Success in Practical Vocational Nursing From Student to Leader 7th Edition, Hill Test Bank

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Success in Practical Vocational Nursing From Student to Leader 7th Edition, Hill Test Bank


Test Bank Success Practical Vocational Nursing 7th Edition, Hill

Chapter 01: The Adult Learner: Hints to Succeed
1. Which individual in a practical/vocational nursing class would be identified as a traditional adult learner?
a. One who has been out of school for many years
b. One who has children and grandchildren
c. One who knows the routine of education
d. One who is in his or her early 20s
2. A student enrolled in an LPN/LVN program states, Im fresh out of high school and living alone for the first time in my life. Im having to learn how to take care of myself as well as learning to care for my patients. This statement identifies the student as
a. a traditional adult learner.
b. a returning student.
c. a recycled adult learner.
d. someone in need of counseling.
3. A student enrolled in a practical/vocational nursing program informs the class that he has a degree in accounting and has lost the position he held for 15 years. This information identifies the student as a
a. discipline-change learner.
b. recycled adult learner
c. traditional learner.
d. reclaimed learner.
4. A nursing student states, I have taken advantage of informal learning experiences. Another student asks, Could you give me an example? The best example of an informal learning experience is
a. caring for a disabled family member.
b. taking a continuing education course.
c. enrolling in an academic program.
d. attending credit classes at the mall.
5. What strategy can be used by a nursing student to effectively combat a fear of failure?
a. Experience a large number of positive events
b. Maintain good physical health
c. Have adequate money to provide for needs
d. Create a mental script of positive thoughts
6. An example of a self-talk script that promotes success in a practical/vocational nursing program is
a. I get sick from smelling bad odors.
b. What if Im all thumbs in practice lab?
c. I dont think the instructor likes me.
d. I work well with my hands.
7. Select the factor common to ALL types of adult learners that predisposes them to success in a nursing program.
a. They have few responsibilities at home.
b. They have the motivation to succeed.
c. They automatically qualify for financial aid.
d. They have few daily distractions.
8. When a class of nursing students discusses their concerns about their program, the concern shared by most learners is generally the fear of
a. succeeding.
b. economic problems.
c. failure.
d. ridicule.
9. The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution guarantees students the right to
a. graduate from a program.
b. fail an academic program.
c. express oneself in class.
d. have unlimited absences.
10. Which amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects the learner from being asked to leave an educational program without due process?
a. 11th
b. 12th
c. 13th
d. 14th
Chapter 02: Time Management: Making Time Work for You
1. The best explanation for Nurse As organization and ability to complete tasks on time and Nurse Bs disorganization and inability to complete tasks on time is
a. Nurse A uses time management effectively.
b. Nurse A is more intelligent.
c. Nurse B has more free time.
d. Nurse B has a greater sense of responsibility.
2. A nurse develops work habits that will allow each nursing task to be done as quickly as possible. The principle being used is
a. effectiveness.
b. efficiency.
c. procrastination.
d. scheduling.
3. A strategy to promote achievement of long-term goals is
a. striving to complete the entire goal at one time.
b. eliminating any undesirable elements of the goal.
c. jumping right in at any point that is appealing.
d. creating a series of related short-term goals.
4. A nurse keeps a log of daily activities and the amount of time each takes. As an activity related to time management, this would be classified as
a. planning.
b. evaluation.
c. data collection.
d. implementation.
5. The retired spouse of a busy female nursing student will not share household duties. An explanation that should be considered to better understand this situation is that the unwilling spouse
a. does not love the student.
b. is jealous of the student.
c. has been raised with sex stereotyping.
d. thinks paying tuition is enough support.
6. A nursing student complains about not having enough time to get everything done. Identify the small daily block of time documented by the student that can add up to a large time loss by the end of a school week.
a. Breaks of more than 10 minutes of inactivity between classes
b. Looking up medical and nursing terms
c. Talking with relatives and children
d. Using break time to review for the next class
7. A student generally postpones high-priority activities and does low-priority activities instead. The most likely outcome of this behavior is that the student
a. will assume power over life.
b. brings anxiety under control.
c. derives a sense of true accomplishment.
d. feels increased tension and fear of failure.
8. The outcome that is the best evidence that a nursing students time management plan is working is that the student
a. reports feeling happy at home.
b. is popular with peers.
c. achieves passing grades on tests and evaluations.
d. demonstrates positive relationships with instructors.
9. Identify a reasonable long-term goal for a beginning nursing student.
a. I will pass the Body Structure and Function course by the completion of the program.
b. I will qualify to take the NCLEX-PN by program completion.
c. I will score a B+ on the first unit test in nursing school.
d. I will perform at the satisfactory level on the first semester clinical evaluation.
10. A nursing student has a conflict with taking a scheduled course in the nursing program and picking up children from day care. Which adjustment is possible and would result in the best resolution?
a. Request the nursing program offer the course at a different time.
b. Withdraw from the nursing program until the children are older.
c. Arrange to have a friend or relative pick up the children.
d. Remove the children from day care.
Chapter 03: Learning Methods and Skills: How Do You Learn?
1. Which statement about learning style preference is true?
a. All students have the same learning style.
b. Most students are kinesthetic/tactual learners.
c. Auditory learning is the best method.
d. Various learning styles are equally good.
2. A patient tells the nurse, I always think of myself as having a well-developed right brain. Learning should be facilitated for this individual by utilizing
a. verbal input.
b. visual input.
c. positive emotional displays.
d. small segments of information.
3. A patient states, My roommate accuses me of daydreaming when I study, but Im really imagining the things Im trying to learn. The nurse understands that this best describes a way of learning common among individuals who are identified as
a. spatial learners.
b. linguistic learners.
c. logical/mathematical learners.
d. bodily/kinesthetic learners.
4. Why is it desirable for the nursing student to engage in learning activities that use both sides of the brain?
a. Atrophy of one side is avoided.
b. Paralysis of one side is avoided.
c. Less study time is needed if both sides are used.
d. The students full learning potential is increased.
5. A nursing student who applies the concept that neural pathways become increasingly efficient when a learning exercise is repeated will
a. study at the same time each day.
b. review notes several times.
c. use relaxation techniques to reduce anxiety.
d. engage in physical activity while studying.
