Structure & Function of the Body 13th Edition by Thibodeau & Patton Test Bank

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Structure & Function of the Body 13th Edition by Thibodeau & Patton Test Bank

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Thibodeau and Patton: Structure & Function of the Body, 13th Edition

Test Bank

Chapter 8: The Nervous System

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The two principal divisions that make up the nervous system are the:
a. central and sympathetic
b. sympathetic and parasympathetic
c. peripheral and central
d. peripheral and autonomic

ANS: C DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 186
TOP: Organs and divisions of the nervous system

2. The two types of cells found in the nervous system are:
a. motor neurons and sensory neurons
b. neurons and glia cells
c. glia cells and astrocytes
d. none of the above

ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Cells of the nervous system

3. The part of the neuron that carries impulses to the neuron cell body is the:
a. dendrite
b. axon
c. neurolemma
d. node of Ranvier

ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Cells of the nervous system

4. The part of the neuron that carries impulses away from the neuron cell body is the:
a. dendrite
b. axon
c. neurolemma
d. node of Ranvier

ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Cells of the nervous system

5. The types of neurons that carry impulses to the brain and spinal cord are called:
a. motor neurons
b. sensory neurons

c. efferent neurons
d. both B and C above

ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Cells of the nervous system

6. The types of neurons that carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord are called:
a. motor neurons
b. sensory neurons
c. efferent neurons
d. both A and C above

ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Cells of the nervous system

7. Interneurons connect:
a. efferent neurons to motor neurons
b. afferent neurons to sensory neurons
c. central neurons to afferent neurons
d. none of the above

ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Cells of the nervous system

8. Cells that produce myelin for the cells of the brain and spinal cord are the:
a. Schwann cells
b. microglia
c. astrocytes
d. oligodendrocytes

ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 189
TOP: Cells of the nervous system

9. Cells that are important in the blood brain barrier are the:
a. Schwann cells
b. microglia
c. astrocytes
d. oligodendrocytes

ANS: C DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187 & 189
TOP: Cells of the nervous system

10. Cells that produce myelin for cells outside the brain and spinal cord are the:
a. Schwann cells
b. microglia
c. astrocytes
d. oligodendrocytes

ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 189
TOP: Cells of the nervous system

11. Glia cells that act as microbe-eating cells are the:
a. Schwann cells
b. microglia
c. astrocytes
d. oligodendrocytes

ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 189
TOP: Cells of the nervous system

12. The tough fibrous sheath covering the whole nerve is called the:
a. perineurium
b. fascicles
c. epineurium
d. none of the above

ANS: C DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 190
TOP: Nerves and tracts

13. Reflexes can be:
a. a single neuron
b. two neurons
c. three neurons
d. both B and C above

ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 191
TOP: Reflex arcs

14. A synapse is:
a. a gap between neurons
b. crossed by a chemical
c. separates the axon end of one neuron from the dendrite of the next
d. all of the above

ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 192
TOP: Reflex arcs

15. The difference between a three- and a two-neuron reflex is that a three-neuron reflex:
a. passes through the dorsal root ganglion
b. includes an efferent neuron
c. includes an interneuron
d. includes an afferent neuron

ANS: C DIF: Application REF: Page: 191 TOP: Reflex arcs

16. The resting neuron:
a. has a slight negative charge on the exterior
b. has a slight positive charge on the exterior
c. has an excess of sodium inside the cell
d. both A and C above

ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 193
TOP: Nerve impulses

17. When a section of the resting neuron is stimulated:
a. sodium ions rush into the cell
b. sodium ions rush out of the cell
c. the interior of the cell becomes slightly positive
d. both A and C above

ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 193
TOP: Nerve impulses

18. When the nerve impulse encounters a myelin-covered section of neuron:
a. it moves slower than it would in nonmyelinated sections
b. it stops
c. it jumps over the myelin
d. none of the above

ANS: C DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 193
TOP: Nerve impulses

19. A synapse includes:
a. a very narrow synaptic cleft
b. a presynaptic neuron with neurotransmitter receptor sites on its membrane
c. a postsynaptic neuron that releases the neurotransmitter
d. all of the above

ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 193
TOP: The synapse

20. Neurotransmitters:
a. are released by the postsynaptic neuron
b. are distributed randomly throughout the nervous system
c. can diffuse back into the synaptic knob
d. all of the above

ANS: C DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 195
TOP: The synapse

