Stern Introductory Plant Biology 12Th ed By Bidlack Test Bank
Sterns Introductory Plant Biology 12Th ed By Bidlack
The Nature of Life?
Multiple Choice Questions
Which of the following is NOT a form of metabolism?
B. photosynthesis C. diffusion
Which of the following metabolic activities of plants produces sugars? A. photosynthesis
E. None of these answers are correct.
Determination of whether something is a living organism or a nonliving object is based on ___________.
A. a single characteristic such as change in position
B. presence of carbon and hydrogen atoms C. several characteristics such as DNA and other organic materials inside a cell
E. presence of carbon and oxygen atoms
As living individuals grow and reproduce their response to environmental stimuli may include ___.
B. increase in size
C. change in position D. all of these
E. none of these
Which of the following is NOT an attribute of all living organisms?
A. response to stimuli
B. metabolism C. nervous system
Which of the following is NOT an attribute of all living organisms?
A. metabolism B. photosynthesis
D. response to stimuli
E. adaptation to the environment
Reproduction in living organisms results in __________________. A. new individuals of the same species
B. new individuals that are always genetically identical to the parents
C. new individuals that are never genetically identical to the parents
D. overpopulation of the community by that species
E. loss of genetic variability in the population
Response to a stimulus ___________________.
A. requires movement B. may include a cell-level, or chemical change in the individual
C. may occur without any chemical or physical change by the individual
D. is not characteristic of rooted plants.
E. always changes the genetic information
The basic stuff of the universe or matter has which of the following characteristics?
A. occupies space
B. has mass
C. is composed of atomic elements
D. a and b only E. all of the above
At present the number of elements naturally occurring on earth is __________.
A. less than 90 B. 93
E. more than 105
The number of protons and electrons in a neutral atom is
A.quite variable. B. the same.
D. always unequal.
Stern 002 Chapter #3
The atomic number of an element is based on
A.the number of electrons associated with a single atom.
B. the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
C. the number of isotopes associated with it. D. the number of protons present in a single atom.
E. its atomic mass.
Stern 002 Chapter #15
The volume of space in which a given electron occurs 90% of the time is called A.an orbital.
B. a nucleus.
C. an atom.
D. a molecule.
E. a bond.
Stern 002 Chapter #16
The element with the lowest atomic number and/or mass is
A.oxygen. B. hydrogen.
Stern 002 Chapter #17
Electrons are essentially
A.positive electric charges. B. negative electric charges.
C. unstable isotopes.
D. uncharged particles.
E. atomic particles that are bonded together.
Stern 002 Chapter #18
Which of the following carries a single positive charge? A.proton
Stern 002 Chapter #27
The mass of the protons and neutrons added is the
B. atomic number. C. atomic weight.
D. atomic charge.
E. atomic coefficient.
Stern 002 Chapter #28
What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the innermost electron orbital? A.2
Stern 002 Chapter #29
Unfilled positions within an electron orbital tend to make the atom
C. less reactive. D. more reactive.
Stern 002 Chapter #30
A substance consisting of two or more elements united in a definite ratio by chemical bonds is called a
B. mixture. C. compound.
Stern 002 Chapter #4
The bonds that hold atoms together do so through the sharing or transfer of
A.atomic nuclei. B. electrons.
Stern 002 Chapter #10
Which type of chemical bond involves the transfer of electrons? A.ionic
D. both [ionic and covalent] are correct
E. both [ionic and hydrogen] are correct
Stern 002 Chapter #31
Which element is capable of forming triple covalent bonds?
C. oxygen D. nitrogen
Stern 002 Chapter #32
Carbon has an atomic number of 6. How many electrons does carbon have in its first and second electron orbitals, respectively? A.2, 4
B. 4, 2
C. 1, 5
D. 3, 3
E. 0, 6
Stern 002 Chapter #33
If there is an asymmetric charge distribution on a molecule creating a positively charged sector and a negatively charged sector, the type of molecule resulting would be _____________.
