Stern Introductory Plant Biology 12Th Ed By Bidlack Test Bank

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Stern Introductory Plant Biology 12Th Ed By Bidlack Test Bank




Sterns Introductory Plant Biology 12Th Ed By  Bidlack Test Bank




Chapter 02

The Nature of Life?


Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following is NOT a form of metabolism?
    A.  respiration
    B.   photosynthesis
    C.  diffusion
    D.  digestion
    E.  assimilation


  1. Which of the following metabolic activities of plants produces sugars?
    A. photosynthesis
    B.  assimilation
    C.  digestion
    D.  respiration
    E.  None of these answers are correct.


  1. Determination of whether something is a living organism or a nonliving object is based on ___________.
    A. a single characteristic such as change in position
    B.  presence of carbon and hydrogen atoms
    C.  several characteristics such as DNA and other organic materials inside a cell
    D.  movement
    E.  presence of carbon and oxygen atoms


  1. As living individuals grow and reproduce their response to environmental stimuli may include ___.
    A. movement
    B.  increase in size
    C.  change in position
    D.  all of these
    E.  none of these



  1. Which of the following is NOT an attribute of all living organisms?
    A. response to stimuli
    B.  metabolism
    C.  nervous system
    D.  reproduction
    E.  growth


  1. Which of the following is NOT an attribute of all living organisms?
    A. metabolism
    B.  photosynthesis
    C.  reproduction
    D.  response to stimuli
    E.  adaptation to the environment


  1. Reproduction in living organisms results in __________________.
    A. new individuals of the same species
    B.  new individuals that are always genetically identical to the parents
    C.  new individuals that are never genetically identical to the parents
    D.  overpopulation of the community by that species
    E.  loss of genetic variability in the population


  1. Response to a stimulus ___________________.
    A. requires movement
    B.  may include a cell-level, or chemical change in the individual
    C.  may occur without any chemical or physical change by the individual
    D.  is not characteristic of rooted plants.
    E.  always changes the genetic information


  1. The basic stuff of the universe or matter has which of the following characteristics?
    A. occupies space
    B.  has mass
    C.  is composed of atomic elements
    D.  a and b only
    E.  all of the above



  1. At present the number of elements naturally occurring on earth is __________.
    A. less than 90
    B.  93
    C.  98
    D.  104
    E.  more than 105


  1. The number of protons and electrons in a neutral atom is
    A.quite variable.
    B. the same.
    C. unknown.
    D. always unequal.
    E. unrelated.


Stern 002 Chapter #3

  1. The atomic number of an element is based on
    A.the number of electrons associated with a single atom.
    B. the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
    C. the number of isotopes associated with it.
    D. the number of protons present in a single atom.
    E. its atomic mass.


Stern 002 Chapter #15

  1. The volume of space in which a given electron occurs 90% of the time is called orbital.
    B. a nucleus.
    C. an atom.
    D. a molecule.
    E. a bond.


Stern 002 Chapter #16


  1. The element with the lowest atomic number and/or mass is
    B. hydrogen.
    C. boron.
    D. nitrogen.
    E. carbon.


Stern 002 Chapter #17

  1. Electrons are essentially
    A.positive electric charges.
    B. negative electric charges.
    C. unstable isotopes.
    D. uncharged particles.
    E. atomic particles that are bonded together.


Stern 002 Chapter #18

  1. Which of the following carries a single positive charge?
    B. neutron
    C. lepton
    D. electron
    E. quark


Stern 002 Chapter #27

  1. The mass of the protons and neutrons added is the
    A.atomic sum.
    B. atomic number.
    C. atomic weight.
    D. atomic charge.
    E. atomic coefficient.


Stern 002 Chapter #28


  1. What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the innermost electron orbital?
    B. 4
    C. 6
    D. 8
    E. 10


Stern 002 Chapter #29

  1. Unfilled positions within an electron orbital tend to make the atom
    B. neutral.
    C. less reactive.
    D. more reactive.
    E. stable.


Stern 002 Chapter #30

  1. A substance consisting of two or more elements united in a definite ratio by chemical bonds is called a
    B. mixture.
    C. compound.
    D. base.
    E. valence.


Stern 002 Chapter #4

  1. The bonds that hold atoms together do so through the sharing or transfer of
    A.atomic nuclei.
    B. electrons.
    C. protons.
    D. neutrons.
    E. molecules.