6. A patient who is learning diabetic self-care states, I have to develop the ability to see the big picture instead of getting hung up with the little things in my care plan. The nurse who understands brain function would see this as related to
a. adult attention deficit disorder.
b. fight-or-flight reaction.
c. left brain dominance.
d. a larger than usual corpus callosum.
7. Student A tells Student B, You could get good grades if youd study the way I do. Write down everything that you hear in class and then recopy your notes and underline the important points. What is the likelihood that Student B will be successful?
a. There is about a 33.3% chance the advice will result in success.
b. There is a 100% chance the advice will ensure success.
c. There is a 100% chance the advice will result in failure.
d. There is about a 50% chance the advice will result in success.
8. Which individual would be classified as a kinesthetic/tactual learner?
a. Patient A, who learns best by observing
b. Patient B, who learns best by listening
c. Patient C, who learns best by doing
d. Patient D, who learns equally well by observing and listening
9. The nurse could maximize patient teaching for an individual with an identified auditory learning style preference by
a. providing an audiotape of important information that the patient could replay.
b. allowing the patient to handle equipment before practicing a self-care technique.
c. playing a videotape to demonstrate a self-care technique to the patient.
d. drawing diagrams of important concepts the patient needs to learn.
10. A student states, I have identified my personal learning style preference as visual. From this statement, it can be understood that the identified style preference
a. is the only way the individual can learn.
b. represents the way the student learns best.
c. has been derived primarily from biologic attributes.
d. suggests the need to develop additional learning strategies.
Chapter 04: Using Your Methods and Skills: Studying and Testing
1. A nursing student who is receiving poor grades states, I am experiencing difficulty due to lack of time to devote to school. The additional factor that should be explored is lack of
a. aptitude.
b. interest.
c. motivation.
d. study skills.
2. A nursing student is studying for an examination and becomes distracted by things needing to be done. The best intervention would be to
a. make a list of things that need to be done and return to studying.
b. turn on the radio in an attempt to drown out the distraction.
c. stop studying until there are fewer distractions with which to contend.
d. do what has to be done immediately and then return to studying.
3. Which student would be classified as a passive listener?
a. Student A, who completes a grocery list during class
b. Student B, who asks questions about class content
c. Student C, who puts key concepts into words during note taking
d. Student D, who contributes to classroom discussion of the topic
4. Which technique is most helpful to a student who wishes to better organize the material presented during a lecture?
a. Note making
b. Shorthand
c. Tape recording
d. Passive listening
5. A nursing student complains about difficulty remembering information read in the text. To resolve this problem effectively, the student should address the fact that the most common reason students cannot remember information is
a. information overload.
b. lack of understanding of the material.
c. new knowledge interferes with recall of old knowledge.
d. old knowledge interferes with recall of new material.
6. The rationale for use of short, frequent study periods that focus on understanding the material is
a. to memorize facts.
b. to lay down a neural trace.
c. to prevent old knowledge from interfering with recall of new knowledge.
d. to motivate learning by developing a positive attitude toward the subject matter.
7. A struggling nursing student studies several hours daily while children watch television nearby. It is likely that this student needs to
a. schedule another hour of nightly study.
b. correct eyestrain by having his or her eyes tested.
c. study where there are fewer external distractions.
d. listen actively in class to reduce study hours.
8. At what level of information processing must LPN/LVNs function in order to pass the NCLEX-PN examination and meet employer expectations?
a. Knowing and being able to repeat facts
b. Understanding the meaning of material and being able to apply it in new situations
c. Grasping information and being able to analyze advanced concepts
d. Questioning the validity of all information and being able to synthesize material
9. A nursing student is discouraged and states, Ill never be good at studying! The most helpful remark another student could make would be
a. For most students, study skills develop with organization, practice, and hard work.
b. For most students, study skills that were successful in high school are useful in nursing school.
c. For most students, study skills arent really necessary if you listen carefully in class.
d. For most students, study skills depend on motivation to arrange adequate time to devote to learning.
10. A nursing student has difficulty concentrating while studying and is easily distracted by external activity. Daydreaming is triggered by relaxation and music. The best physical environment for studying would be sitting
a. on a bed with the feet up and the back against a pillow.
b. in a reclining chair facing a television with the volume turned on low.
c. at the kitchen table during meal preparation or clean-up time.
d. at a desk in a quiet room.
Chapter 05: Learning During School: Using Available Resources
1. A nursing student was ill when the class toured the learning resource center (LRC). What independent action should the student take?
a. Perceive it as a missed opportunity.
b. Ask the librarian if a self-guided audiotape tour is available.
c. Ask to see another students notes about the tour.
d. Report his or her unawareness to the instructor of LRC features.
2. A nursing student tells another student, The instructor assigned both a textbook chapter and a journal article! It should be one or the other, not both! The reply that shows the best understanding of the assignment is
a. The journal article may give us updated information on one aspect of the assignment.
b. Sometimes textbooks have incorrect information, so it provides checks and balances.
c. Reading articles allows us to make sure the instructors provide current information in lecture.
d. Copyright laws prevent the instructor from lecturing directly from that source, so we have to read.
3. Four students are discussing when it is appropriate to miss a nursing class. Which student provides the only acceptable reason for missing a class?
a. Student A states, I have to miss class to go to a job interview.
b. Student B states, I would only miss class to deal with an emergency.
c. Student C states, I miss class to go to eye and dental appointments.
d. Student D states, I sometimes miss class to study for a test in another class.
4. A nursing student states, When we have lecture-discussion sessions, I never know whats expected of me. The best reply by a peer would be, I think its our responsibility as students to
a. avoid actively disagreeing with the instructor or other students.
b. make a list of questions about material we dont understand.
c. listen until were called upon to answer questions.
d. use review books to check the depth of the material were learning.
5. A nursing student asks a peer, Why do we need a course outline when we have a course syllabus? The response that best explains the importance of course outlines is
a. They replace the teacher.
b. They substitute for the textbook.
c. They eliminate the need for class attendance.
d. They indicate the level of understanding needed to pass the course.
6. A nursing student has a course syllabus and a course outline. When anticipating what topics to study for an examination, it is best to refer to the
a. course objectives.
b. unit objectives.
c. bibliography.
d. course policies.
7. When a nursing student goes to the nursing skills lab, the best utilization of that resource would be as a place to
a. read the textbook.
b. discuss personal problems with another student.
c. practice a difficult dressing change procedure.
d. take a coffee break.