B. charged. C. polar.
A solution that is slightly alkaline would have a pH in the range of
A.8.5. B. 7.5.
Stern 002 Chapter #2
An acid is a compound that
A.releases hydroxyl ions when dissolved in water.
B. forms water when mixed with a salt. C. releases positively charged hydrogen ions when dissolved in water.
D. converts starch to glucose.
E. converts proteins to carbohydrates.
Stern 002 Chapter #6
When an acid and a base are mixed together, which of the following is produced? A. a salt
B. a mixture
C. an isotope
D. a lipid
E. a carbohydrate
Which of the following pH values is considered neutral (i.e., neither acidic nor basic)?
D. 8.0 E. none of the choices are correct
Laws pertaining to energy are called laws of ___________________.
C. atomic fusion D. thermodynamics
Covalent bonds between molecules inside living cells are often formed or broken through the addition or loss of ___________.
A. carbon dioxide
B. oxygen C. water
D. chlorine and sodium
Classes of proteins called ___________________ function as organic catalysts for chemical reactions in cells.
A. peptides B. enzymes
C. thermal agents
________________ polymers serve as the genetic memory in living cells.
A. Carbohydrate B. Nucleic acids
E. Two or more of these
Structural and functional molecules making up a cell have a skeleton of ___________________. A. carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
B. nitrogen and oxygen
C. silicon and oxygen
D. carbon and oxygen
E. calcium phosphate
Which of the following is NOT a major component of protoplasm?
D. nitrogen E. sulfur
Sugar and starch molecules contain which of the following elements?
D. phosphorus E. both [carbon and hydrogen]
Stern 002 Chapter #5
The basic units or subunits of which a protein is composed are _____________.
A. fatty acids
C. monosaccharides D. amino acids
E. nucleic acids
Compounds that consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of CH2O are ___________.
C. nucleic acids
D. enzymes E. carbohydrates
Each nucleotide of a DNA molecule consists of a nitrogenous base plus _____________. A. a 5-carbon sugar and a phosphate group
B. an RNA molecule
C. a sulfur salt
D. a form of starch and a potassium ion
E. a lipid and a carbohydrate
The number of naturally occurring amino acids is ________________. A. 20
C. less than 10
What type of chemical bond joins amino acids together?
C. ionic D. peptide
E. both [glycosidic and peptide] are correct
The linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain is called the ____________. A. primary structure
B. secondary structure
C. tertiary structure
D. quaternary structure
E. beta structure
A disulfide linkage or bond would be instrumental in maintaining the _____ structure of a protein.
B. secondary C. tertiary
A fatty acid which has all possible hydrogen atoms bonding to each carbon atom would be ______. A. saturated
True / False Questions
Callose is produced on the bark of a plant that has been damaged. FALSE
An isotope has neutrons differing in number from that of a typical element. TRUE
A base is a compound that releases hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. FALSE
Hydrolysis of starch involves the addition of water molecules to the starch molecule. TRUE
If a lipid has its fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule, it is called a wax. FALSE
An ion is neither positively nor negatively charged. FALSE
Protein molecules differ from those of carbohydrates and lipids in having nitrogen present. TRUE
Pyrimidines and purines are two types of amino acids. FALSE
Peptide bonds link the building blocks of carbohydrates together. FALSE
Stern 002 Chapter #48
Nucleotides and amino acids are both building blocks of larger molecules. TRUE
Stern 002 Chapter #49
Assimilation is the conversion of raw materials into protoplasm and other cell substances. TRUE
Stern 002 Chapter #50
Potential energy can be converted to kinetic energy. TRUE
Stern 002 Chapter #51
The combining capacity of an atom or ion is referred to as its valence. TRUE
Stern 002 Chapter #52
If hydrogen atoms are attached to every available attachment point of fatty acid carbon atoms in a fat, the fat is said to be unsaturated. FALSE
Stern 002 Chapter #53
All hormones and enzymes are lipids. FALSE
Stern 002 Chapter #54
Most proteins are synthesized in the nucleus. FALSE
Stern 002 Chapter #55
The nucleotides of DNA molecules are linked in ladderlike fashion between the two strands. TRUE
