in-laws, and so forth.
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. global perspective

 

Type: P

  1. Which sociological perspective emphasizes that schools in the United States foster competition through built-in systems of rewards and punishments?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. global perspective

 

Type: P

  1. As a primary agent of childhood socialization, schools play a critical role in teaching children the values and customs of the larger society. This view of the socialization process is most likely of particular interest to which sociological perspective?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. global perspective

 

Type: P


 

  1. Which one of the following statements reflects a functionalist view of education as a socializing agent?
    A.Schools can reinforce the divisive aspects of society, especially those of social class.
    B. Schools frequently are used by those in power to maintain their power and to continue the subjugation of those with lower status.
    C. Schools are responsible for teaching the values and norms of the larger society.
    D. A teachers style may often influence classroom interaction.

 

Type: P

  1. Most adolescents seek jobs in order to
    A.identify a career choice.
    B. make spending money.
    C. assist in their parents household expenses.
    D. pay for education.

 

Type: I

  1. Rites of passage are
    A.gestures, objects, and language that form the basis of human communication.
    B. stressful periods of self-evaluation, often occurring between 35 and 50 years of age.
    C. rituals marking the symbolic transition from one social position to another.
    D. expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females.

 

Type: D

  1. A retirement party, a high-school graduation party, and a confirmation party are all examples of
    A.role taking.
    B. impression management.
    C. rites of passage.
    D. face-work.

 

Type: C


 

  1. Life-course theorists suggest
    A.socialization stops after one experiences a rite of passage.
    B. socialization continues through all stages of the life cycle.
    C. socialization is attributable solely to biological influences.
    D. all of these

 

Type: I

  1. Anticipatory socialization refers to
    A.the process whereby people learn the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a culture.
    B. processes of socialization in which a person rehearses for future positions, occupations, and social relationships.
    C. the process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in ones life.
    D. the process whereby people normally being socialized are at the same time socializing their socializers.

 

Type: D

  1. A young girl decides that she wants to become an Olympic swimmer. She takes swimming lessons, joins her schools swimming team, reads magazine articles about champion swimmers, and goes to swim meets at a nearby college. This is an example of
    A.reverse socialization.
    B. resocialization.
    C. desocialization.
    D. anticipatory socialization.

 

Type: C


 

  1. Which term is used to refer to the process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in ones life?
    A.role divestment
    B. resocialization
    C. positive socialization
    D. anticipatory socialization

 

Type: D

  1. A woman who was socialized from infancy to become a wife and mother settles comfortably into being a homemaker in her twenties and early thirties. However, her husband dies suddenly, and the woman finds that she must enter the paid labor force in order to support herself and her two children. This woman will most likely have to undergo a process of
    A.anticipatory socialization.
    B. socialization.
    C. reverse socialization.
    D. resocialization.

 

Type: C

  1. Which of the following sociologists coined the term total institution?
    A.Erving Goffman
    B. Karl Marx
    C. Max Weber
    D. Herbert Spencer

 

Type: S

  1. Which one of the following is considered a total institution?
    A.a high school
    B. a mental hospital
    C. a Girl Scout troop
    D. the New York Mets

 

Type: C


 

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a total institution?
    A.All aspects of life are conducted in the same place and are under the control of a single authority.
    B. The authorities devise rules and schedule activities after consultation with the participants.
    C. Any activities within the institution are conducted in the company of others in the same circumstances.
    D. All aspects of life with a total institution are designed to fulfill the purpose of the organization.

 

Type: I

  1. When inmates enter prison, are being stripped of their clothing and advised they will only be referred to by number, this is an example of
    A.anticipatory socialization.
    B. a rite of passage.
    C. a degradation ceremony.
    D. ascription.

 

Type: D

 

True / False Questions

  1. A primitive tribe that cultivates the soil by hand has much more culture than a modern computerized society.
    FALSE

 

  1. Democracy is a good example of an invention.
    TRUE

 

  1. Wearing two different colored socks and a tie that does not match the shirt with which it is being worn are examples of breaking folkways and informal norms.
    TRUE

 

 

 

  1. In a society virtually all citizens follow the same set of norms and values.
    FALSE

 

  1. From a functionalist perspective, the social significance of the dominant ideology is that a societys most powerful groups and institutions control the means of producing beliefs about reality through religion, education, and the media.
    FALSE

 

  1. Judging peoples behavior from the perspective of ones own culture is known as cultural relativism.
    FALSE

 

