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Multiple Choice Questions
1. When three or more leaves occur at a node, the leaf arrangement is said to be
Stern 006 Chapter #11
2. Axillary buds are found in
B. along internodes.
C. at tips of stems.
D. on terminal buds.
E. on roots.
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3. A twigs age can be determined by
A. counting the number of leaves or leaf scars on it.
B. counting the number of groups of bud scale scars on it.
C. measuring the distances between nodes.
D. counting nodes.
E. examining its pith.
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4. Which can be used to determine the age of a woody twig?
A. leaf scars
B. vascular bundle scars
D. terminal bud scale scars
E. birth certificate
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5. Paired appendages associated with leaf petioles are ___________________.
A. bundle scars
E. leaf scars
6. Leaves and buds are attached to the stem at the
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7. The leaf arrangement of a stem with one leaf at each node is called ____________.
8. Most leaves are attached to the stem by the __________.
A. adventitious buds
E. bud scales
9. An annual ring
A. consists primarily of cells produced by an apical meristem.
B. consists of one years growth of xylem and phloem.
C. consists of one years growth of xylem.
D. includes cortex and pith tissue.
E. conducts food.
Stern 006 Chapter #1
10. In a mature, woody dicot stem, the tissue between the xylem and the phloem is the __________.
A. vascular cambium
C. apical meristem
D. cork cambium
11. Which of the following gives rise to primary tissues?
C. cork cambium
D. vascular cambium
E. phloem rays
Stern 006 Chapter #6
12. The procambium produces
A. secondary xylem and phloem.
E. primary xylem and phloem.
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13. The _______________ is a primary meristem that produces parenchyma cells of the cortex.
B. ground meristem
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14. Primary meristems are produced by cell division in the _____________.
A. shoot apical meristem
B. leaf primordia
C. vascular cambium
D. cork cambium
E. ray initials
15. Which of the following describe leaf gaps and bud gaps?
A. gaps in the cylinders of xylem and phloem where traces branch off from them
B. air spaces in leaves
C. spaces on internodes between leaves
D. spaces between bud scales
E. None of these answers are correct.
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16. Cells produced by the vascular cambium do NOT include
B. vessel elements.
D. sieve-tube elements.
E. companion cells.
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17. Increase in girth of a tree is due to the activity of
B. ground meristem.
D. vascular cambium.
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18. As woody stems age, lenticels develop directly beneath
A. outer xylem.
C. axillary buds.
D. terminal buds.
E. outer phloem.
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19. An increment borer is
A. a beetle that consumes wood in several small stages.
B. an instrument used for determining the age of a tree.
C. a device for calculating the number of leaves on a tree.
D. a small wood drill.
E. an electronic instrument used for determining if the wood of a tree is healthy.
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20. This tissue is responsible for the production of cork cells.
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21. Retardation of water loss by cork cells is provided by
A. suberin and waxes.
C. compressed tissue layers.
E. both [compressed tissue layers and stomates] are correct
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22. Which of the following statements pertaining to monocots is true?
A. They have no vascular cambium.
B. Their vascular bundles are arranged in a ring.
C. Most of them are woody.
D. They have a definite cortex and pith.
E. Their stems generally have conspicuous cork.
Stern 006 Chapter #2
23. Which of the following function primarily in the lateral conduction of food in a stem?
A. resin canals
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24. The tyloses that prevent conduction of any kind in wood are most frequently found in
B. sieve-tube elements.
C. resin canals.
D. cork cells.
E. xylem cells.
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25. In woody dicots, which of the following may eventually be crushed as growth occurs?
A. secondary xylem
C. cork cambium
E. vascular cambium
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26. Which of the following would NOT be part of a stele?
B. primary xylem
C. primary phloem
E. All of these answers are correct.
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27. Siphonosteles occur in most
A. club mosses.
B. coniferous plants.
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28. Discrete patches of xylem and phloem found in herbaceous dicot stems are called
C. vascular bundles.
D. annual rings.
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29. A discrete region of xylem and phloem in a dicot stem is called a
A. vascular cambium.
B. vascular sheath.
C. vascular bundle.
D. vascular cortex.
E. vascular node.
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30. Older, nonfunctioning xylem is called
B. summer wood.
D. winter wood.
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31. Which function does the stem have in common with the root?