21. The brainstem includes the:
a. medulla oblongata, pons, and thalamus
b. medulla oblongata, midbrain, and hypothalamus
c. pons, midbrain, and medulla oblongata
d. medulla oblongata, pons, and cerebellum

ANS: C DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 196
TOP: Divisions of the brain

22. The vital centers (the cardiac, respiratory, and vasomotor centers) are located in the:
a. pons
b. midbrain
c. thalamus
d. medulla oblongata

ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 197
TOP: Brainstem

23. The association of sensation with emotion occurs in the:
a. hypothalamus
b. thalamus
c. medulla oblongata
d. cerebellum

ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199
TOP: Diencephalon

24. The regulation of the sleep cycle, water balance, and the production of ADH occurs in the:
a. hypothalamus
b. thalamus
c. medulla oblongata
d. cerebellum

ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 197-199
TOP: Diencephalon

25. The coordination of muscle movement and the maintenance of equilibrium occur in the:
a. hypothalamus
b. thalamus
c. medulla oblongata
d. cerebellum

ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199
TOP: Cerebellum

26. Which of the following neurotransmitter is a catecholamine?
a. acetylcholine
b. enkephalin
c. endorphin
d. dopamine

ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 196
TOP: The synapse

27. The right and left sides of the cerebrum are connected by the:
a. corpus callosum
b. sulcus
c. gyrus
d. basal ganglia

ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199
TOP: Cerebrum

28. A CVA occurring in the occipital lobe of the cerebrum would affect:
a. the ability to speak
b. motor coordination
c. vision
d. memory

ANS: C DIF: Application REF: Page: 201 TOP: Cerebrum

29. The ridges in the cerebrum are called:
a. sulci
b. gyri
c. corpus callosum
d. cerebral nuclei

ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199
TOP: Cerebrum

30. The functions of the spinal cord include:
a. the primary reflex center
b. carrying motor impulses to the brain
c. carrying sensory impulses away from the brain
d. all of the above

ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 204 & 205
TOP: Spinal cordFunctions

31. The tough outer layer of meninges is called the:
a. pia mater
b. arachnoid mater
c. dura mater
d. ventricles

ANS: C DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 205
TOP: Coverings and fluid spaces of the brain and spinal cord

32. The autonomic nervous system consists of neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to:
a. cardiac muscle
b. smooth muscle
c. glandular tissue
d. all of the above

ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 210
TOP: Autonomic nervous system

33. Which axon releases norepinephrine?
a. a sympathetic preganglionic axon
b. a sympathetic post-ganglionic axon
c. a parasympathetic preganglionic axon
d. a parasympathetic postganglionic axon

ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 215 & 216
TOP: Autonomic neurotransmitters

34. The parasympathetic nervous system:
a. is also called the thoracolumbar system
b. is responsible for the fight or flight response
c. releases acetylcholine from its postganglionic axons
d. has neurons that enter the sympathetic chain ganglion

ANS: C DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 215
TOP: Parasympathetic nervous system

35. The sympathetic nervous system:
a. is called the thoracolumbar system
b. releases norepinephrine from its preganglionic axon
c. is called the craniosacral system
d. both A and B above

ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 213
TOP: Sympathetic nervous system

36. The axon of an afferent neuron could synapse with:
a. a sense organ
b. a muscle cell
c. an interneuron
d. a gland

ANS: C DIF: Application REF: Page: 187 TOP: Neurons

37. An axon of an efferent neuron could synapse with:
a. an interneuron
b. a sense organ
c. a muscle cell
d. either B or C above

ANS: C DIF: Application REF: Page: 187 TOP: Neurons

38. An efferent neuron carries impulses in the direction opposite that of:
a. a motor neuron
b. a sensory neuron
c. an afferent neuron
d. both B and C above

ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Neurons

39. Going from the interior to the exterior of a nerve, the layers of connective tissue would be:
a. perineurium, epineurium, fascicle
b. endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium
c. epineurium, perineurium, fascicle
d. epineurium, perineurium, endoneurium

ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 190
TOP: Nerves and tracts

40. Which of the following is a morphine-like neurotransmitter that acts as a natural pain killer?
a. endorphin
b. acetylcholine
c. dopamine
d. epinephrine

ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 196
TOP: The synapse

41. Which structure is part of the diencephalon?
a. midbrain
b. hypothalamus
c. medulla oblongata
d. all of the above are part of the diencephalon

ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 197
TOP: Diencephalon

42. Which of the following is a function of the thalamus?
a. helps maintain body temperature
b. associates sensation with emotion
c. helps regulate water balance
d. all of the above are functions of the thalamus

ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199
TOP: Thalamus

43. The lobe of the brain that deals with vision is the:
a. frontal lobe
b. parietal lobe
c. occipital lobe
d. temporal lobe

ANS: C DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 201
TOP: Cerebrum

44. The lobe of the brain that contains the auditory area is the:
a. frontal lobe
b. parietal lobe
c. occipital lobe
d. temporal lobe

ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 201
TOP: Cerebrum

45. The somatic nervous system controls actions of:
a. skeletal muscles
b. smooth muscles
c. glandular epithelial tissue
d. both B and C above

ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 210
TOP: Autonomic nervous system

46. A group of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system is called a
a. synapse
b. ganglion
c. tract
d. plexus

ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 191
TOP: Reflex arcs

47. Which nervous system makes up part of the autonomic nervous system?
a. parasympathetic nervous system
b. sympathetic nervous system
c. both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems

ANS: C DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 211
TOP: Autonomic nervous system

48. Postganglionic neurons release acetylcholine as part of which nervous system?
a. parasympathetic nervous system
b. sympathetic nervous system
c. both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems

ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 215 & 216
TOP: Autonomic neurotransmitters

49. Which is also called the thoracolumbar nervous system?
a. parasympathetic nervous system
b. sympathetic nervous system
c. both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems

ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 214
TOP: Sympathetic nervous systemStructure

50. In which nervous system does the synapse between the preganglionic and postganglionic neurons usually occur some distance away from the spinal cord?
a. parasympathetic nervous system
b. sympathetic nervous system
c. both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems

ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 213 & 214
TOP: Parasympathetic nervous systemStructure

51. As part of which nervous system do preganglionic neurons synapse with postganglionic neurons going to many different efferent organs?
a. parasympathetic nervous system
b. sympathetic nervous system
c. both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems

ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 213 & 214
TOP: Sympathetic nervous systemStructure

52. As part of which nervous system do preganglionic neurons release acetylcholine?
a. parasympathetic nervous system
b. sympathetic nervous system
c. both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems

ANS: C DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 215 & 216
TOP: Autonomic neurotransmitters

53. Which nervous system dominates the control of effector organs under normal, everyday conditions?
a. parasympathetic nervous system
b. sympathetic nervous system
c. both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems

ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 215
TOP: Functions of the parasympathetic nervous system

54. In which nervous system does the synapse of the preganglionic and postganglionic neurons usually occur close to the spinal cord?
a. parasympathetic nervous system
b. sympathetic nervous system
c. both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems

ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 213 & 214
TOP: Sympathetic nervous systemStructure

55. As part of which nervous system do postganglionic neurons release norepinephrine?
a. parasympathetic nervous system
b. sympathetic nervous system
c. both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems

ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 215 & 216
TOP: Autonomic neurotransmitters

56. Which nervous system is also called the craniosacral nervous system?
a. parasympathetic nervous system
b. sympathetic nervous system
c. both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems

ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 215
TOP: Parasympathetic nervous systemStructure

TRUE/FALSE

57. One of the differences between how the endocrine system and nervous system control body functions is the more rapid communication of the nervous system.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 185
TOP: Introduction

58. There are two types of cells in the nervous system, neurons and glia cells.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Cells of the nervous system

59. An axon transmits impulses toward the cell body.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Neurons

60. Neurons can be classified based on the direction in which they transmit impulses.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Neurons

61. Motor neurons conduct impulses toward the central nervous system.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Neurons

62. Sensory neurons are also called efferent neurons.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Neurons

63. One of the most common types of brain tumors develops from glia cells.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Neurons

64. Astrocytes produce myelin for the cells of the central nervous system.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187 & 189
TOP: Glia

65. Microglia help protect the brain by eating microbes that may enter the brain.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 189
TOP: Glia

66. Oligodendrocytes are important in the formation of the blood brain barrier.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 189
TOP: Glia

67. Schwann cells produce myelin for neurons outside the central nervous system.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 189
TOP: Glia

68. Nodes of Ranvier are indentations between Schwann cells.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Neurons

69. One of the differences between white matter and gray matter is that gray matter has a myelin sheath.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 189
TOP: Nerves and tracts

70. Perineurium surrounds fascicle.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 190
TOP: Nerves and tracts

71. The tough outer fibrous sheath that covers the whole nerve is called the endoneurium.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 190
TOP: Nerves and tracts