  1. In the early 1900s, Charles Horton Cooley advanced the belief that we learn who we are by interacting with others.
    TRUE

 

  1. The second stage of development in George Herbert Meads model is the game stage.
    FALSE

 

  1. The members of your nuclear family, your athletic coach, a teacher in a large lecture hall, a clerk at your favorite store, and casual acquaintances are all considered as significant others.
    FALSE

 

  1. Individuality is often lost within total institutions.
    TRUE

 

 

 

 

Essay Questions

  1. Define the term globalization and describe how it affects culture today. Give an example to support your answer.

Answers will vary

 

  1. Explain the differences among innovations, discoveries, inventions, and diffusion. Give examples of each to clarify the differences between them.

Answers will vary

 

  1. Describe Piagets stages of cognitive theory of development and the benchmark developments associated with each.

Answers will vary

 

  1. Identify the various types of social norms and give an example of each. Describe the various sanctions associated with violations of the various social norm types.

Answers will vary

 

  1. Explain the differences and similarities among socialization, resocialization, and anticipatory socialization.

Answers will vary

 

 

 

  1. Identify the various agents of socialization and discuss the importance of each in the formation of a social self.

Answers will vary

Chapter 06

Inequality by Race and Ethnicity

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which feminist scholar wrote about the privileges of being White?
    A.Erving Goffman
    B. William Graham Sumner
    C. Peggy McIntosh
    D. William I. Thomas

 

Type: S

  1. Which of the following aspects of discrimination is the focus of feminist scholar Peggy McIntoshs research?
    A.glass ceilings
    B. White privilege
    C. Asian minorities
    D. African American dominance

 

Type: I

  1. The one-drop rule was a vivid example of
    A.definition of the situation.
    B. discrimination.
    C. contact theory.
    D. the social construction of race.

 

Type: D


 

  1. The process by which people come to define a group as a race based in part, on physical characteristics, but also on historical, cultural, and economic factors, is called
    A.definition of the situation.
    B. discrimination.
    C. scapegoating.
    D. the social construction of race.

 

Type: D

  1. In the 2010 Census, the number of people who claimed multiracial ancestry in two or more races was about
    A.1 million.
    B. 9 million.
    C. 15 million.
    D. 25 million.

 

Type: I

  1. Which of the following statements about racial groups in the United States is true?
    A.Throughout United States history, many southern states defined a person as black, regardless of how s/he looked, even if s/he had only a single drop of black blood.
    B. Nearly 7 million people in the U.S. are multiracial.
    C. The largest group of multiracial residents identify themselves as coming from white and Native American ancestry.
    D. All of these

 

Type: I


 

  1. In the 2010 Census, among the people who claimed multiracial ancestry in two or more races, the largest group was
    A.Blacks and Whites.
    B. Whites and Native Americans.
    C. Whites and Asian Americans.
    D. Blacks and Native Americans.

 

Type: I

  1. With respect to a mixed racial identity, which of the following statements is not correct?
    A.Figures estimate that the racial and ethnic composition of the U.S. population will change as much in the next 50 years as it has in the last 100.
    B. Social construction is exclusive to industrialized societies.
    C. White and American Indians comprise the largest multiracial group in the U.S.
    D. All of these

 

Type: I

  1. Which sociologist observed that people respond not only to the objective features of a situation or person but also to the meaning that situation or person has for them?
    A.William I. Thomas
    B. William Graham Sumner
    C. Karl Marx
    D. Robert Merton

 

Type: S

  1. The term describing the sociohistorical process in which racial categories are created, inhibited, transformed, and destroyed is
    A.racial profiling.
    B. ethic cleansing.
    C. ethnography.
    D. racial formation.

 

Type: I


 

  1. One of the most crucial aspects of the relationship between dominant and subordinate groups is the ability of the dominant or majority group to
    A.define a societys images of a groupthe definition of the situationwhich leads to stereotyping.
    B. limit the access of the minority group to quality housing and jobs.
    C. limit the access of the minority group to quality educational facilities.
    D. all of these

 

Type: I

  1. W. I. Thomas observed that people respond not only to the objective features of a situation or person but also to the meaning that situation or person has for them. This observation reflects which sociological perspective?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. global perspective

 

Type: P

  1. A stereotype is a(an)
    A.hi-fi system.
    B. unreliable generalization about all members of a group that does not recognize individual differences within the group.
    C. person or group that one blames irrationally for ones own problems or difficulties.
    D. belief that one race is superior and that all others are innately inferior.