A. synthesis of starch
E. both [photosynthesis and conduction] are correct
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32. The stems of all flowering plants and conifers have _________________.
C. woody stems
E. stems with pith
Stern 006 Chapter #3
33. In a young stem epidermal tissue, produced by the __________, is replaced by cork tissue, produced by the __________ in woody stems.
A. protoderm; cork cambium
B. ground meristem; apical meristem
C. protoderm; vascular cambium
D. procambium; vascular cambium
E. cork cambium; protoderm
34. Horizontal stems that produce roots and shoots are
Stern 006 Chapter #39
35. The eyes of the Irish potato are actually
A. axillary buds.
B. fibrous roots.
D. adventitious roots.
E. flower buds.
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36. Cone-shaped stems surrounded by many scalelike leaves that are modified for food storage are
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37. Which of the following specialized stems have relatively long internodes?
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38. Which is a product of a woody stem?
C. bottle corks
D. paper pulp
E. All of these answers are correct
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39. Which of the following have no nodes or internodes?
E. none of these answers are correct.
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40. You can determine whether an unknown plant structure that you dig up is a stem or root by ______________.
A. determining whether it is divided into nodes and internodes
B. checking for the presence of a root cap
C. checking for the presence of woody tissue and bark
D. determining if the structure has protoderm, ground meristem, and procambium
E. checking to see if it produces lateral roots with root hairs
41. Specialized stems may function as _____________.
A. photosynthetic organs
B. for food storage
C. for water storage
D. for protection
E. All of these are functions of certain specialized stems.
42. A very thin sheet of desirable wood that is carefully cut so as to produce the best possible view of the grain and then glued to cheaper lumber is called
C. quartersawed wood.
E. piling wood.
Stern 006 Chapter #9
43. A woods capacity to withstand decay organisms is referred to as its
B. specific gravity.
D. seasoning capacity.
E. charcoal capacity.
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44. Wood cells are composed primarily of cellulose and
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45. The bases of lost branches that have become covered over with new annual rings of wood are called
C. seasoned wood.
E. lignum vitae.
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46. The pattern of growth in a woody stem that allows someone to determine the age of the stem results from
a. growth of the apical meristem
b. growth of the cork cambium
C. production of spring and summer wood by vascular cambium
d. development of knots
e. all of these answers are correct
Stern 006 Chapter #8
47. When comparing woody stems to herbaceous stems, woody stems typically ______________.
A. have no vascular cambium
B. produce new growth each season
C. normally live only one season
D. are usually green and soft
E. both [produce new growth each season and are usually green and soft] are correct
48. Rays consist primarily of
A. dead cells.
B. long-lived parenchyma.
D. vessel elements.
E. sieve tubes.
Stern 006 Chapter #26
True / False Questions
49. The cortex and the pith consist primarily of parenchyma cells.
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50. Most stem tips have caps over them that protect them while they are growing.
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51. Lenticels and stomata function in gas exchange.
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52. An increment borer is a common pest of woody stems.
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53. Phloem rays appear to be continuous with xylem rays.
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54. The difference between the inner bark and the outer bark is that the outer bark is aged inner bark tissue.
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55. Nearly all plants produce laticifers.
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56. Lignin, which is found in the walls of xylem cells, makes the cells tough and hard.
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57. Quartersawed boards are those that have been cut along rays, or parallel to the rays.
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58. A cladophyll is a stem with thick bark.
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59. Knots are branch bases that have become covered over by new wood.
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60. Corms and bulbs differ in that corms have fleshy leaves whereas bulbs do not.
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61. Specialized stems that aid grape vines and Boston ivy in climbing are called stipules.
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62. Adventitious roots may be produced on rhizomes.
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63. Monocot plants frequently develop woody stems.
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