Stern 002 Chapter #10


  1. Which type of chemical bond involves the transfer of electrons?
    B. covalent
    C. hydrogen
    D. both [ionic and covalent] are correct
    E. both [ionic and hydrogen] are correct


Stern 002 Chapter #31

  1. Which element is capable of forming triple covalent bonds?
    B. hydrogen
    C. oxygen
    D. nitrogen
    E. potassium


Stern 002 Chapter #32

  1. Carbon has an atomic number of 6. How many electrons does carbon have in its first and second electron orbitals, respectively?
    A.2, 4
    B. 4, 2
    C. 1, 5
    D. 3, 3
    E. 0, 6


Stern 002 Chapter #33

  1. If there is an asymmetric charge distribution on a molecule creating a positively charged sector and a negatively charged sector, the type of molecule resulting would be _____________.
    A. neutral.
    B.  charged.
    C.  polar.
    D.  hydrophobic.
    E.  radioactive.



  1. A solution that is slightly alkaline would have a pH in the range of
    B. 7.5.
    C. 7.0.
    D. 6.5.
    E. 2.0.


Stern 002 Chapter #2

  1. An acid is a compound that
    A.releases hydroxyl ions when dissolved in water.
    B. forms water when mixed with a salt.
    C. releases positively charged hydrogen ions when dissolved in water.
    D. converts starch to glucose.
    E. converts proteins to carbohydrates.


Stern 002 Chapter #6

  1. When an acid and a base are mixed together, which of the following is produced?
    A. a salt
    B.  a mixture
    C.  an isotope
    D.  a lipid
    E.  a carbohydrate


  1. Which of the following pH values is considered neutral (i.e., neither acidic nor basic)?
    A. 6.8
    B.  7.3
    C.  7.5
    D.  8.0
    E.  none of the choices are correct



  1. Laws pertaining to energy are called laws of ___________________.
    A. metabolism
    B.  aerodynamics
    C.  atomic fusion
    D.  thermodynamics
    E.  heredity


  1. Covalent bonds between molecules inside living cells are often formed or broken through the addition or loss of ___________.
    A. carbon dioxide
    B.  oxygen
    C.   water
    D.  chlorine and sodium
    E.  neutrons


  1. Classes of proteins called ___________________ function as organic catalysts for chemical reactions in cells.
    A. peptides
    B.  enzymes
    C.  thermal agents
    D.  disaccharides
    E.  hormones


  1. ________________ polymers serve as the genetic memory in living cells.
    A. Carbohydrate
    B.  Nucleic acids
    C.  Proteins
    D.  Lipids
    E.  Two or more of these



  1. Structural and functional molecules making up a cell have a skeleton of ___________________.
    A. carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
    B.  nitrogen and oxygen
    C.  silicon and oxygen
    D.  carbon and oxygen
    E.  calcium phosphate


  1. Which of the following is NOT a major component of protoplasm?
    A. carbon
    B.  hydrogen
    C.  oxygen
    D.  nitrogen
    E.  sulfur


  1. Sugar and starch molecules contain which of the following elements?
    B. hydrogen
    C. nitrogen
    D. phosphorus
    E. both [carbon and hydrogen]


Stern 002 Chapter #5

  1. The basic units or subunits of which a protein is composed are _____________.
    A. fatty acids
    B.  glycerols
    C.  monosaccharides
    D.    amino acids
    E.  nucleic acids



  1. Compounds that consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of CH2O are ___________.
    A. lipids
    B.  proteins
    C.  nucleic acids
    D.  enzymes
    E.  carbohydrates


  1. Each nucleotide of a DNA molecule consists of a nitrogenous base plus _____________.
    A. a 5-carbon sugar and a phosphate group
    B.  an RNA molecule
    C.  a sulfur salt
    D.  a form of starch and a potassium ion
    E.  a lipid and a carbohydrate


  1. The number of naturally occurring amino acids is ________________.
    A. 20
    B.  600
    C.  less than 10
    D.  35
    E.  64


  1. What type of chemical bond joins amino acids together?
    A. hydrogen
    B.  glycosidic
    C.   ionic
    D.  peptide
    E.  both [glycosidic and peptide] are correct



  1. The linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain is called the ____________.
    A. primary structure
    B.  secondary structure
    C.  tertiary structure
    D.  quaternary structure
    E.  beta structure