Stern 002 Chapter #56
Plant Breeding and Propagation
Multiple Choice Questions
______ is the only major crop that was domesticated in the present US.
C. Squash D. Sunflower
Stern 014 Chapter #12
The first domesticated crop plants were: A.cereal grains
Stern 014 Chapter #13
People began to domesticate plants in the Near East approximately ______ years ago.
A.5,000 B. 10,000
Stern 014 Chapter #14
One of the first changes in domesticated plants was probably __________________.
A. increased requirement for fertilizer
B. geographic distriubution C. loss of seed dispersal by wind, water, or animals
D. flower color
E. decrease in size, number of seeds or fruits, and nutritional quality
When people domesticate plants, we ___________________.
A. harvest them from wild populations
B. plant them in greenhouses
C. tame them D. alter them genetically to meet our needs
E. claim the land where populations are found and let them continue to grow there
Plant breeding is ___________________. A. accelerated evolution guided by humans who are practicing artificial selection
B. picking out the best products of natural selection
C. intended to increase genetic diversity of plants in populations
D. a field that just started with the development of molecular genetics
E. None of the above
The primary goals of plant-breeding programs are _____________________.
A. improved yield
B. disease resistance
C. pest resistance
D. stress tolerance E. all of the above
A gene pool consists of
A.a liquid suspension of plasmids.
B. DNA fragments that have been broken by restriction enzymes.
C. an aquatic environment inhabited by large numbers of mutant organisms. D. all the genes of all the individuals in a population.
E. genetically engineered organisms.
Stern 014 Chapter #3
Development of homozygous purebred strains is brought about by
A.cross-pollinating individuals of the same species or variety.
B. artificially inducing the doubling of chromosome numbers. C. repeated inbreeding.
D. crossing heterozygous varieties with one another.
E. All of these answers are correct.
Stern 014 Chapter #4
The man known as the father of the green revolution was
B. Johnny Appleseed.
C. Gustav Johansen.
D. Luther Burbank. E. Norman Borlaug.
Stern 014 Chapter #5
Genetic diversity in the parent populations of cultivated plant species is critically important to plant breeders because _____________.
A. crop seeds should be variable B. it is the source of disease and pest resistance that can be bred into new crop varieties
C. modern agriculture relies on low diversity in crop varieties
D. they are searching for new crop species to develop
E. they have been domesticating approximately one new crop species per year since 1900
Gene banks are locations where _____________________.
A. national agencies maintain stocks of the most common plants grown in that country
B. plant breeders can deposit the germplasm of their new hybrids and crop varieties
C. plant breeders can borrow germplasm D. samples of wild relatives and local populations (land races) of domesticated plants can be studied and stored for future incorporation into new breeds of crops
E. patented seeds can be stored
Many crops, such as wheat, rice and beans, are ___________________ and do not require a pollinating agent such as wind or animals.
C. open pollinated
D. not dependent on fertilization to produce fruits and seeds E. self-pollinating
Most modern crops are grown from ____________ seeds, which are produced by cross-breeding inbred lines. A. hybrid
B. open pollinated
The process of gene splicing begins with
A.the breaking of linkages between adjacent nucleotides of plasmids.
B. unpairing nucleotides in linear strands.
C. linking DNA fragments with repair enzymes.
D. insertion of recombinant plasmids into bacterial cells. E. isolation of pure bacterial DNA.
Stern 014 Chapter #1
Methods to insert desirable genes into a target cell in the production of a transgenic plant includes the use a crown gall bacterium or ______________.