 

Type: D


 

  1. Unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences within the group is referred to as a(an)
    A.differential association.
    B. exploitation.
    C. stereotype.
    D. institutional discrimination.

 

Type: D

  1. A television show that portrays women as being subservient to men and that generally talks down the role of women would be considered to be bolstering
    A.pluralism.
    B. racial profiles.
    C. stereotypes.
    D. all of these

 

Type: C

  1. A person loudly proclaiming that all black people are lazy, shiftless, and collect welfare is promoting
    A.discrimination.
    B. a stereotype.
    C. pluralism.
    D. exploitation theory.

 

Type: C


 

  1. Which sociological perspective would be most likely to emphasize that stereotypes contribute to prejudice and thereby assist the subordination of disadvantaged racial and ethnic groups?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. dramaturgical perspective

 

Type: P

  1. Which term is used by sociologists to describe a group that is set apart from others because of obvious physical differences?
    A.ethnic group
    B. racial group
    C. social group
    D. reference group

 

Type: D

  1. A racial group is a group that is set apart from others because of
    A.obvious physical differences.
    B. its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns.
    C. its language differences.
    D. its religious differences.

 

Type: D

  1. Asian Americans are an example of a
    A.countercultural group.
    B. racial group.
    C. reference group.
    D. status group.

 

Type: C


 

  1. African Americans are an example of a
    A.countercultural group.
    B. racial group.
    C. reference group.
    D. status group.

 

Type: C

  1. An ethnic group is a group
    A.that is set apart from others because of obvious physical differences.
    B. that is set apart from others because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns.
    C. whose members have significantly less control over their own lives than the members of a dominant group.
    D. that has reached very moral decisions about a way of life.

 

Type: D

  1. Characteristics of national origin or distinctive cultural patterns are used primarily by a society to set apart
    A.minority groups.
    B. ethnic groups.
    C. racial groups.
    D. polarization groups.

 

Type: I

  1. Which of the following are considered an ethnic group?
    A.African Americans
    B. Native Americans
    C. Lithuanian Americans
    D. None of these

 

Type: C


 

  1. Italian Americans, Jewish Americans, and Norwegian Americans are all examples of
    A.racial groups.
    B. ethnic groups.
    C. stereotypes.
    D. none of these

 

Type: C

  1. Which statement regarding ethnicity is correct?
    A.The distinction between ethnic and racial minorities is not always clear-cut.
    B. Ethnic minorities, such as Latinos, may have obvious physical differences that set them apart from other residents of the U.S.
    C. Despite categorization problems, sociologists continue to feel that the distinction between race and ethnicity is socially significant.
    D. All of these

 

Type: I

  1. Which of the following would be an example of symbolic ethnicity?
    A.a trip to an ethnic bakery
    B. a Black person trying to act White
    C. a Latino intentionally misrepresenting his heritage
    D. all of these

 

Type: D


 

  1. During World War II
    A.the United States opened its doors to European Jews who were fleeing the oppression of Nazism.
    B. the United States refused to lift or loosen restrictive immigration quotas in order to allow Jewish refugees to escape the terror of the Nazi regime.
    C. the S.S. St. Louis, with more than 900 Jewish refugees on board, was denied permission to dock in the United States in 1939 because of restrictive immigration quotas.
    D. two of these statements are correct

 

Type: I

  1. The 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act
    A.outlawed the hiring of illegal aliens in the United States.
    B. subjected employers to fines and imprisonment for hiring illegal aliens.
    C. extended amnesty and legal status to many illegal immigrants already living in the United States.
    D. all of these

 

Type: I

  1. Since the ______________, immigration laws in the United States have undergone a major revision that has lead to an increase in the proportion of immigrants from Asia and Latin America.
    A.1940s
    B. 1950s
    C. 1960s
    D. 1970s

 

Type: I


 

  1. Which of the following amounts represent the number of illegal immigrants present within the United States at any given time?
    A.1-2 million
    B. 5-6 million
    C. 11 million
    D. 19 million

 

Type: I

  1. Which sociological perspective would likely suggest that immigration relieves labor shortages in the receiving nation and it relieves economies unable to support large numbers of people in the sending nations?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. feminist perspective

 