  1. A disulfide linkage or bond would be instrumental in maintaining the _____ structure of a protein.
    A. primary
    B.  secondary
    C.  tertiary
    D.  quaternary
    E.  alpha


  1. A fatty acid which has all possible hydrogen atoms bonding to each carbon atom would be ______.
    A. saturated
    B.  unsaturated
    C.  polycarbonated
    D.  polyoxygenated
    E.  polyunsaturated



True / False Questions

  1. Callose is produced on the bark of a plant that has been damaged.



  1. An isotope has neutrons differing in number from that of a typical element.




  1. A base is a compound that releases hydrogen ions when dissolved in water.


  1. Hydrolysis of starch involves the addition of water molecules to the starch molecule.


  1. If a lipid has its fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule, it is called a wax.



  1. An ion is neither positively nor negatively charged.


  1. Protein molecules differ from those of carbohydrates and lipids in having nitrogen present.


  1. Pyrimidines and purines are two types of amino acids.


  1. Peptide bonds link the building blocks of carbohydrates together.


Stern 002 Chapter #48


  1. Nucleotides and amino acids are both building blocks of larger molecules.


Stern 002 Chapter #49

  1. Assimilation is the conversion of raw materials into protoplasm and other cell substances.


Stern 002 Chapter #50

  1. Potential energy can be converted to kinetic energy.


Stern 002 Chapter #51

  1. The combining capacity of an atom or ion is referred to as its valence.


Stern 002 Chapter #52

  1. If hydrogen atoms are attached to every available attachment point of fatty acid carbon atoms in a fat, the fat is said to be unsaturated.


Stern 002 Chapter #53

  1. All hormones and enzymes are lipids.


Stern 002 Chapter #54


  1. Most proteins are synthesized in the nucleus.


Stern 002 Chapter #55

  1. The nucleotides of DNA molecules are linked in ladderlike fashion between the two strands.


Stern 002 Chapter #56

Chapter 04



Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following is a meristematic tissue?
    B. cork cambium
    C. xylem
    D. collenchyma
    E. epidermis


Stern 004 Chapter #1

  1. Which of the following is a primary meristem?
    B. cork cambium
    C. collenchyma
    D. lenticel
    E. root hair


Stern 004 Chapter #5

  1. In grasses and related plants, intercalary meristems are found in the vicinity of
    A.axillary buds.
    B. roots.
    C. nodes.
    D. cuticles.
    E. leaf tips.


Stern 004 Chapter #10


  1. Primary tissues are produced by
    A.secondary meristems.
    B. vascular cambium.
    C. cork cambium.
    D. xylem.
    E. apical meristems.


Stern 004 Chapter #18

  1. In which location would an intercalary meristem be found?
    A.apical regions
    B. base of grass leaves
    C. tips of leaves
    D. tips of roots
    E. shoot tips


Stern 004 Chapter #26

  1. Actively dividing cells can be found in
    B. xylem tissue.
    C. epidermal tissue.
    D. center of stems.
    E. phloem tissue.


Stern 004 Chapter #28

  1. Primary tissues can be traced to their origin in
    A.lateral meristems.
    B. vascular cambium.
    C. cork cambium.
    D. apical meristems.
    E. intercalary meristems.


Stern 004 Chapter #29


  1. Which of the following is a meristematic tissue?
    B. periderm
    C. cork cambium
    D. epidermis
    E. collenchyma


Stern 004 Chapter #31

  1. Which tissue is derived from the apical meristem?
    A. protoderm
    B.  cork cambium
    C.  periderm
    D.  secondary phloem
    E.  secondary xylem


Stern 004 Chapter #34

  1. The primary activity of cells of meristematic tissues is ______________________.
    A. support
    B.  transport of water
    C.  photosynthesis
    D.  cell division
    E.   defense


  1. Secondary meristems, such as ________________, produce tissues that increase the girth of a plant.
    A. vascular cambium
    B.  secondary phloem
    C.  periderm
    D.  parenchyma
    E.  collenchyma



  1. Primary meristems produce tissues that ________________.
    A. increase the width of a plant
    B.  increase the mass of a plant
    C.  increase the length of a plant
    D.  lead to the production of bark
    E.  produce the cork cambium


  1. Groups of cells that have a similar structure or common function are called ______________.
    A. tissues.
    B.  meristems.
    C.  differentiated cells.
    D.  primary meristems.
    E.  secondary meristems.