B. producing a somatic hybrid cell C. using a particle gun that fires very small DNA-covered gold pellets into the target cell
D. cross pollination
Recombinant plasmids are made by
A.machines called protein sequencers. B. mixing large numbers of DNA segments with fragments of desired DNA.
C. isolating them from other plasmids.
D. joining two different plasmids with repair enzymes.
E. producing mutant bacteria with X-radiation.
Stern 014 Chapter #2
Circular extrachromosomal pieces of DNA in bacteria are called
A.prions. B. plasmids.
E. both [prions and capsids] are correct
Stern 014 Chapter #10
Somatic hybrids can be formed from:
A.egg and sperm nuclei
B. egg and polar nuclei C. 2 parenchyma cells from different plants
D. 2 parenchyma cells from the same plant
E. none of these answers are correct
Stern 014 Chapter #15
_____________ are plants with specific genes from other organisms (from viruses to humans) inserted into the genome.
A. Hybrid plants
B. Polyploid plants
C. Somatic hybrid plants D. Transgenic plants
E. Heirloom plants
Two common types of transgenic plants widely grown in North America have genes for _________ and/or _____________ incorporated in their genome.
A. frost resistance; potato blight resistance
B. insect resistance; wheat rust resistance C. herbicide resistance; insect resistance
D. antifreeze genes; seedless fruit production
E. No transgenic plants are grown in North America.
In grafting, the rooted part is known as the
B. interstock. C. stock.
Stern 014 Chapter #8
The type of grafting best suited for saving a tree that has been girdled is ________________________. (Appendix 4)
A. whip grafting.
B. splice grafting.
C. cleft grafting. D. bridge grafting.
E. bud grafting.
Stern 014 Chapter #9
Methods for improving existing varieties of crop plants do NOT include __________.
A. use of mutant forms
C. use of polyploids D. pruning
E. tissue culture
Tissue culture is used _______________.
A. to rapidly increase the number of orchids for commercial sale
B. to culture protoplasts and propagate somatic hybrids
C. to grow plants from transgenic experiments
D. to propagate desirable somatic mutants such as naval oranges or seedless grapes E. all of the above
True / False Questions
A plasmid is a small circular DNA fragment. TRUE
Stern 014 Chapter #17
Genetic engineering involves the construction of new apical meristems. FALSE
Stern 014 Chapter #18
Restriction enzymes squeeze DNA strands into narrow strips. FALSE
Stern 014 Chapter #19
Repair enzymes link DNA fragments together. TRUE
Stern 014 Chapter #20
Viruses may play a major role in future genetic manipulation of higher plants. TRUE
Stern 014 Chapter #21
Ice-minus bacteria are being widely used in Alaska to prevent crops from freezing when the temperature drops down as low as minus 20C. FALSE
Stern 014 Chapter #22
Before genetic engineering was developed, the improvement of crops involved hybridization, polyploidy, and mutation. TRUE
High-yielding crops produced during the green revolution require less water and fertilizer than previously produced crops. FALSE
Stern 014 Chapter #25
Mutations can be induced by chemicals. TRUE
Stern 014 Chapter #26
Autoclaves are used to produce autoploids. FALSE
Stern 014 Chapter #27
Mericloning significantly reduces the length of time it takes for orchid plants to flower. TRUE
Stern 014 Chapter #28
A plant resulting from the fusion of two different protoplasts is called a somatic hybrid. TRUE
Stern 014 Chapter #29
It is of no particular importance which end of a cutting is inserted in the ground. FALSE
Stern 014 Chapter #30
Cuttings can be made from stems, roots, or leaves. TRUE
Stern 014 Chapter #31
Tip-layering and air-layering are nearly identical techniques. FALSE
Stern 014 Chapter #32
It is essential in grafting to have the bark of the stock and scion in close contact with one another. FALSE
Stern 014 Chapter #33
When a stock has a considerably greater diameter than that of a scion, cleft grafting is the most commonly employed grafting method. TRUE
Stern 014 Chapter #34
Approach grafting is used when two related plants tend not to form grafts very well by other means. TRUE
Stern 014 Chapter #35
Budding is a form of grafting widely used commercially. TRUE
Stern 014 Chapter #36
Artificial seeds are a dream of the future. FALSE
Stern 014 Chapter #37
Polyploidy is when flowering plants have more than two sets of chromosomes. TRUE
Stern 014 Chapter #38
Protoplast fusion can only take place after the cell walls have been digested. TRUE
Stern 014 Chapter #39
Grafting techniques are of relatively recent origin, being first practiced in the 1800s. FALSE
Stern 014 Chapter #40
Six plant species provide 80% of the calories consumed by humans worldwide. TRUE
Multiple Choice Questions
Terrestrial biotic communities as they occur on a continental or global scale are referred to as __________.