8. A nursing student is experiencing difficulty performing calculations involving fractions and decimals. The most helpful resource would be the
a. library.
b. Internet.
c. nursing skills lab.
d. study skills lab.
9. A nursing student who wishes to check out a book listed in the course outline informs the librarian that the book is unavailable at the reserve desk. The librarian advises the student to look in the
a. stacks.
b. CD-ROM.
c. vertical files.
d. periodical section.
10. A nursing student has an assignment that requires looking up an article about nursing care following knee replacement surgery. The nursing student has only the title and the knowledge that the article was published within the last year. Which resource would be most helpful in completing the assignment?
a. Education Index
b. Materia Medicus
c. Readers Guide to Periodical Literature
d. Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature
Chapter 06: Personal Health Promotion: A Role Model for Patients
1. Health promotion for patients is facilitated when the nurse encourages changes based on information that diabetes, heart disease, and breast and colon cancer are causally linked to
a. environmental toxins.
b. hypolipidemia.
c. overactivity.
d. obesity.
2. When a patient inquires about the 2010 MyPlate recommendations the nurse responds
a. Protein is the largest part of the plate.
b. Delete starch from the plate.
c. Half of the plate should be fruits and vegetables.
d. 2% milk is recommended.
3. The student nurse states, I dont have time for the bending and stretching routines the textbook advises. A peer student nurse could be most helpful by saying
a. We each have to decide whats best for ourselves.
b. I agree; the time could be better spent studying.
c. You know how textbooks are heavy on theory.
d. The idea of warm-ups preventing injury seems valid.
4. A student nurse tells a peer, I find myself constantly thinking about patient X and the problems shes experiencing. Sometimes, it makes me want to cry. If only I had a magic wand and could make things better for her! The peer to whom this is revealed can correctly determine that the student nurse is experiencing
a. empathy for the patient.
b. sympathy for the patient.
c. therapeutic involvement.
d. burnout.
5. A nursing assistant tells the nurse, Im feeling negative about my job and just about everything else these days. Like today, I found myself feeling angry with Mrs. X. because shes overweight. I felt like telling her if she didnt eat so much, shed make my life a lot easier. I need a vacation or a new job. The nurse can correctly determine that the nursing assistant is experiencing feelings associated with
a. spitefulness.
b. home conflicts.
c. burnout.
d. detachment.
6. The nurse who works in the ICU leaves the room of a patient and bursts into tears. She tells a co-worker, I have to touch the patient to provide care, but when I was turning her, a big piece of skin just sloughed off her back. How can I justify giving care when it seems to do more harm than good? The nurse is most likely experiencing
a. burnout.
b. detachment.
c. negative outcomes.
d. secondary traumatic stress.
7. The LPN/LVN notices that another nurse has made errors in practice and judgment over the past few weeks. In addition, the nurses personality has undergone changes, such as irritability and unpredictability when responding to others. A patient mentioned to the LPN/LVN that when the nurse administered medication for pain relief, it didnt work as well as it had earlier in the day. Based on this information the LPN/LVN should
a. notify the state board of nursing.
b. confront the nurse with the observations.
c. call Employee Health and discuss the matter.
d. report these findings to the nurse in charge.
8. The LPN/LVN tells the charge nurse, You can be glad Im on duty today to pick up the slack for the staff member who called in sick. Its lucky that I came in early. Oh, and by the way, I can stay late, if necessary. You know how the next shift is. They expect everything to be caught up, even if they arent that efficient themselves. These remarks suggest that the LPN/LVN may be
a. a chronic complainer.
b. a team player.
c. co-dependent.
d. chemically dependent.
9. During report, the LPN/LVN relates that although her assigned patient was ambulatory, she provided a bed bath, special foot care, and nail care; she justified the care by saying that the patient seemed very tired. The nurse also mentioned that the patient had a number of personal problems for which she provided counseling. The charge nurse recognizes these behaviors as suggesting
a. conscientious nursing.
b. empathetic response.
c. conflict avoidance.
d. co-dependence.
10. The key to modifying co-dependent behavior is
a. recognition.
b. recreation.
c. intensive therapy.
d. establishing vulnerability.
Chapter 07: How Practical/Vocational Nursing Evolved: 1836 to Present
1. The first real school of nursing was located in
a. Israel
b. Greece.
c. Italy.
d. Germany.
2. The best reason for studying nursing history is to
a. prepare for the NCLEX-PN examination.
b. make nurses more professional.
c. help nurses adapt to change.
d. learn from nursings past mistakes.
3. When was the first U.S. school of practical nursing founded?
a. 1830
b. 1853
c. 1892
d. 1902
4. In what year was practical nurse licensure utilized for the first time?
a. 1903
b. 1914
c. 1938
d. 1941
5. The emergence of modern nursing is usually attributed to the influence of
a. Florence Nightingale.
b. Clara Barton.
c. Lillian Wald.
d. Sairy Gamp.
6. The first formal training for practical nurses focused on
a. care for victims of war injuries.
b. home care for children and people with chronic illness.
c. training visiting nurses and public health nurses.
d. creating nursing instructors for nursing programs.
7. The event that had the greatest influence on the role of practical nurses in modern hospital nursing was
a. the Crusades.
b. the Industrial Revolution.
c. the U.S. Civil War.
d. World War II.
8. When in history was it first recommended that tasks of the RN and LPN be differentiated and that practical nurses should function under the supervision of registered nurses?
a. 1750-1760
b. 1826-1850
c. 1949-1950
d. 1965-1980
9. The role of self-defined practical nurses throughout history has been to
a. care for the ill, injured, and dying and for birthing mothers.
b. compete with physicians and surgeons.
c. perform complex nursing skills independently.
d. make contact with the gods on behalf of the ill person.
10. The event that had the most profound influence in changing practical/vocational nursing was the
a. depression of the 1930s, when nurses worked for room and board in lieu of salary.
b. postWorld War II movement of practical/vocational nurses into hospital positions.
c. American Medical Association (AMA) proposal to develop registered care technicians as new health care workers.
d. first computer-adaptive test for practical/vocational nursing graduates.
Chapter 08: Critical Thinking: A Lifelong Journey
1. A first-postoperative-day patient received pain medication 6 hours ago. He states he is not experiencing pain but refuses to deep breathe and ambulate as ordered. The nursing student caring for him consults her instructor, asking whether it might be advisable to administer pain medication. The student is using
a. the right brain hemisphere.
b. the intrapersonal learning style.
c. linguistic memory.
d. critical thinking.