Type: P

  1. Which sociological perspective notes that much of the debate over immigration is phrased in economic terms, and that this debate is intensified when the arrivals are of different racial and ethnic backgrounds than the host population?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. feminist perspective

 

Type: P


 

  1. Which sociological perspective sees the economic structure as a central factor in the exploitation of minority groups?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. global perspective

 

Type: P

  1. Which social scientist has identified three functions in which racially prejudiced beliefs serve the dominant group (e.g., they provide a moral justification for maintaining an unequal society that routinely deprives a minority of its rights and privileges)?
    A.Arnold Rose
    B. Harry Edwards
    C. Thomas Pettigrew
    D. Manning Nash

 

Type: S

  1. The functionalist perspective would most likely
    A.view the economic structure as a central factor in the exploitation of minority groups.
    B. suggest that racist beliefs discourage the subordinate minority from attempting to question its lowly status, and thus question the very foundations of society.
    C. focus on the relationship between two members of different ethnic groups who work together in an office.
    D. all of these

 

Type: P


 

  1. Which sociologist(s) has (have) used the exploitation theory to explain the basis of racial subordination in the United States?
    A.Oliver Cox
    B. Robert Blauner
    C. Harry Edwards
    D. Both Oliver Cox and Robert Blauner

 

Type: S

  1. Exploitation theory is a
    A.Weberian theory that views racial subordination as beneficial for society since it creates a supply of cheap labor.
    B. Parsonian theory that views ethnic subordination as a means of regulating social interactions between dominant and subordinate groups.
    C. Spencerian theory that views ethnic subordination as a valuable means of social control.
    D. Marxist theory that views racial subordination in the United States as a manifestation of the class system inherent in capitalism.

 

Type: D

  1. Oliver Cox, Robert Blauner, and Herbert M. Hunter
    A.used the exploitation theory to explain the basis of racial subordination in the United States.
    B. used the contact hypothesis to explain how to diminish the degree of racial prejudice in the United States.
    C. examined the persistence of the glass ceiling in the corporate United States.
    D. none of these

 

Type: S


 

  1. Which of the following is a Marxist theory that views racial subordination in the United States as a manifestation of the class system inherent in capitalism?
    A.contact theory
    B. self-fulfilling theory
    C. authoritarian personality theory
    D. exploitation theory

 

Type: D

  1. Karl Marxs theory provides a theoretical basis for which of the following views of minority and majority group relations?
    A.the contact hypothesis
    B. the position that racism is often a financial burden for the majority group, which must pay for police to control crime and delinquency
    C. the position that racism keeps minorities in low-paying jobs and thereby provides the ruling class with a cheap pool of desperate labor
    D. none of these

 

Type: S

  1. An approach to racism, which emphasizes that racism keeps minorities in low-paying jobs, thereby supplying the capitalist ruling class with a pool of cheap labor, is based on the work of which classical theorist?
    A.mile Durkheim
    B. Talcott Parsons
    C. Karl Marx
    D. Auguste Comte

 

Type: S


 

  1. A sociologist argues that the capitalist ruling class is willing to tolerate high rates of illegal immigration because these immigrants serve as a pool of cheap labor. This sociologist is most likely to draw upon
    A.the contact hypothesis.
    B. the anomie theory of deviance.
    C. exploitation theory.
    D. labeling theory.

 

Type: C

  1. Recent Chinese immigrants to the United States often find jobs working in sweatshops in Chinatown in New York City, where they work 16 or more hours per day in the textile industry, and earn below minimum wage. The big businesses that hire these illegal and often uninformed immigrants are an illustration of which idea?
    A.contact hypothesis
    B. exploitation theory
    C. labeling theory
    D. self-fulfilling prophecy

 

Type: C

  1. Japanese Americans were the object of little prejudice until they began to enter jobs that brought them into competition with Whites. This example supports the
    A.contact hypothesis.
    B. self-fulfilling prophecy.
    C. conflict view of race relations.
    D. anomie theory of deviance.

 

Type: C


 

  1. Exploitation theory is useful for discussing the experiences of which minority group in the United States?
    A.Japanese Americans
    B. Chinese Americans
    C. Mormons
    D. Both Japanese Americans and Chinese Americans

 

Type: I

  1. Law enforcement officers, customs officials, and airport security personnel who develop a practice of stopping and checking people they assume are likely to be engaged in illegal activitiessimply based on the notion they fit certain descriptionsis considered
    A.the contact hypothesis.
    B. the self-fulfilling prophecy.
    C. racial profiling.
    D. anomie deviance.