72. Two neuron reflexes contain an interneuron and a motor neuron.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 191
TOP: Reflex arcs

73. A ganglion is a group of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 191
TOP: Reflex arcs

74. The difference between a two- and three-neuron reflex is the presence of an interneuron.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 192
TOP: Reflex arcs

75. All interneurons are found in the central nervous system.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 192-193
TOP: Reflex arcs

76. Multiple sclerosis is a disorder caused by injury or death to the oligodendrocytes.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 192
TOP: Clinical applicationMultiple sclerosis

77. Each resting neuron has a slight positive charge on the outside.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 193
TOP: Nerve impulses

78. In the resting neuron, there is an excess of sodium ions on the interior of the cell.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 193
TOP: Nerve impulses

79. When a resting neuron is stimulated, sodium ions rush into the cell, causing the interior to become negatively charged.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 193
TOP: Nerve impulses

80. Saltatory conduction occurs when a nerve impulse jumps over the myelin sheath of an axon.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 193
TOP: Nerve impulses

81. Saltatory conduction tends to be slower then nonsaltatory nerve conduction.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 193
TOP: Nerve impulses

82. The synaptic knob is on the postsynaptic neuron.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 193
TOP: The synapse

83. The synaptic knob contains and releases neurotransmitters.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 193
TOP: The synapse

84. Neurotransmitter receptors are located on the presynaptic neuron.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 193 & 195
TOP: The synapse

85. Neurotransmitter activity is terminated when it is transported back into the synaptic knob.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 195
TOP: The synapse

86. Acetylcholine is an example of a catecholamine.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 195 & 196
TOP: The synapse

87. Dopamine and serotonin are neurotransmitters that can act as natural pain killers.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 196
TOP: The synapse

88. The brainstem consists of the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the midbrain.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 196
TOP: Divisions of the brain

89. Many of the vital centers are located in the brainstem.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 197
TOP: Brainstem

90. The hypothalamus is important in regulation of body temperature.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199
TOP: Diencephalon

91. The hypothalamus secretes ADH into the blood to help control water balance.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 197
TOP: Diencephalon

92. The hypothalamus plays an important part in the arousal or alerting mechanism in the brain.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199
TOP: Diencephalon

93. The thalamus plays an important role in associating sensations with emotions.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199
TOP: Diencephalon

94. The cerebellum helps in muscle coordination and equilibrium.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199
TOP: Cerebellum

95. The ridges in the cerebrum are called sulci.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199
TOP: Cerebrum

96. The deepest grooves in the cerebrum are called fissures.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199
TOP: Cerebrum

97. The corpus callosum allows the right and left sides of the brain to communicate with each other.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199
TOP: Cerebrum

98. Parkinsons disease results from a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 202
TOP: Research, issues, and trendsParkinson disease

99. Injections of dopamine have been used successfully to treat the symptoms of Parkinson disease.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 202
TOP: Research, issues, and trendsParkinson disease

100. Brocas area is in the frontal lobe of the cerebrum.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 200
TOP: Central nervous system

101. The primary auditory area is in the parietal lobe of the cerebrum.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 201
TOP: Cerebrum

102. The visual association area is in the occipital lobe of the cerebrum.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 201
TOP: Cerebrum

103. Your spinal cord begins at the base of the skull and ends at the second sacral vertebrae.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 202
TOP: Spinal cordStructure

104. The spinal cord functions as the primary reflex center for the body.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 204
TOP: Spinal cordFunctions

105. The pia mater is the tough outermost layer of meninges.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 205
TOP: Coverings and fluid spaces of the brain and spinal cord

106. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is filtered out of the blood in the choroid plexus.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 206
TOP: Coverings and fluid spaces of the brain and spinal cord

107. A lumbar puncture can be safely done at T4 because the spinal cord is very deep there.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 208
TOP: Clinical applicationLumbar puncture

108. The peripheral nervous system consists of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves and all of their branches.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 208
TOP: Cranial nerves and Spinal nervesStructure

109. Most of the cranial nerves come from the brainstem.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 208
TOP: Cranial nerves

110. The skin surface area that is supplied by a single cranial nerve is called a dermatome.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 210
TOP: Spinal cordFunctions

111. The autonomic nervous system conducts impulses to cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 210
TOP: Autonomic nervous system