C. ecoregions D. biomes
E. species groups
Biomes are characterized by _______________ adapted to the climate of the region, which includes temperature, rainfall, elevation, seasonality, etc A. communities of plants and animals
C. abiotic elements
D. human dwellings
E. All of the above
When high winds tear away matted vegetation of tundra, the resulting barren patch is called a ______________.
B. permafrost oasis C. blowout
D. arctic scar
E. vernal pool
The most fragile of the biomes is the A.tundra.
C. temperate deciduous forest.
E. mountain forest.
Stern 026 Chapter #3
Permafrost, shallow root systems, subzero temperatures and long winters are characteristic of the:
C. chaparral. D. tundra.
Stern 026 Chapter #23
Vegetation of the tundra is dominated by _____________________.
A. gymnosperms such as spruce, fir and pine B. short shrubs, grasses and herbaceous perennial wildflowers
C. xerophytes adapted to areas with low precipitation
D. broad-leaved deciduous trees
E. aquatic plants
Conifers are evergreen trees and shrubs except for three deciduous conifers, including which of the following?
B. ponderosa pine
C. arborvitae D. larch
E. white spruce
Stern 026 Chapter #21
Another name for the snow forests of the northern coniferous forests is the ___________.
A. tundra B. taiga
C. evergreen forest
D. polar forest
E. mountain forest
In the continental United States, high mountain peaks support ___________.
A. temperate deciduous forest
C. desert vegetation
D. wetland vegetation E. alpine tundra and coniferous forest vegetation
Despite receiving up to several feet of snow each winter, conifers in the northern boreal forest are adapted to ___________________.
A. hot dry conditions
B. moist soils C. reduced water availability
D. long, mild growing seasons
E. temperate conditions of moisture and seasonality
Which of the following biomes is characterized by the predominance of broad-leaved trees that are adapted to subfreezing temperatures as long as the cold is accompanied by precipitation or snow cover?
D. grasslands E. temperate deciduous forest
Stern 026 Chapter #5
Average precipitation of 75-225 cm/year is scattered throughout the year with warm summers and cool to cold winter. The forest leaf canopy is not intact year round. Identify this biome.
A.grasslands B. temperate deciduous forest
C. coniferous forest
E. both [temperate deciduous forest and coniferous forest] are correct
Stern 026 Chapter #16
A low-growing, understory vegetation dominates in the early spring and again in the fall because of the available light resulting from leaf drop. This is a characteristic of the:
A.tropical rain forest. B. temperate deciduous forest.
Stern 026 Chapter #19
Hardwood trees such as oak, maple, walnut, and cherry are vegetational types of:
A.tropical rain forests. B. temperate deciduous forests.
C. coniferous forests.
Stern 026 Chapter #30
Eastern North America, south of the northern boreal forest, is dominated by temperate deciduous forests. Within this biome, gradations of annual low and high temperatures and precipitation result in species assemblages such as __________________. A. maple-basswood and oak-hickory forest
B. big bluestem and other grasses
C. spruce, fir and pine
D. cactus and chaparral vegetation
E. broad-leaved evergreen angiosperms
Naturally occurring grasslands are usually found toward the interiors of continental masses. They tend to intergrade with ____________ in areas where annual precipitation drops below 25 cm (10 inches) annually.