2. A strategy a nurse might use to improve critical thinking skills is to
a. avoid challenging situations.
b. take observations at face value.
c. think about the meaning of relevant theory while giving patient care.
d. implement the first solution thought of when solving patient care problems.
3. The nursing student tells a peer, Once I begin studying, I dont dare take a break. If I stop for even 5 minutes, I know Ill never go back to studying. The peer identifies this statement as
a. negative thinking.
b. random thinking.
c. ruminative thinking.
d. all-or-nothing thinking.
4. A patient tells the nursing student, I keep thinking of the mistake I made that led to the accident. I cant get it out of my mind. Now my son has a broken leg. The nursing student correctly identifies this as
a. random thinking.
b. habitual thinking.
c. ruminative thinking.
d. directed thinking.
5. Which question should be asked by a nursing student who is developing a plan to increase his critical thinking ability so as to achieve higher grades?
a. Do I comprehend information from textbooks and classes?
b. I wonder how to improve my overall efficiency?
c. Ill have to learn from my mistakes.
d. Someone needs to check my conclusions.
6. The student reads a definition of a nursing term and is asked to state whether the sentence is true or false. The cognitive level of this exercise is
a. knowledge.
b. comprehension.
c. application.
d. analysis.
7. When an instructor asks a nursing student to answer a question in her or his own words and give an example, the cognitive level utilized is
a. knowledge.
b. comprehension.
c. application.
d. analysis.
8. The nursing student has learned the principles of determining and recording intake and output. When the student cares for a patient who has had a liquid breakfast and has voided twice and vomited once, the student documents intake and output in the patients chart using the cognitive level known as
a. knowledge.
b. comprehension.
c. application.
d. analysis.
9. During morning report, the nursing student receives a description of the assigned patients current problems. When the student determines the priority nursing intervention, she is processing information at the cognitive level known as
a. knowledge.
b. comprehension.
c. application.
d. analysis.
10. Which factor that influences critical thinking provides the best rationale for using a team meeting to plan care for a patient?
a. Collaboration
b. Moral development
c. Self-confidence
d. Maturity
Chapter 09: Nursing Process: Your Role
1. A student nurse asks, If RNs use a five-step nursing process and LPN/LVNs use a four-step process, what phase is missing? The best response would be, The phase of the nursing process that is the sole responsibility of the registered nurse is
a. assessment.
b. nursing diagnosis.
c. planning.
d. implementation.
e. evaluation.
2. The student nurse asks, How does knowing the nursing diagnosis assist the LPN/LVN? The best response is based on understanding that
a. a nursing diagnosis identifies the patients problems.
b. it permits the practical nurse to go beyond the scope of practice.
c. this step makes the practical nurse equal to the medical doctor.
d. knowledge of the nursing diagnosis ensures a cure for the patient.
3. Which of the following is the primary reason that LPN/LVNs are taught to use the nursing process?
a. To diagnose disease
b. To provide reimbursement
c. To resolve patient problems
d. To communicate with health team members
4. During the assessment phase of the nursing process, the LPN/LVN is expected to
a. establish goals and outcome criteria.
b. collect data about the patient.
c. determine whether established goals have been met.
d. plan interventions to implement for the patient.
5. The nursing care plan requires the nurse to ambulate the patient twice daily. The phase of the nursing process in which the nurse is participating is
a. assessment.
b. planning.
c. implementation.
d. evaluation.
6. An LPN/LVN demonstrates to a new mother how to safely bathe her infant. This is an example of the phase of the nursing process called
a. assessment.
b. nursing diagnosis.
c. planning.
d. implementation.
7. When the LPN/LVN participates in the evaluation phase of the nursing process, she or he compares the patients responses with the
a. nursing orders.
b. outcome criteria.
c. nursing diagnosis.
d. database.
8. Which of the following are considered subjective data?
a. The patient tells the nurse that he has a headache.
b. The nursing assistant tells the nurse that the patient vomited.
c. The patients mother tells the nurse that the patient needs a ride to the clinic for follow-up.
d. The physician tells the nurse that the patient needs a chest x-ray.
9. I feel like I cant catch my breath is an example of
a. effective data.
b. objective data.
c. subjective data.
d. evaluative data.
10. A blood pressure of 110/70 at 8 PM is most accurately described as an example of
a. planning data.
b. subjective data.
c. objective data.
d. reassessment data.
Chapter 10: Nursing Theory, Research, and Evidence-Based Practice
1. The three concepts considered important to nursing are person, health, and
a. socialization.
b. procedure.
c. environment.
d. theory.
2. The LPN/LVN is caring for a postoperative appendectomy patient. When assessing the patient for pain, the nurse documents that the patient reports pain rating an 8 on a scale of 0 to 10. According to Sister Callista Roys adaptation model, a patient experiencing pain would be an example of
a. focal stimuli.
b. contextual stimuli.
c. residual stimuli.
d. physiological stimuli.
3. The nursing instructor provides positive feedback to the student LPN/LVN after observing the student administer an intramuscular injection to a patient. According to Maslows human needs theory, the instructor is helping to meet the students
a. physiological needs.
b. safety needs.
c. love and belonging needs.
d. esteem needs.
4. Quantitative research studies are considered
a. subjective studies.
b. grounded theory studies.
c. objective studies.
d. phenomenological studies.
5. The level of nurse qualified to design and implement research studies and publish findings is a nurse with a
a. research doctorate.
b. practice doctorate.
c. masters degree.
d. baccalaureate degree.
6. The nursing theory that is most likely to be implemented by the nurse as a basis for developing a therapeutic relationship with the adult or child psychiatric patients is
a. Maslows hierarchy of human needs theory.
b. Jean Watsons theory of human care.
c. Orems self-care deficit theory.
d. Peplaus interpersonal relations theory.
7. A guest speaker is addressing a group of practical nursing students. The speaker informs the students that she is actively pursuing a doctoral degree in research and is in the process of collecting and measuring numerical data using statistics to describe variables of this study. The nursing students are aware that this type of study is most likely a
a. quantitative research study.
b. subjective research study.
c. qualitative research study.
d. grounded theory research study.
