Sociology The Essentials 8th Edition By Andersen Test Bank

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Sociology The Essentials 8th Edition By Andersen Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Sociology The Essentials 8th Edition By Andersen

CHAPTER 2

 

  1. Which of the following is not part of the definition of culture?
  2. a. language
  3. beliefs
  4. c. behavior
  5. These are all parts of the definition of culture.

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    27

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  ESSE.ANDE.15 2.3

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. The complex system that includes a groups beliefs, values, dress, and way of life, is called   .
  2. a. counterculture
  3. culture
  4. c. social structure
  5. culture complex

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    26

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  ESSE.ANDE.15 2.3

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of non-material culture?
  2. a. a painting
  3. a fashion magazine
  4. c. a building
  5. table manners

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    27

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  ESSE.ANDE.15 2.3

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. Material culture consists of
  2. a. objects created in a given
  3. ideas and beliefs of a group of people.
  4. c. laws, customs, and
  5. ideas about what is right and wrong.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    26

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  ESSE.ANDE.15 2.3

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. What is the relationship between biology and culture in shaping human behavior?
  2. a. Human biology determines our
  3. The natural environment is the biggest determinant of human behavior.
  4. c. Human biology sets limits and provides the capacities for different types of
  5. Culture is the only influence on human behavior.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    27

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  ESSE.ANDE.15 2.3

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. The discussion of birthday traditions included in the text demonstrates that
  2. a. some forms of celebration are
  3. even seemingly normal practices have cultural roots.
  4. c. American birthday traditions represent cultural
  5. U.S. culture dominates globally, even in birthday practices.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    27

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  ESSE.ANDE.15 2.3

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. Norms, values, laws, and customs are all examples of .
  2. a. high culture
  3. material culture
  4. c. nonmaterial culture
  5. nontraditional culture

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    27

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  ESSE.ANDE.15 2.3

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. Nonmaterial culture consists of which of the following?
  2. a.
  3. art.
  4. c.
  5. cars.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    27

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  ESSE.ANDE.15 2.3

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. How do sociologists view the value of culture for the individual?
  2. a. A person must learn culture in order to know how to behave in their
  3. Having culture gives a person higher status than other people.
  4. c. The more culture one has, the more income one will
  5. None of these; culture is not of particular importance for humans.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    27

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  ESSE.ANDE.15 2.3

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 10. Regardless of where it is found in the world, culture
  2. a. is
  3. is genetic.
  4. c. is often questioned by those who take part in
  5. is the same everywhere at all times.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    27

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  ESSE.ANDE.15 2.3

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 11. Which of the following is true about culture in the S.?
  2. a. groups have different traditions but share a culture
  3. groups have different traditions and do not share a culture
  4. c. groups have independent culture
  5. groups have independent cultural traditions and do not learn a similar culture.

 

ANSWER:                              a

REFERENCES:                     28

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  ESSE.ANDE.15 2.3

OTHER:                                NEW

 

  1. 12. In their day-to- day lives, most people
  2. a. have to consciously think about their cultural
  3. take the expectations of their culture for granted.
  4. c. spend a lot of time questioning why they engage in certain
  5. ignore their own cultural traditions.

 

ANSWER:                              b

REFERENCES:                     29

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

SESE.ANDE.13.1 1

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                MODIFIED

 

  1. 13. A(n) is something that stands for something else, or anything to which people give
  2. a. symbol culture c. identity d. society

 

ANSWER:                              a

REFERENCES:                     29

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 14. Which of the following is true about the meanings of symbols?
  2. a. They depend on the culture in which they
  3. They have no influence on human behavior.
  4. c. They are inherent in the symbol
  5. They are always the same, regardless of the context in which they exist.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    29

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 15. People stand during the National Anthem and are emotionally moved by a cross or Star of David because
  2. a. these symbols have an innately
  3. of the significance people bestow on them as cultural symbols.
  4. c. crosses and stars are instinctually moving to
  5. people innately know how to behave when facing these symbols.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    30

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 16. Which of the following is true about cultural change?
  2. a. There are some beliefs that are so self-evident, such as the scientific understanding of disease, that they never
  3. While culture changes from place to place, in each place it stays virtually the same.
  4. c. Culture changes as people adapt in different time periods and in to different
  5. Cultural changes overtime but not across places.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    31

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.1 1

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 17. Which of the following is not an element of culture?
  2. a. language
  3. norms
  4. c. mores
  5. all of the above

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    31

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 18. As an element of culture, language is important because
  2. a. it enables a person to become a part of
  3. it permits the formation of culture
  4. c. language enables us to learn social
  5. All of these choices are true.