Stern 004 Chapter #37

  1. Which of the following tissues has support as one of its primary functions?
    B. vascular cambium
    C. parenchyma
    D. cork cambium
    E. collenchyma


Stern 004 Chapter #3

  1. Which of the following cells has a relatively thick wall?
    A.companion cell
    B. parenchyma cell
    C. sclereid
    D. sieve-tube element
    E. vascular cambium cell


Stern 004 Chapter #4


  1. Parenchyma cells that develop irregular extensions of the cell wall that greatly increase the surface area are called
    A.transfer cells.
    B. sclereids.
    C. aerenchyma.
    D. tracheids.
    E. lenticels.


Stern 004 Chapter #9

  1. Which of the following is a type of sclerenchyma cell?
    A.companion cell
    B. sieve-tube element
    C. procambium cell
    D. ray cell
    E. fiber


Stern 004 Chapter #12

  1. A tissue composed of thin-walled cells with interconnecting air spaces between them is called
    B. chlorenchyma.
    C. sclerenchyma.
    D. aerenchyma.
    E. secretory tissue.


Stern 004 Chapter #20

  1. Lignin is found primarily in
    B. sclerenchyma.
    C. collenchyma.
    D. aerenchyma.
    E. chlorenchyma.


Stern 004 Chapter #21


  1. The tiny cavity at the center of fiber and stone cells is called a
    B. air space.
    C. lumen.
    D. food pocket.
    E. water-storage area.


Stern 004 Chapter #23

  1. Collenchyma cells are most often found adjacent to
    A.the epidermis.
    B. the xylem.
    C. the vascular cambium.
    D. the cork cambium.
    E. ray cells.


Stern 004 Chapter #24

  1. What is the function of collenchyma tissue?
    B. conduction of food
    C. provide strength to growing organs
    D. prevent water loss
    E. photosynthesis


Stern 004 Chapter #27

  1. A cell type that has thin primary cell walls, a large vacuole, and is living at maturity is a
    B. parenchyma cell.
    C. tracheid.
    D. fiber.
    E. vessel.


Stern 004 Chapter #30


  1. Which cell type has a thick and lignified cell wall?
    B. sievetube
    C. collenchyma
    D. sclereid
    E. trichome


Stern 004 Chapter #33

  1. Which is a type of sclerenchyma cell?
    B. guard cell
    C. collenchyma
    D. sieve tube
    E. sclereid


Stern 004 Chapter #36

  1. You would expect to find collenchyma tissue in the of the root.
    B. cortex of herbaceous stems, just underneath the epidermis.
    C. apical meristem.
    D. mesophyll of leaves.
    E. both [apical meristem and mesophyll of leaves] are correct.


Stern 004 Chapter #40

  1. Simple tissues such as ____________ are formed from a single type of cell.
    A. secretory tissues
    B.  phloem
    C.  epidermis
    D.  cork
    E.  parenchyma




  1. Which of the following tissues has sugar conduction as a primary function?
    B. parenchyma
    C. sclerenchyma
    D. collenchyma
    E. phloem


Stern 004 Chapter #2

  1. In woody dicots, the periderm eventually replaces
    B. phloem.
    C. epidermis.
    D. pith.
    E. endodermis.


Stern 004 Chapter #6

  1. Guard cells differ from other epidermal cells in having
    A.uniformly thickened walls.
    B. no nucleus.
    C. chloroplasts.
    D. surface hairs.
    E. large pores in the walls.


Stern 004 Chapter #7

  1. Fiber cells are commonly found in
    A. collenchyma
    B.  pith.
    C.  epidermis.
    D.  xylem.
    E.  endodermis.


Stern 004 Chapter #8


  1. A primary function of tracheids is storage.
    B. food conduction.
    C. water conduction.
    D. water storage.
    E. secretion of latex.


Stern 004 Chapter #13

  1. The porous cell wall regions of food-conducting cells are called
    A.ray initials.
    B. pits.
    C. albuminous cells.
    D. sieve plates.
    E. sieve tubes.


Stern 004 Chapter #14

  1. Rays function primarily in
    A. vertical transport
    B.  water storage.
    C.  food manufacture.
    D.  waste storage.
    E.  lateral transport


Stern 004 Chapter #15

  1. Conducting cells that are open at either end include
    A.sieve cells.
    B. vessel elements.
    C. parenchyma cells.
    D. fibers.
    E. stone cells.