112. The sympathetic nervous system is also called the craniosacral nervous system.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 213
TOP: Sympathetic nervous systemStructure

113. Preganglionic axons of the sympathetic nervous system enter the sympathetic chain ganglion.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 214
TOP: Sympathetic nervous systemStructure

114. Preganglionic axons of the sympathetic nervous system release norepinephrine.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 215 & 216
TOP: Autonomic neurotransmitters

115. The sympathetic nervous system regulates the fight or flight response.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 214 & 215
TOP: Functions of the sympathetic nervous system

116. The parasympathetic nervous system is also called the thoracolumbar system.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 215
TOP: Parasympathetic nervous systemStructure

117. Postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system have short axons.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 215 & 216
TOP: Autonomic neurotransmitters

118. Preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system release norepinephrine.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 215 & 216
TOP: Autonomic neurotransmitters

119. Postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system release norepinephrine.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 215 & 216
TOP: Autonomic neurotransmitters

120. Postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system release norepinephrine.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 215 & 216
TOP: Autonomic neurotransmitters

121. In normal, everyday conditions, the parasympathetic nervous system dominates control over many visceral effectors.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 215
TOP: Functions of the parasympathetic nervous system

122. The eyes and ears are considered organs of the nervous system.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 186
TOP: Organs and divisions of the nervous system

123. One of the divisions of the central nervous system is the autonomic nervous system.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Organs and divisions of the nervous system

124. A nerve cell and a neuron are the same thing.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Cells of the nervous system

125. Only myelinated fibers can have nodes of Ranvier.

ANS: T DIF: Application REF: Page: 187 TOP: Neurons

126. Myelinated fibers have dendrites of the neuron surrounded by Schwann cells.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Neurons

127. The presence of a neurilemma is necessary for the repair of an injured neuron.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Neurons

128. Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells have the same function but in different parts of the nervous system.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 189
TOP: Glia

129. The terms nerve and neuron mean the same thing.

ANS: F DIF: Application REF: Page: 189 TOP: Nerves and tracts

130. A ganglion is a group of cell bodies located in the central nervous system.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 191
TOP: Reflex arcs

131. Saltatory conduction occurs only in myelinated neurons.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 193
TOP: Nerve impulses

132. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter released in the neuromuscular junction.

ANS: T DIF: Application REF: Page: 195 & 196
TOP: The synapse

133. The midbrain is an enlarged upward extension of the spinal cord just inside the cranial cavity.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 196
TOP: Brainstem

134. The hypothalamus releases chemicals that stimulate the release of hormones by the posterior pituitary gland.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 197
TOP: Diencephalon

135. Islands of gray matter in the white matter of the cerebrum are called basal ganglia.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 201
TOP: Cerebrum

136. The dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid are layers of the meninges.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 205
TOP: Coverings and fluid spaces of the brain and spinal cord

137. Cerebrospinal fluid is returned to the blood by being absorbed in the choroid plexus.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 206
TOP: Coverings and fluid spaces of the brain and spinal cord

138. A blockage of the flow of cerebrospinal fluid can result in a condition called hydrocephalus.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 206
TOP: Coverings and fluid spaces of the brain and spinal cord

139. A plexus allows the fibers from several spinal nerves to reorganize into a single peripheral nerve.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 209
TOP: Spinal nervesStructure

140. A skin surface area supplied by a single spinal nerve is called a plexus.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 209
TOP: Spinal nervesStructure

141. The autonomic nervous system is more likely to stimulate a smooth muscle than a voluntary muscle.

ANS: T DIF: Application REF: Page: 185 TOP: Introduction

142. Only nonmyelinated axons can have a neurilemma.

ANS: F DIF: Application REF: Page: 187 TOP: Neurons

143. White matter in the central nervous system has only axons, not dendrites of cell bodies.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 189 & 190
TOP: Nerves and tracts

144. Gray matter can be made up of axons, dendrites, or cell bodies.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 189
TOP: Nerves and tracts

145. The knee-jerk reflex uses one more neuron than does the withdrawal reflex.

ANS: F DIF: Application REF: Page: 191 TOP: Reflex arcs

146. Fissures in the central nervous system are the same as gyri, except they are deeper.

ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199
TOP: Cerebrum

147. There are 24 cranial nerves.

ANS: T DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 206
TOP: Cranial nerves