8. The National League of Nursing (NLN) expects the practical/vocational nurses main role in evidence-based practice to be to:
a. challenge the status quo.
b. identify questions that need to be studied.
c. formulate evidence-based protocols.
d. question the basis for nursing actions.
9. A newly admitted patient reports to the practical nurse that she is hungry. The nurse confirms that the patient is on a regular diet and promptly retrieves a meal and provides it to the patient. According to Maslows needs theory, the nurse is meeting the patients
a. physiological needs.
b. safety needs.
c. self-actualization need.
d. love and belonging needs.
10. The health belief theory was developed by
a. Leininger.
b. Watson.
c. Rosenstock.
d. Orem.
Chapter 11: Ethics Applied to Nursing: Personal vs. Professional Ethics
1. The nurse states, I like being part of the health care team caring for the traditional two-parent family during the postpartum period as they bond with their newborn. This statement reveals the nurses
a. values.
b. duty.
c. fidelity.
d. ethics.
2. A student nurse asks, Whats the difference between laws and ethics? Which response best explains the difference between nursing laws and ethics?
a. Ethics refer to expected behavior of nurses, but laws require mandatory observance by nurses.
b. Nursing ethics are formalized by statutes, whereas laws are permissive codes.
c. Ethics are derived from laws, whereas laws are enacted by non-nurse legislators.
d. Ethics are specific to individual agencies, but laws are state specific.
3. The nurse providing care for patients or residents must act on the knowledge that a basic right of a patient or a resident is to receive
a. considerate and respectful care from all care providers.
b. information about the diagnosis and prognosis from the practical nurse.
c. the medical care of their choice, regardless of their ability to pay.
d. any food requested and in as large a quantity as desired.
4. A major change in medical ethics that affected nursing occurred when the Western secular belief system shifted emphasis from duties to
a. individual autonomy and rights.
b. satisfying Medicare regulations.
c. the cost-effectiveness of care.
d. nonmaleficence.
5. The patient asks the nurse, I overheard the instructor talking to a student about accountability. What does the word accountability really mean? The best response by the nurse would be
a. It is a transfer of responsibility for wrong actions.
b. It is shared responsibility with the physician for wrongdoing.
c. It is taking personal responsibility for ones nursing actions.
d. It is giving up responsibility when the situation dictates.
6. When a student nurse prepares diligently for a clinical assignment, the ethical principle being observed is
a. autonomy.
b. justice.
c. nonmaleficence.
d. fear of punishment.
7. Encouraging a patient to be involved in planning and carrying out his or her own care is a nursing action that supports the ethical principle of
a. confidentiality.
b. privacy.
c. autonomy.
d. justice.
8. Leaving an unconscious patient exposed during a treatment or procedure is a violation of the ethical principle of
a. fidelity.
b. autonomy.
c. justice.
d. veracity.
9. When a treatment team decides to go to court to obtain permission to provide chemotherapy for a child whose parents refuse to give consent for the treatment based on religious grounds, the ethical principles that are in conflict are
a. fidelity and justice.
b. beneficence and autonomy.
c. justice and beneficence.
d. autonomy and fidelity.
10. A way of practicing fidelity to a patient would be to
a. discuss the patient with friends at a social gathering.
b. document the patients expression of feelings and wishes.
c. categorize the patient as a down-and-out alcoholic.
d. develop the care plan without patient input.
Chapter 12: Nursing and the Law: What Are the Rules?
1. To function within the scope of the law, the nurse must know that the legal duties and functions of the nurse in a given state are determined by the
a. U.S. Constitution.
b. Bill of Rights.
c. bylaws of the professional organization.
d. Nurse Practice Act of the state.
2. An example of a criminal action committed by a nurse is
a. restraining a patient without a physicians order.
b. releasing information without the patients consent.
c. discontinuing a ventilator without a physicians order.
d. making a medication error.
3. A new LPN/LVN passes the NCLEX-PN examination and obtains licensure in state X. The LPN/LVN wishes to work in a state other than state X but is unsure of how to proceed. Which statement provides sound advice in this situation?
a. The effect of current national licensure allows a nurse licensed in one state to work in any other state for a maximum of 2 years without applying for endorsement.
b. The nurse can work legally in any state that borders state X without applying for endorsement.
c. The nurse should contact the state board of nursing of the state in which she wishes to work to determine whether they have multistate licensure with state X.
d. The nurse should apply to take the NCLEX-PN examination in the state in which she wishes to work.
4. A resident asks an LPN/LVN, What is meant by the practical/vocational nurses standard of care in a long-term care agency? The LPN/LVN should respond, The practical/vocational nurse who provides care for residents in a long-term care agency must implement care that is consistent with
a. shortcuts acceptable to the agency that allow nurses to assume larger and more complex patient assignments.
b. care that an ordinary, prudent LPN/LVN with the same education and experience would perform in similar circumstances.
c. the minimum competency necessary to function as a health care giver in the state in which the nurse resides.
d. customs of the agency in which the nurse is employed.
5. Civil law is concerned with
a. acts that threaten society.
b. decision making based on the nursing process.
c. intentional and unintentional torts.
d. guilt associated with criminal behavior.
6. A nurse is found liable for battery. What does this mean?
a. The nurse threatened the patient, causing fear of bodily harm.
b. The nurse, without consent, touched the patient in a way that caused harm.
c. The nurse detained the patient against his will.
d. The nurse incorrectly performed a procedure that is within her scope of practice.
7. A nurse who angrily tells a patient, If you dont go to sleep, Im going to give you an injection, can be accused of
a. defamation.
b. breach of confidentiality.
c. assault.
d. respondeat superior.
8. Patient A, who has Alzheimers disease, wanders and is often noisy and intrusive. The patient has a prn order for haloperidol (Haldol) IM for assaultive behavior. At report, the LPN/LVN charge nurse explains that staffing is poor and she is unable to provide the supervision the patient needs. She directs the medication nurse to administer the patients prn haloperidol q4h during the shift. This action constitutes
a. negligence.
b. libel.
c. assault.
d. false imprisonment.
9. The student nurse caring for a patient with a large decubitus ulcer photographs the ulcer without obtaining permission from the patient. The patient developed the ulcer while being cared for at home by her physician husband. The student plans to give the patients history and use the photograph in a paper she is writing. The instructor explains to the student that this action is unacceptable and could result in a court action for
a. battery.
b. malpractice.
c. negligence.
d. libel.