Stern 004 Chapter #16


  1. The tissue in which lenticels are formed is
    B. chlorenchyma.
    C. epidermis.
    D. cork cambium.
    E. collenchyma.


Stern 004 Chapter #17

  1. The fatty substance in the walls of cork cells is
    B. latex.
    C. suberin.
    D. pectin.
    E. cellulose.


Stern 004 Chapter #19

  1. Which of the following may be secreted by secretory cells?
    B. oils
    C. mucilage
    D. resins
    E. All of these answers are correct.


Stern 004 Chapter #22

  1. Which is a type of epidermal cell?
    A.guard cell
    B. collenchyma
    C. trichome
    D. cork cell
    E. both [guard cell and trichome] are correct


Stern 004 Chapter #25


  1.   Underground epidermal cells may have the exterior cell wall extended into a long, thin thread-like structure called ____________.
    A. a glandular hair
    B.  a secretory cell
    C.  a root hair
    D.  lenticels
    E.  cuticle


  1. The porous wall regions of sieve tubes are called
    B. callose.
    C. sieve pores.
    D. perforation plates.
    E. sieves.


Stern 004 Chapter #39

  1. Vessels (or vessel members) are different from tracheids because
    A.vessels conduct sugars, tracheids conduct water.
    B. vessels are living cells, tracheids are dead cells.
    C. vessels have perforated end walls, tracheids do not.
    D. vessels have smooth walls, tracheids have perforated end walls.
    E. vessels conduct water, tracheids conduct sugars.


Stern 004 Chapter #41

  1. In most cone-producing trees (such as pines), tracheids and albuminous cells function like the ___________ and ________ of flowering plants.
    A. vessel elements; companion cells
    B.  sieve tube members; rays
    C.  companion cells; vessel elements
    D.  ray initials; vessel elements
    E.  sieve tube members; vessel elements



  1. Wood (woody tissues) are produced by __________________.
    A. cork cambium
    B.  vascular cambium
    C.  procambium
    D.  apical meristems
    E.  callus tissue


  1. Leaves and primary stems interface with the environment through the _______________ tissue.
    A. vascular
    B.  parenchyma
    C.  secretory tissues
    D.  epidermal tissues
    E.  aerenchyma tissue



True / False Questions

  1. The vascular cambium produces tissues that increase the girth of a plant.


Stern 004 Chapter #43

  1. Periderm is another name for epidermis.


Stern 004 Chapter #44

  1. Chlorenchyma tissue is composed primarily of collenchyma cells.


Stern 004 Chapter #45


  1. Stone cells and fibers have relatively thick walls.


Stern 004 Chapter #46

  1. The primary function of sieve-tube elements is conduction of sugar.


Stern 004 Chapter #47

  1. Sieve-tube elements have pairs of pits in their end walls.


Stern 004 Chapter #48

  1. The vessel elements of xylem have adjacent companion cells that aid in the conduction of water.


Stern 004 Chapter #49

  1. Latex and resin are examples of substances conducted by the phloem.


Stern 004 Chapter #50

  1. Some epidermal cells may be modified as glands.


Stern 004 Chapter #51


  1. Secretory cells release substances that have been produced in the protoplasm.


Stern 004 Chapter #52

  1. In woody plants most of the vascular tissues are produced by the cork cambium.


Stern 004 Chapter #53

  1. Companion cells are found adjacent to vessel elements.


Stern 004 Chapter #54

  1. Albuminous cells function in the same manner as companion cells.


Stern 004 Chapter #55

  1. The porous regions of sieve-tube elements are called sieve plates.


Stern 004 Chapter #56

  1. Nectar is an example of a substance transported in the xylem tissue.


  1. The cuticle is located on the inside of epidermal cell walls.


Chapter 14

Plant Breeding and Propagation


Multiple Choice Questions

  1. ______ is the only major crop that was domesticated in the present US.
    B. Corn
    C. Squash
    D. Sunflower
    E. Rice


Stern 014 Chapter #12

  1. The first domesticated crop plants were:
    A.cereal grains
    B. potato
    C. banana
    D. tomato
    E. apple


Stern 014 Chapter #13

  1. People began to domesticate plants in the Near East approximately ______ years ago.
    B. 10,000
    C. 2,500
    D. 20,000
    E. 25,000