A. broad-leaved deciduous forests
B. northern boreal forests C. deserts
D. coastal habitats
E. alpine tundra
The native prairies of North America are part of this biome.
A.temperate deciduous forest
B. tundra C. grasslands
Stern 026 Chapter #15
Many of the grasslands of the world have been converted to ______________.
A. urban housing
B. commercial pine production
C. hardwood production D. cropland and agriculture
Savannas are primarily grasslands with: A.scattered deciduous trees.
B. scattered evergreen trees.
C. alternating hot and cold seasons.
D. no tree species.
E. numerous tree species.
Stern 026 Chapter #10
The giant saguaro cactus is found in which North American biome? A. desert
B. coastal region
D. temperate deciduous forest
Stern 026 Chapter #11
Succulents and low-growing, small-leaved shrubs are inhabitants of this biome. A.deserts
C. deciduous forest
D. coniferous forest
Stern 026 Chapter #12
A characteristic vegetational type found in the desert biome is: A.succulents
B. chaparral shrubs
C. deciduous trees
Stern 026 Chapter #18
Thick waxy cuticle layers and dense hairs on leaves are morphological adaptations to:
A.heavy rainfall and humid environments B. dry environments
C. temperate environments
D. fresh water environments
E. wet environments
Stern 026 Chapter #24
Which of the following biomes has a significant number of plants that have adapted to their environment through the evolution of CAM photosynthesis?
A.tundra B. desert
C. tropical rain forest
D. temperate deciduous forest
Stern 026 Chapter #4
______________ forests are found along the Pacific Coast and along the Rocky Mountain and California mountain ranges. A. Coastal and mountain
B. Tropical rain forest
C. Eastern deciduous forest
Coastal and mountain forests are characterized by plant associations determined primarily by ___________________.
A. short growing seasons
B. no winter season
C. long dry growing seasons with hot temperatures
D. high annual rainfall E. altitude and seasonal precipitation patterns
The biome with the greatest diversity of flora and fauna is the
A.mountain forest. B. tropical rain forest.
C. eastern deciduous forest.
Stern 026 Chapter #2
This biome is characterized by having 200-500 cm of precipitation per year and vegetation dominated by tall, broad leaved evergreen trees.
B. temperate deciduous forests
C. savannas D. tropical rain forests
Stern 026 Chapter #7
The tropical rain forest is the oldest vegetation biome because:
A.their equatorial position has not been effected by the depletion of the ozone layer.
B. of the constant rainfall. C. their equatorial position has shielded them from the effects of past glaciations.
D. the temperatures do not fluctuate.
E. both [their equatorial position has not been effected by the depletion of the ozone layer and of the constant rainfall] are correct
Stern 026 Chapter #8
Bromeliads and orchids are examples of:
B. parasitic flowering plants.
C. shrubs. D. epiphytes.
Stern 026 Chapter #9
Tropical rain forests are characterized by high annual rainfall and _____________. A. nutrient poor soils
B. nutrient rich soils
C. extreme temperature changes
D. seasonal changes in day length
E. high altitude
Swamps, bogs, marshes, and moors are all types of:
B. ecosystems. C. wetlands.
D. eutrophic lakes.
E. both [hydrosystems and eutrophic lakes] are correct
Stern 026 Chapter #29
True / False Questions
No flowering plants occur in the true tundra. FALSE
Stern 026 Chapter #31
Desert animals tend to forage at night. TRUE
Stern 026 Chapter #32
Broadleaf deciduous trees are characteristic of the taiga. FALSE
The greatest diversity of species, both flora and fauna, is found in the tropical rain forest. TRUE
Climax vegetation always consists of some type of trees. FALSE
Douglas firs repeatedly replace themselves after fires. TRUE
Due to permafrost in tundra areas soils are wet and marshy even though the region received limited precipitation. TRUE