10. Legally, student practical/vocational nurses are held to the level of performance
a. described in the job description for nursing assistants.
b. described in the outline/syllabus of the course in which the student is enrolled.
c. of the LPN/LVN.
d. of the LPN/LVN instructor.
Chapter 13: Straightforward Communication: Instructors, Coworkers, and Patients
1. A trusting relationship with a patient can be fostered by
a. introducing oneself and stating ones role.
b. identifying the patient by room number.
c. seeing the patient every 5 to 7 minutes.
d. making up answers when one does not know the answer.
2. A patient is crying. The nurse can correctly conclude from this type of nonverbal communication that the
a. patient is sad.
b. tears reflect happiness.
c. patient is in pain.
d. situation needs clarification.
3. The nurse who demonstrates empathy
a. feels sorry for the patients situation.
b. understands the patients thoughts but is unaware of his or her feelings and emotions.
c. understands and appreciates the patients feelings while remaining objective.
d. attempts to remove physical and emotional pain and fix all of the patients problems.
4. The nurse demonstrates commitment to the patient by
a. delivering nursing care skillfully.
b. using humor to poke fun at the patient.
c. giving advice to solve the patients problems.
d. talking about what the nurse plans to do after work.
5. To communicate interest and caring to a patient of the majority culture, the nurse should
a. call the patient on days off.
b. keep conversation on a social level.
c. direct the patient to make a list of all problems.
d. make eye contact and encourage the patient to communicate.
6. A patient states, Im really turned off when the doctor hurries out of here. The nurse responds, Youre feeling upset with your doctor because he doesnt spend enough time with you. This interaction demonstrates
a. summarizing.
b. validating.
c. clarifying.
d. reflecting.
7. The patient states, My pain is awful! The response that illustrates the use of focusing is:
a. On a scale of 1 to 10, tell me the number that represents your level of pain.
b. I am not sure I understand what youre telling me.
c. You seem to be in considerable pain.
d. Can you handle the pain youre having?
8. A patient states, This is my fourth miscarriage. A response by the nurse that demonstrates active listening would be
a. Having another miscarriage must be hard to accept.
b. This is natures way. You can be glad it happened.
c. How lucky to have lost the baby so early in your pregnancy.
d. Ive had two miscarriages, so I know how you must feel.
9. The patient asks, What is an IVAC thermometer? The nurse replies, It is a heat-sensitive probe inserted into the sublingual area or rectal orifice. Heat transmission proceeds via an electrical system to a control center that interprets the temperature and displays it. This reply can be analyzed as
a. one-way communication.
b. active listening.
c. unnecessary use of jargon.
d. displaying sensitivity.
10. A patient states, I dont seem to be getting my strength back. The nurse replies, Dont worry. You are coming along just fine. This response is an example of
a. probing.
b. false reassurance.
c. disagreeing.
d. active listening.
Chapter 14: Assertiveness: Your Responsibility
1. The instructor tells a nursing student to hurry with the assignment in order to help a classmate who is behind with work. The student has promised a patient shed return in 15 minutes to polish the patients nails. Which response would be considered assertive?
a. Why me? Im still busy with my own patients. Ask one of the others who are standing around at the nurses station.
b. I suppose I can, if you insist.
c. Ive promised one of my patients that Ill come back to polish her nails. Id like to be able to keep that promise. Can you possibly ask someone else?
d. Ill be glad to help. Then go and apologize to the patient saying the instructor wont let you polish her nails.
2. A nursing students mother states, I need you to watch your younger siblings while I play bingo. The nursing student had planned to prepare for a unit examination. An assertive approach would be to say
a. What youre asking isnt fair. I have an exam to study for. You never win at bingo anyway.
b. OK. If your bingo means more to you than my passing a big exam, Ill watch the kids.
c. Ill make a deal with you. Ill watch the kids if youll cook my favorite meal tomorrow night.
d. Im sorry, but I wont be able to babysit. I have an exam tomorrow. I need the time tonight to study.
3. A staff nurse enters the room in which youre giving care to a patient in traction. She calls you aside and states, Ive watched you all morning. You dont seem to know how to do anything right. Look at you now! Youre bathing the patient and its almost time for lunch. An assertive approach would be to say
a. Youre right. I am still bathing the patient. She was in pain earlier. I waited until her narcotic made her more comfortable.
b. Im sorry you think I give poor care. Im still pretty new, and Im trying hard to learn.
c. Ive watched you, too. Youve criticized every student. Is this some game you play?
d. I hope you wont report this to my instructor.
4. The student nurse has a goal to become a more assertive person. To achieve this, the student nurse must be willing to
a. keep a daily journal.
b. be disliked by others.
c. put down other people.
d. take a positive stand.
5. A newly graduated LPN/LVN who is orienting to the unit tells a peer, You should have seen that new associate degree RN trying to take care of three patients! She was so disorganized that it made me glad Im an LPN/LVN. The LPN/LVN is demonstrating
a. manipulation.
b. assertiveness.
c. projection.
d. passiveness.
6. When a nurse tells a peer, You have to watch out for the charge nurse. Sometimes shes OK, but sometimes shes just plain unreasonable. The best thing to do is to tell her off the first time she gets on your back about something. Keep me posted and Ill try to help you. An assertive reply would be
a. Thanks for the warning. Ill be careful.
b. You take care of yourself, and Ill watch out for myself.
c. I think it would be best for me to work on my relationship independently.
d. It seems to me that youre playing a manipulative game and giving out poor advice.
7. Which statement shows a personal commitment to work on the goal of devoting more time to coursework for the LPN/LVN program?
a. My friends have to stop asking me to do time-consuming favors for them.
b. My family needs to take on more responsibility for household tasks so I have more time to study.
c. The charge nurse should stop asking me to work overtime and instead ask other CNAs.
d. I will say no when people ask me to do things that take time away from my studies.
8. Which nonverbal behavior is most congruent with a nurses assertive verbal statement?
a. Firm voice, erect posture, direct eye contact
b. Soft voice, shoulders relaxed, eyes down
c. Loud voice, back stiff, eyes glaring
d. Smile while speaking, touch persons arm, eyes lowered
9. Which behavior should be considered an early sign that a co-worker may have the potential for violence?
a. Verbalization of a wish to harm someone
b. A suicidal threat
c. Destruction of agency property
d. Lack of cooperation with supervisors
10. A student nurse is assigned to care for a patient who is known to be angry. During the caregiving process, the patient hits the student nurse. The action the student nurse should initially take is to
a. indicate that he does not like being hit and continue to provide care to the patient.
b. leave the patient in a safe situation and immediately report the event to the instructor.
c. immediately leave the room and call the patients physician for an order to medicate the patient.
d. go to the telephone and call the local police to report the incident.