 

Type: C

  1. The practice of assuming that people who fit certain descriptions are likely to be engaged in illegal activities is referred to as
    A.explanative prejudice.
    B. racial profiling.
    C. institutionalized stereotyping.
    D. contact hypothesis.

 

Type: S

  1. Acts of racial profiling are always
    A.illegal.
    B. initiated by authorities.
    C. opposed by the American public.
    D. opposed by law enforcement officials.

 

Type: D


 

  1. The contact hypothesis
    A.is a Marxist theory that views racial subordination in the United States as a manifestation of the class system inherent in capitalism.
    B. states that interracial contact between people of equal status will cause them to become less prejudiced and to abandon previous stereotypes.
    C. was a theory that gave moral support to the continued existence of apartheid in South Africa.
    D. is a Parsonian theory that views ethnic subordination as a means of regulating social interactions between dominant and subordinate groups.

 

Type: D

  1. The phrase or term __________ supports the idea that interracial dealings among people with equal statuses, in cooperative circumstances, cause them to become less prejudiced and to abandon previously held stereotypes.
    A.self-fulfilling prophecy
    B. contact hypothesis
    C. exploitation theory
    D. pluralism

 

Type: D

  1. The contact hypothesis occurs only if which one of the following conditions is met:
    A.interracial people who work together must have equal job status.
    B. members of different racial groups who work together must have infrequent contact with one another.
    C. different racial groups who work together must work at competitive jobs.
    D. members of different racial groups who work together must live near one another.

 

Type: I


 

  1. A farmer is called to help sandbag a levy, which is about to flood a local town. The farmer is stationed between two correctional center inmates who are required to assist in the flood efforts. As a result of the experience, the farmer has a newfound respect for inmates. This example most likely would be consistent with which perspective?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. global perspective

 

Type: P

  1. A white male lawyer mentors a young Latino female lawyer. According to the contact hypothesis, this situation would be unlikely to reduce prejudice because
    A.the Latino lawyer is too young to appreciate the mentoring.
    B. the two people do not have equal status.
    C. people with that much education are rarely prejudiced.
    D. sexism is operating as well as racism.

 

Type: C

  1. A Colombian woman and an Italian man, working together as members of a construction crew, overcome their initial prejudices and come to appreciate each others talents and strengths. This is an example of
    A.the self-fulfilling prophecy.
    B. the contact hypothesis.
    C. exploitation theory.
    D. amalgamation.

 

Type: C


 

  1. Which sociologist suggested that interracial coalitions would most likely reduce racial and ethnic stereotyping and prejudice?
    A.Karl Marx
    B. William Julius Wilson
    C. Robert Blauner
    D. Roscoe Cox

 

Type: S

  1. Which term is used to refer to a negative attitude toward an entire category of people?
    A.exploitation
    B. prejudice
    C. discrimination
    D. pluralism

 

Type: D

  1. Which one of the following is an example of prejudice?
    A.John, who lives in Texas, believes that the United States is the best country in the world.
    B. Mary believes that all men are pigs.
    C. Arnold refuses to hire Catholics to work in his office.
    D. Dawn likes to ice skate.

 

Type: C

  1. During the summer before your freshman year of college, you receive a letter from the school telling you that your new roommate is from a small town in Arkansas. You respond by telling a high school friend, I cant believe it. Im stuck in a room with a hillbilly! This is an example of
    A.prejudice.
    B. discrimination.
    C. exploitation.
    D. pluralism.

 

Type: C


 

  1. Ethnocentrism refers to
    A.a negative attitude toward an entire category of people, such as a racial or ethnic minority.
    B. the process of denying opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice.
    C. the process by which a person forsakes his or her own cultural tradition to become part of a different culture.
    D. the tendency to assume that ones culture and way of life are superior to all others.

 

Type: D

  1. Joe, who grew up in an Italian household in an Italian community in New Jersey, believes that the traditional Italian celebration of Easter, which includes many family members and mountains of food consumed during a long dinner, is the only legitimate way to celebrate this holiday. Joe is illustrating
    A.prejudice.
    B. ethnocentrism.
    C. discrimination.
    D. pluralism.

 

Type: C

  1. Racism is
    A.a belief that one race is supreme and that all others are innately inferior.
    B. the tendency of people to respond to and act on the basis of s

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