Stern 014 Chapter #14


  1. One of the first changes in domesticated plants was probably __________________.
    A. increased requirement for fertilizer
    B.  geographic distriubution
    C.  loss of seed dispersal by wind, water, or animals
    D.  flower color
    E.  decrease in size, number of seeds or fruits, and nutritional quality


  1. When people domesticate plants, we ___________________.
    A. harvest them from wild populations
    B.  plant them in greenhouses
    C.  tame them
    D.  alter them genetically to meet our needs
    E.  claim the land where populations are found and let them continue to grow there


  1. Plant breeding is ___________________.
    A. accelerated evolution guided by humans who are practicing artificial selection
    B.  picking out the best products of natural selection
    C.  intended to increase genetic diversity of plants in populations
    D.  a field that just started with the development of molecular genetics
    E.  None of the above


  1. The primary goals of plant-breeding programs are _____________________.
    A. improved yield
    B.  disease resistance
    C.  pest resistance
    D.  stress tolerance
    E.  all of the above



  1. A gene pool consists of
    A.a liquid suspension of plasmids.
    B. DNA fragments that have been broken by restriction enzymes.
    C. an aquatic environment inhabited by large numbers of mutant organisms.
    D. all the genes of all the individuals in a population.
    E. genetically engineered organisms.


Stern 014 Chapter #3

  1. Development of homozygous purebred strains is brought about by
    A.cross-pollinating individuals of the same species or variety.
    B. artificially inducing the doubling of chromosome numbers.
    C. repeated inbreeding.
    D. crossing heterozygous varieties with one another.
    E. All of these answers are correct.


Stern 014 Chapter #4

  1. The man known as the father of the green revolution was
    A.Gregor Mendel.
    B. Johnny Appleseed.
    C. Gustav Johansen.
    D. Luther Burbank.
    E. Norman Borlaug.


Stern 014 Chapter #5

  1. Genetic diversity in the parent populations of cultivated plant species is critically important to plant breeders because _____________.
    A. crop seeds should be variable
    B.  it is the source of disease and pest resistance that can be bred into new crop varieties
    C.  modern agriculture relies on low diversity in crop varieties
    D.  they are searching for new crop species to develop
    E.  they have been domesticating approximately one new crop species per year since 1900



  1. Gene banks are locations where _____________________.
    A. national agencies maintain stocks of the most common plants grown in that country
    B.  plant breeders can deposit the germplasm of their new hybrids and crop varieties
    C.  plant breeders can borrow germplasm
    D.  samples of wild relatives and local populations (land races) of domesticated plants can be studied and stored for future incorporation into new breeds of crops
    E.  patented seeds can be stored


  1. Many crops, such as wheat, rice and beans, are ___________________ and do not require a pollinating agent such as wind or animals.
    A. cross-pollinating
    B.  outcrossing
    C.  open pollinated
    D.  not dependent on fertilization to produce fruits and seeds
    E.  self-pollinating


  1. Most modern crops are grown from ____________ seeds, which are produced by cross-breeding  inbred lines.
    A. hybrid
    B.  open pollinated
    C.  asexual
    D.  artificial
    E.  heirloom


  1. The process of gene splicing begins with
    A.the breaking of linkages between adjacent nucleotides of plasmids.
    B. unpairing nucleotides in linear strands.
    C. linking DNA fragments with repair enzymes.
    D. insertion of recombinant plasmids into bacterial cells.
    E. isolation of pure bacterial DNA.


Stern 014 Chapter #1


  1. Methods to insert desirable genes into a target cell in the production of a transgenic plant includes the use a crown gall bacterium or ______________.
    A. explant
    B.  producing a somatic hybrid cell
    C.  using a particle gun that fires very small DNA-covered gold pellets into the target cell
    D.  cross pollination
    E.   grafting


  1. Recombinant plasmids are made by
    A.machines called protein sequencers.
    B. mixing large numbers of DNA segments with fragments of desired DNA.
    C. isolating them from other plasmids.
    D. joining two different plasmids with repair enzymes.
    E. producing mutant bacteria with X-radiation.