Chapter 15: The Health Care Team: Where the Practical/Vocational Nurse Fits In
1. Which groups are members of a nursing team?
a. RNs, LPN/LVNs, nursing assistants
b. Radiologists, dietitians, respiratory therapists
c. Occupational therapists, physical therapists, pharmacists
d. Physicians, pharmacists, dietitians, physical therapists
2. How should the nurse accurately describe a nurse practitioner to a student nurse?
a. The nurse practitioner is a student nurse who is near graduation from a basic program.
b. The nurse practitioner is a registered nurse with a masters degree in nursing and specialty certification.
c. The nurse practitioner is a registered nurse with doctoral preparation in research methodology.
d. The nurse practitioner is a nurse who practices exclusively in a university medical center.
3. Which statement best describes the relationship between the student nurse assigned to a hospital unit for clinical experience and the unit staff?
a. The student is under direct supervision of the nurse manager of the unit at all times.
b. Students are on the clinical unit to give service to the hospital as they care for patients.
c. The student applies classroom learning under the supervision of faculty members during clinical training.
d. Practical nursing students form a nursing team of their own and are not a part of the larger unit team.
4. Select the method of delivering nursing care that facilitates continuity of care, individualizes care, and fosters 24-hour accountability for patient care.
a. Case nursing
b. Team nursing
c. Functional nursing
d. Primary care nursing
5. The member of the health care team responsible for assisting patients to arrange for community agencies to provide services after discharge is the
a. nurse.
b. physician.
c. physical therapist.
d. social worker.
6. The member of the health care team responsible for performing treatments to assist the patient to breathe more efficiently and effectively is the
a. occupational therapist.
b. physical therapist.
c. respiratory therapist.
d. psychotherapist.
7. Which member of the health care team is responsible for initially teaching a patient about medication side effects?
a. Registered nurse
c. Occupational therapist
d. Patient care technician
8. The role of the LPN/LVN in the health care team is best described as
a. independent.
b. advanced practice.
c. interdependent.
d. decentralized.
9. The goal of the health care team is best described as
a. restoring optimal physical, emotional, and spiritual health to patients.
b. preventing communicable diseases.
c. selecting health care professionals who serve people with health care needs.
d. attaining personal satisfaction of the need to help others.
10. The most important reason for a student nurse to prepare adequately before providing patient care is to
a. be able to give the same safe care as a nurse.
b. avoid arousing the anger of the instructor.
c. maintain self-esteem by performing well.
d. make a favorable impression on unit staff.
Chapter 16: Cultural Uniqueness, Sensitivity, and Competence
1. The nurse who states, I believe in the uniqueness and value of human beings is basing care on the philosophy of
a. civil liberties.
b. individual worth.
c. American heritage.
d. the American Health Care System Code.
2. A behavior to avoid when interacting with a person of a different culture is
a. diversity.
b. acculturation.
c. stereotyping.
d. behavior based on unbiased attitudes.
3. A new mother on the OB unit refuses to allow her newborn to wear disposable diapers. She insists on applying cloth diapers without safety pins, because this is how her culture applies diapers. During break, the nurse discusses the patients strange diapering technique compared with the excellent American method of diapering. Besides violating confidentiality, the nurse is displaying
a. ethnocentrism.
b. stereotyping.
c. unusual behavior during break.
d. lack of adherence to hospital policy on diapering.
4. The codes of ethics of practical/vocational nursing organizations include the expectation that nurses will
a. attempt to educate individuals of diverse cultures in the American way.
b. provide care regardless of race, creed, or cultural background.
c. utilize stereotypes in selecting best nursing care practices.
d. ignore cultural uniqueness and provide the same care to all patients.
5. Which statement about culture will help the nurse implement culturally competent care?
a. Each culture measures other cultures using its own ways as the norm.
b. Culture is primarily based on genetic inheritance.
c. Stereotypes about cultures can be accepted as true.
d. Cultural diversity is based entirely on race.
6. Patient A, who has terminal cancer, and Patient B, who has a bladder infection, share a hospital room. Neither patient is a member of the majority culture of the area. Patient A is quiet and rarely acknowledges pain. Patient B cries and moans loudly much of the day. What understanding will help the nurse provide culturally sensitive care for both patients?
a. The better educated the person, the less likely the person is to openly express pain.
b. A mentally unstable person is more likely to be noisy about pain sensations.
c. People respond to the sensation of pain in culturally determined ways.
d. People who distrust health care workers tend to be silent about their pain.
7. Mrs. Lee tells the nurse who asks why she ate so little of the food on her tray that her condition requires hot foods, so she ate only the hot foods on the tray. The nurse notices that several items the patient left on the tray were served hot, and several of the foods the patient ate were served cold. The nurse should
a. tell the dietary department to make sure Mrs. Lees foods are hot when served.
b. check Mrs. Lees menu choices and change choices from cold entrees to hot entrees.
c. tell Mrs. Lee that no hospital food service serves entrees as hot as she may fix at home.
d. ask Mrs. Lee to make a list of foods she believes would help her condition.
8. A Native American patient keeps a small bunch of feathers on the over-the-bed table. They are in the way whenever the nurse serves a tray or sets up equipment for a treatment. A culturally competent action would be to
a. throw them away while the patient is sleeping.
b. move them to a place where they wont be in the way.
c. leave them where the patient wishes to place them.
d. ask why there are a bunch of feathers in a hospital room.
9. A student nurse asks, Does ethnocentrism have any negative consequences? The most accurate reply is based on the understanding that
a. discrimination is the basis for ethnocentrism and prejudice.
b. ethnocentrism may give rise to prejudice, which may result in discrimination.
c. prejudice has no relationship to ethnocentrism and discrimination.
d. ethnocentrism has only positive consequences associated with ethnic pride.
10. During a discussion on cultural diversity, a nurse asks for an example of an ethnic group. The most accurate response would be
a. Caucasians.
b. Spanish-speaking.
c. Irish-Americans.
d. homosexuals.