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    31

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 19. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests that:
  2. a. reality is the result of social
  3. language provides the category through which social reality is defined.
  4. c. there is no relationship between language and
  5. language reflects social differences and therefore material culture.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    32

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 20. Today, almost all sociologists would agree that
  2. a. language determines what people
  3. culture determines language.
  4. c. language and culture are inextricably linked and each shapes the
  5. there is no relationship between language and culture.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    32

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 21. How does language influence patterns of social inequality?
  2. a. Language has little effect on patterns of race or gender
  3. Language may produce inequalities through stereotypes and assumptions that may be built into what people say.
  4. c. Studies have proven that what someone is called really doesnt matter, since identity is developed

internally by the individual.

  1. While language affects patterns of race and gender, there is no indication that it influences patterns of class inequality.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    32

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 22. What is the relationship between language and social inequality?
  2. a. Language may reproduce the inequalities that exist in
  3. The language that people use may alter social stereotypes to some extent.
  4. c. The power relations in a situation provide a context for the meanings of particular
  5. All of these choices are true.

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    33

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 23. The specific cultural expectations for how to behave in a given situation are called .
  2. a. norms
  3. directives
  4. c. belief-based actualizations
  5. culture-constructs

 

ANSWER:                              a

REFERENCES:                     33

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 24. Why are norms such an important element of culture?
  2. a. Without norms society would be
  3. People cannot survive without norms.
  4. c. Norms are the way that people communicate with each
  5. Norms are the basis for the formal education system.

 

ANSWER:                              a

REFERENCES:                     33

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                MODIFIED

 

  1. 25. Mechanisms of social control that enforce rules against killing are examples of:
  2. a. norms
  3. folkways c. sanctions d. mores

 

ANSWER:                              c

REFERENCES:                     33

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 26. Two classic cultural concepts associated with the work of William Graham Sumner are .
  2. a. explicit and implicit norms
  3. folkways and mores
  4. c. dominant culture and subcultures
  5. culture traits and culture concepts

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    33

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 27. Folkways are
  2. a. the ordinary customs of different group
  3. strict norms that control moral and ethical behavior.
  4. c. often upheld through laws that bring serious
  5. norms that provide strict codes of behavior.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    33

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 28. Mores are
  2. a. the ordinary customs of different group
  3. strict norms that control moral and ethical behavior.
  4. c. often upheld through laws that bring serious
  5. norms that provide strict codes of behavior.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    33

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 29. The strictest norms in any society are called .
  2. a. folkways
  3. mores c. taboos d. laws

 

ANSWER:                              c

REFERENCES:                     33

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 30. As a means of social control, to enforce norms, sanctions
  2. a. are always
  3. are always positive.
  4. c. may be mild or
  5. are not very effective.

 

ANSWER:                              c

REFERENCES:                     33

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 31. According to researchers on culture and language: a. terms like handicapped do not stigmatize people culture and language are unrelated
  2. c. terms for race are accurate depictions of human history
  3. language affects peoples perception of reality

 

ANSWER:                              d

REFERENCES:                     33

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.DEMO. 13. 2 2

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                NEW

 

  1. 32. The strength or seriousness of social sanctions is
  2. a. harsh, regardless of how strictly the norm is
  3. generally lighter for violations of folkways than violations of mores.
  4. c. unrelated to the type of norm that is
  5. not something that sociologists consider in the study of norm violations.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    33

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 33. The theoretical approach that is based on the idea you can discover the normal social order through disrupting it is referred to as .
  2. a. dramaturgy
  3. ethnomethodology
  4. c. exchange theory
  5. impression management

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    34

35

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 34. People generally follow norms for behavior because
  2. a. they fear serious punishment for
  3. theyve thought about all their actions and act in the way they find best.
  4. c. they are forced to do
  5. they have learned and internalized the common expectations for behavior.

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    3

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 35. Through ethnomethodological research sociologists have learned all of the following, except
  2. a. most of the time, specific sanctions are not necessary to achieve
  3. society exists because people behave as if there is no other way to do so.
  4. c. when norms are violated, their existence becomes
  5. social norms are least important among children than adults.

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    34

35

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 36. Shared ideas that help bind people in society together are called .
  2. a. folkways
  3. beliefs
  4. c. mores
  5. sanctions

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    35

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 37. Which of the following statements is false in regards to beliefs?
  2. a. Shared beliefs hold people in a group or society
  3. Beliefs are the basis for many norms and values in a society.
  4. c. Beliefs must be true in order for them to guide human
  5. Beliefs may be so strongly held that it is difficult to consider any contradictory information.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    35

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 38. The abstract standards that define the ideal principles of a society are called .
  2. a. beliefs values c. myths d. mores

 

ANSWER:                              b

REFERENCES:                     35

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 39. Which of the following statements about values is true?
  2. a. Values define what is considered desirable and morally
  3. Values are not guides for behavior because they are too abstract. c. Societal values are actually realized or achieved most of the time. d. Values most often create conflict.