MATCHING

Match each of the terms with its correct definition or description.
a. dendrite j. enkephalins
b. axon k. oligodendrocyte
c. astrocyte l. afferent neuron
d. microglia m. saltatory conduction
e. Schwann cell n. efferent neurons
f. interneuron o. cell body
g. synaptic knob p. neurotransmitter
h. serotonin q. nodes of Ranvier
i. synaptic cleft

148. _____ Part of the axon that releases neurotransmitters

149. _____ Highly branched part of the neuron that carries impulses toward the cell body

150. _____ Microbe eaters in the brain

151. _____ Connects sensory and motor neurons in a reflex arc

152. _____ Small space between the end of one axon and the next neuron

153. _____ Neurotransmitter that is a catecholamine

154. _____ Part of the neuron that conducts impulses away from the cell body

155. _____ Cells that produce myelin for cells in the peripheral nervous system

156. _____ Cells that function in the blood brain barrier

157. _____ Neurotransmitter that functions as a natural pain killer

158. _____ Main part of the neuron

159. _____ Type of nerve impulse that jumps from one node of Ranvier to the next

160. _____ Type of neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the central nervous system

161. _____ Glia cell that produces myelin for the central nervous system

162. _____ Type of neuron that carries nerve impulses toward the central nervous system

163. _____ Carries a nerve impulse across a synapse

164. _____ Indentations in between Schwann cells

148. ANS: G DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 193 & 195
TOP: The synapse

149. ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Neurons

150. ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 189
TOP: Glia

151. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 191
TOP: Reflex arcs

152. ANS: I DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 193
TOP: The synapse

153. ANS: H DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 196
TOP: The synapse

154. ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Neurons

155. ANS: E DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 189
TOP: Glia

156. ANS: C DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187 & 189
TOP: Glia

157. ANS: J DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 196
TOP: The synapse

158. ANS: O DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Neurons

159. ANS: M DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 193
TOP: Nerve impulses

160. ANS: N DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Neurons

161. ANS: K DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 189
TOP: Glia

162. ANS: L DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Neurons

163. ANS: P DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 193
TOP: The synapse

164. ANS: Q DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187
TOP: Neurons

Match each of the terms with its function or description.
a. medulla oblongata g. corpus callosum
b. hypothalamus h. spinal cord
c. thalamus i. occipital lobe
d. cerebellum j. frontal lobe
e. gyrus k. corpus callosum
f. sulcus

165. _____ Structure that controls balance and muscle coordination

166. _____ Structure that contains the vital centers for the body

167. _____ Structure that allows the right and left sides of the brain to communicate

168. _____ Shallow groove in the cerebrum

169. _____ Primary reflex center for the body

170. _____ Structure that regulates body temperature and produces ADH

171. _____ Ridge in the cerebrum

172. _____ Structure that links sensation with emotion and is part of the alerting mechanism for the brain

173. _____ Lobe of the cerebrum that controls movement

174. _____ Lobe of the cerebrum that deals with vision

175. _____ Group of nerves that connect the right and left sides of the brain

165. ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199
TOP: Cerebellum

166. ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 197
TOP: Brainstem

167. ANS: G DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199
TOP: Cerebrum

168. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199
TOP: Cerebrum

169. ANS: H DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 204
TOP: Spinal cordFunctions

170. ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 197
TOP: Diencephalon

171. ANS: E DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199
TOP: Cerebrum

172. ANS: C DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199
TOP: Diencephalon

173. ANS: J DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 201
TOP: Cerebrum

174. ANS: I DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 201
TOP: Cerebrum

175. ANS: K DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199
TOP: Cerebrum

Match each of the terms with its definition or description.
a. pia mater f. dermatome
b. dura mater g. parasympathetic nervous system
c. cranial nerves h. sympathetic nervous system
d. spinal nerves i. acetylcholine
e. arachnoid mater j. norepinephrine

176. _____ Skin surface that is supplied by a single spinal nerve

177. _____ Outermost and toughest of the meninges

178. _____ 31 pairs of these make up part of the peripheral nervous system

179. _____ Cobweblike part of the meninges

180. _____ Regulates the fight or flight response

181. _____ Thin innermost layer of the meninges

182. _____ 12 pairs of these make up part of the peripheral nervous system

183. _____ Neurotransmitter that is released from the postganglionic axons of the parasympathetic nervous system

184. _____ Sometimes called the craniosacral nervous system

185. _____ Neurotransmitter that is released from the postganglionic axon or the sympathetic nervous system