Stern 014 Chapter #2

  1. Circular extrachromosomal pieces of DNA in bacteria are called
    B. plasmids.
    C. capsids.
    D. chromosomes.
    E. both [prions and capsids] are correct


Stern 014 Chapter #10

  1. Somatic hybrids can be formed from:
    A.egg and sperm nuclei
    B. egg and polar nuclei
    C. 2 parenchyma cells from different plants
    D. 2 parenchyma cells from the same plant
    E. none of these answers are correct


Stern 014 Chapter #15


  1. _____________ are plants with specific genes from other organisms (from viruses to humans) inserted into the genome.
    A. Hybrid plants
    B.  Polyploid plants
    C.  Somatic hybrid plants
    D.  Transgenic plants
    E.  Heirloom plants


  1. Two common types of transgenic plants widely grown in North America have genes for _________ and/or _____________ incorporated in their genome.
    A. frost resistance; potato blight resistance
    B.  insect resistance; wheat rust resistance
    C.  herbicide resistance; insect resistance
    D.  antifreeze genes; seedless fruit production
    E.  No transgenic plants are grown in North America.


  1. In grafting, the rooted part is known as the
    B. interstock.
    C. stock.
    D. cambium.
    E. inarch.


Stern 014 Chapter #8

  1. The type of grafting best suited for saving a tree that has been girdled is ________________________.  (Appendix 4)
    A. whip grafting.
    B.  splice grafting.
    C.  cleft grafting.
    D.  bridge grafting.
    E.  bud grafting.


Stern 014 Chapter #9


  1. Methods for improving existing varieties of crop plants do NOT include __________.
    A. use of mutant forms
    B.  hybridization
    C.  use of polyploids
    D.  pruning
    E.  tissue culture


  1. Tissue culture is used  _______________.
    A. to rapidly increase the number of orchids for commercial sale
    B.  to culture protoplasts and propagate somatic hybrids
    C.  to grow plants from transgenic experiments
    D.  to propagate desirable somatic mutants such as naval oranges or seedless grapes
    E.  all of the above



True / False Questions

  1. A plasmid is a small circular DNA fragment.


Stern 014 Chapter #17

  1. Genetic engineering involves the construction of new apical meristems.


Stern 014 Chapter #18

  1. Restriction enzymes squeeze DNA strands into narrow strips.


Stern 014 Chapter #19


  1. Repair enzymes link DNA fragments together.


Stern 014 Chapter #20

  1. Viruses may play a major role in future genetic manipulation of higher plants.


Stern 014 Chapter #21

  1. Ice-minus bacteria are being widely used in Alaska to prevent crops from freezing when the temperature drops down as low as minus 20C.


Stern 014 Chapter #22

  1. Before genetic engineering was developed, the improvement of crops involved hybridization, polyploidy, and mutation.


Stern 014 Chapter #23

  1. Outcrossing involves repeated self-pollination.


Stern 014 Chapter #24

  1. High-yielding crops produced during the green revolution require less water and fertilizer than previously produced crops.


Stern 014 Chapter #25


  1. Mutations can be induced by chemicals.


Stern 014 Chapter #26

  1. Autoclaves are used to produce autoploids.


Stern 014 Chapter #27

  1. Mericloning significantly reduces the length of time it takes for orchid plants to flower.


Stern 014 Chapter #28

  1. A plant resulting from the fusion of two different protoplasts is called a somatic hybrid.


Stern 014 Chapter #29

  1. It is of no particular importance which end of a cutting is inserted in the ground.


Stern 014 Chapter #30

  1. Cuttings can be made from stems, roots, or leaves.


Stern 014 Chapter #31


  1. Tip-layering and air-layering are nearly identical techniques.


Stern 014 Chapter #32

  1. It is essential in grafting to have the bark of the stock and scion in close contact with one another.


Stern 014 Chapter #33

  1. When a stock has a considerably greater diameter than that of a scion, cleft grafting is the most commonly employed grafting method.


Stern 014 Chapter #34

  1. Approach grafting is used when two related plants tend not to form grafts very well by other means.


Stern 014 Chapter #35

  1. Budding is a form of grafting widely used commercially.


Stern 014 Chapter #36

  1. Artificial seeds are a dream of the future.


Stern 014 Chapter #37


  1. Polyploidy is when flowering plants have more than two sets of chromosomes.


Stern 014 Chapter #38

  1. Protoplast fusion can only take place after the cell walls have been digested.


Stern 014 Chapter #39

  1. Grafting techniques are of relatively recent origin, being first practiced in the 1800s.


Stern 014 Chapter #40

  1. Six plant species provide 80% of the calories consumed by humans worldwide.



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