 

ANSWER:                              a

REFERENCES:                     35

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 40. Which of the following statements about values is true?
  2. a. Values are really too abstract to provide any guidelines for
  3. Values are never the source of cultural tensions.
  4. c. Values may cause conflict in
  5. Values create ideas that cannot actually be achieved.

 

ANSWER:                              c

REFERENCES:                     35

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 41. Freedom, justice, and education are examples of:
  2. a. sanctions functions c. values
  3. mores

 

ANSWER:                              c

REFERENCES:                     35

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                                Applied

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 42. Consumption for the sake of displaying ones wealth is called         .
  2. a. conspicuous consumption
  3. conspicuous austerity
  4. c. economic posturing
  5. financial reciprocity

 

ANSWER:                              a

REFERENCES:                     36

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. 1.4-4

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 43. Americas dominant culture is characterized by which of the following?
  2. a. diversity
  3. middle-class values
  4. c. later arriving immigrants
  5. Asians and Latin Americans

 

ANSWER:                              b

REFERENCES:                     36

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 4-4

OTHER:                                NEW

 

  1. 44. Which of these is true regarding cultural diversity in society?
  2. a. It is rare for a society to be
  3. Diversity is very characteristic of American society.
  4. c. Many very simple societies actually have the most cultural
  5. As societies become more complex, the more the culture will be internally uniform and consistent across all groups.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    36

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 45. Whereas earlier immigrants to the S. were predominantly from Europe, today most new immigrants come to the U.S. from .
  2. a. Southern and Eastern Europe
  3. Asia and Latin America
  4. c. the Middle East and Africa
  5. South America and the Caribbean

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    37

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 46. In every society, the dominant culture is
  2. a. the only culture in
  3. the culture of the most powerful group.
  4. c. strongly influenced by minority
  5. always the culture of the majority of people.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    36

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 47. The dominant culture in any society
  2. a. is the only true culture in the
  3. is commonly believed to be the culture of a society.
  4. c. does not necessarily correspond to the groups with the most
  5. is the least recognized.

 

ANSWER:                              b

REFERENCES:                     36

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 4-4

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 48. Puerto Ricans in New York and the Amish are examples of .
  2. a. subcultures
  3. minority cultures c. majority groups d. counter cultures

 

ANSWER:                              a

REFERENCES:                     37

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 4-4

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 49. The cultures of groups whose values and norms differ to some extent from those of the dominant culture are called .
  2. a. countercultures
  3. subcultures
  4. c. popular cultures
  5. postmodern cultures

 

ANSWER:                              b

REFERENCES:                     35

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 4-4

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 50. Members of a subculture
  2. a. are never well-integrated into the dominant
  3. tend to share the same practices, values and beliefs as the members of the dominant culture.
  4. c. exist within and share some elements of the dominant
  5. are indistinguishable from members of the dominant culture.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    37

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 51. The difference between subcultures and countercultures is that
  2. a. countercultures reject and defy the dominant culture and subcultures do
  3. subcultures are created as a reaction to the dominant culture and subcultures do not.
  4. c. countercultures retreat from the dominant culture and subcultures do
  5. subcultures cause the development of countercultures.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    38

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 52. Members of a counterculture
  2. a. share many elements of the dominant culture and exist within
  3. conform to most of the standards of the dominant culture.
  4. c. reject the dominant cultural values of a
  5. Seek to redefine the dominant culture.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    37

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 53. Which of the following is an example of a counterculture?
  2. a. white supremacist
  3. feminist
  4. c. Irish Americans
  5. Anglo Americans

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    38-39

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 54. An ethnocentric person is characterized by which of the following?
  2. a. is always extreme
  3. protects their identity from others
  4. c. is not normal
  5. none of the above

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    39

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 4-4

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 55. The habit of seeing things only from the point of view of ones own group is called .
  2. a. ethnocentrism
  3. xenocentrism
  4. c. cultural relativism
  5. multiculturalism

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    39

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 56. Which of the following statements is false regarding ethnocentrism?
  2. a. Ethnocentrism may be a strong force for group
  3. Only Americans are ethnocentric.
  4. c. Ethnocentrism discourages intergroup
  5. Ones own culture is taken for granted so it may be difficult to understand other peoples culture.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    39

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 4-4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 57. Ethnocentrism
  2. a. can be subtle or
  3. can only be practiced by dominant groups.
  4. c. encourages intergroup
  5. is another word for cultural relativism

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    39

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 4-4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 58. Extreme ethnocentrism
  2. a. is
  3. may result in violence, including terrorism, war, and genocide.
  4. c. is found primarily in less developed
  5. has not been studied by sociologists.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    39

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 59. Cultural relativism is the idea that
  2. a. a phenomena should be understood and judged only in relationship to the cultural context in which it
  3. things should be viewed from ones own point of view.
  4. c. culture is diffused throughout the
  5. cultures are created in reaction to social change.

 

ANSWER:                 

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