176. ANS: F DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 210
TOP: Spinal nervesFunctions

177. ANS: B DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 205
TOP: Coverings and fluid spaces of the brain and spinal cord

178. ANS: D DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 208
TOP: Spinal nervesStructure

179. ANS: E DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 205
TOP: Coverings and fluid spaces of the brain and spinal cord

180. ANS: H DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 214 & 215
TOP: Functions of the sympathetic nervous system

181. ANS: A DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 205
TOP: Coverings and fluid spaces of the brain and spinal cord

182. ANS: C DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 208
TOP: Cranial nerves

183. ANS: I DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 215 & 216
TOP: Autonomic neurotransmitters

184. ANS: G DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 214
TOP: Parasympathetic nervous systemStructure

185. ANS: J DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 215 & 216
TOP: Autonomic neurotransmitters

SHORT ANSWER

186. Name and explain the function of the parts of the neuron.

ANS:
(Answers may vary)

DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187 TOP: Neurons

187. Name and give the function of the three types of glia cells.

ANS:
(Answers may vary)

DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 187 & 189
TOP: Glia

188. Describe, in terms of the neurons involved, how a tap on the knee causes the knee to jerk forward. Explain it as if it were both a two-and three-neuron reflex.

ANS:
(Answers may vary)

DIF: Synthesis REF: Page: 191-193 TOP: Reflex arcs

189. Explain the disorder of multiple sclerosis. What are some possible causes?

ANS:
(Answers may vary)

DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 192
TOP: Clinical applicationMultiple sclerosis

190. Explain fully the process of a nerve impulse. What is saltatory conduction?

ANS:
(Answers may vary)

DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 193 TOP: Nerve impulses

191. Explain fully how a nerve impulse moves from one neuron to another.

ANS:
(Answers may vary)

DIF: Application REF: Page: 193-196 TOP: The synapse

192. A type of drug called a monoamine oxidase inhibitor is an antidepressant that inhibits the enzyme that deactivates catecholamines. What theory explains how this drug functions?

ANS:
(Answers may vary)

DIF: Synthesis REF: Page: 193 & 196 TOP: The synapse

193. Name the parts of the brainstem and explain their function.

ANS:
(Answers may vary)

DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 196-197
TOP: Brainstem

194. What two structures make up the diencephalon? What is the function of each?

ANS:
(Answers may vary)

DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 197 & 199
TOP: Diencephalon

195. Describe the cerebellum and name its functions.

ANS:
(Answers may vary)

DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199 TOP: Cerebellum

196. Describe and explain the function of the spinal cord.

ANS:
(Answers may vary)

DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 202-205
TOP: Spinal cord

197. Describe the structure of the cerebrum.

ANS:
(Answers may vary)

DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199-201
TOP: Cerebrum

198. If a stroke patient had difficulty in visual perception, where might the damage be in the brain? If a stroke patient had difficulty speaking, where might the damage be in the brain? Explain your answers.

ANS:
(Answers may vary)

DIF: Synthesis REF: Page: 201 TOP: Cerebrum

199. What is the cause of Parkinson disease? How is it treated?

ANS:
(Answers may vary)

DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 202
TOP: Research, issues, and trendsParkinson disease

200. Name and describe the meninges of the nervous system.

ANS:
(Answers may vary)

DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 205 & 206
TOP: Coverings and fluid spaces of the brain and spinal cord

201. Where is cerebrospinal fluid made? What is its function?

ANS:
(Answers may vary)

DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 206
TOP: Coverings and fluid spaces of the brain and spinal cord

202. How many spinal nerves are there? How many come from each part of the spinal cord, and how are they identified? What is a dermatome?

ANS:
(Answers may vary)

DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 208-210
TOP: Spinal nerves

203. Explain the difference between autonomic conduction paths to the effectors and central nervous system conduction paths to the effectors.

ANS:
(Answers may vary)

DIF: Synthesis REF: Page: 212 & 213
TOP: Autonomic conduction paths

204. Explain the structure and function of the sympathetic nervous system.

ANS:
(Answers may vary)

DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 213-215
TOP: Sympathetic nervous system

205. Explain the structure and function of the parasympathetic nervous system.

ANS:
(Answers may vary)

DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 215
TOP: Parasympathetic nervous system

206. Name the four lobes of the cerebrum and give one function of each lobe.

ANS:
(Answers may vary)

DIF: Memorization REF: Page: 199-201
TOP: Cerebrum

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