Chapter 17: Spiritual Needs, Spiritual Caring, and Religious Differences
1. A nurse is preparing a presentation about spirituality and religion. To adequately prepare for peer questions, the nurse should know that the three major religious groups in the United States are the
a. Lutherans, Catholics, and Presbyterians.
b. Baptists, Assembly of God, and Lutherans.
c. Roman Catholics, Protestants, and Jews.
d. Protestants, Unitarians, and Catholics.
2. Select the patient who would benefit least from the nurse reading from the New Testament.
a. Mrs. A of the Assembly of God
b. Mr. B, who is Roman Catholic
c. Miss C, who is a Jehovahs Witness
d. Mr. D, who is an Orthodox Jew
3. To provide effective spiritual care for a Muslim patient, the nurse recognizes that those who believe in Islam refer to God as
a. Brahma.
b. Moroni.
c. Redeemer.
d. Allah.
4. The nurse working in the neonatal intensive care unit would implement baptism for a baby not expected to live if the infants religion is listed as
a. Assembly of God.
b. Roman Catholic.
c. Mormon.
d. Baptist.
5. The nurse is caring for an Orthodox Jewish patient who is close to death. An important intervention would be to find out whether the patient
a. wishes to have the Sacrament of the Sick.
b. has been baptized.
c. wishes to have his Koran nearby.
d. can be touched by the nurse after death.
6. The Jewish patient tells the nurse that he does not observe the Sabbath on Sundays. What other time interval would the nurse need to provide for patient Sabbath observances?
a. Monday noon to Tuesday noon
b. Friday sundown to after sunset Saturday
c. Thursday midnight to Friday midnight
d. Alternate Saturdays
7. The nurse who is preparing a Muslim female for a physical examination is told by the patient, I cannot undress completely. The nurse will appropriately choose interventions based on the knowledge that Muslim women
a. observe standards of modesty requiring coverage from head to ankle.
b. speak openly to women but are silent in the presence of men.
c. wear writings from the Koran on the neck, arm, or waist.
d. are given alcoholic beverages with each meal.
8. A patient who is a member of the Church of Latter Day Saints (Mormon) must increase fluid intake. Which beverages should the nurse offer?
a. Wine or beer
b. Fruit juice, milk, or water
c. Coffee, tea, or iced tea
d. Unfermented or fermented apple juice
9. A patient has a small piece of paper on which unfamiliar symbols are written hanging on a black string around the neck. To prepare the patient for the operating room (OR), the nurse should
a. allow the patient to wear the item, but make note of it for the OR staff to see and reposition if needed.
b. insist that the patient take off the item and leave it in the bedside stand.
c. remove the item and tie it to the foot of the patients bed.
d. place the item in a plastic bag and lock it in the narcotics cabinet.
10. A patient who is terminally ill describes himself as agnostic. The nurse caring for this person can correctly assume that the patient
a. does not possess spirituality.
b. will not experience spiritual distress.
c. will practice the rituals of a particular denomination.
d. will benefit from general spiritual care interventions.
Chapter 18: Health Care Settings: Potential Job Sites
1. An example of a public sector health care agency supported primarily by U.S. taxpayer dollars is the
a. U.S. Public Health Service.
b. Kaiser Permanente hospitals.
c. American Cancer Society.
d. World Health Organization.
2. A nurse is asked, What does it mean if a health care agency is described as proprietary? The nurse should respond
a. It operates by government mandate.
b. It is funded by local tax money and government subsidies.
c. It operates for profit.
d. It utilizes a large number of volunteers.
3. An example of a voluntary health agency that is focused on research and education of the public is
a. the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration.
b. the Visiting Nurse Association.
c. St. Judes Childrens Hospital.
d. the American Heart Association.
4. Knowing that Alcoholics Anonymous is a nonprofit group that receives no taxpayer money and is aimed at meeting the needs of a selected population segment would help the nurse to classify it as a
a. public agency.
b. private agency.
c. voluntary agency.
d. proprietary agency.
5. A nurse working in the emergency department who must obtain data to identify the patients primary care provider should ask the patient about
a. hospital stays.
b. low-cost health care providers.
c. receiving specialized care aimed at restoring the function of a body part.
d. the referring physician, nurse practitioner, or ambulatory care setting.
6. A patient tells the nurse, I was treated for an asthma attack at a freestanding ambulatory services center. The nurse correctly identifies the treatment as taking place at a/an
a. urgent care center.
b. domiciliary residence.
c. intermediate care facility.
d. fitness club.
7. An elderly patient is to be discharged from the acute care hospital with left-sided weakness, difficulty swallowing, and inability to independently perform ADLs, therefore requiring daily physical therapy. The patient has no family and lives in a high-rise apartment building. Referral to which level of long-term care would the nurse likely recommend at the care planning conference?
a. Sheltered housing
b. Skilled nursing facility
c. Assisted living facility
d. Domiciliary care
8. A patient who had a cerebrovascular accident needs nursing care, physical therapy, and speech therapy. The patients spouse would like to provide care at home but needs assistance. During the planning conference, the nurse should suggest that the agency that could best meet the patients needs is
a. a home health agency.
b. the American Red Cross.
c. the American Heart Association.
d. a local wellness center.
9. After several weeks of outpatient care, a patient with a badly burned hand has been referred for rehabilitation. The patient asks the nurse what the purpose of rehabilitation is. The best answer would be
a. It will help you get back the function of your hand and will prevent further disability.
b. Its a way of keeping you under direct supervision while healing continues.
c. Youll need to learn new ways of eating and dressing using your good hand.
d. In your case, I dont know what the purpose is. Why not ask your doctor?
10. Which individual is best served by receiving care at an adult day care center?
a. Mr. A, who needs a nebulizer treatment to control an acute asthma attack
b. Mr. B, who has been referred for carpal tunnel surgery
c. Mr. C, a new diabetic who needs teaching
d. Mr. D, who has first-stage Alzheimers disease and a working wife
Chapter 19: Health Care System: Financing, Issues, and Trends
1. The nurse is asked by a patient, Why is it necessary to have deductibles and copayments when I already have health insurance? The best response would be
a. They are a way to improve the margin of profit in the fee-for-service method of paying for health care.
b. They prevent health care agencies from having huge deficits associated with uncompensated care.
c. They were developed to save health care dollars at the time Medicare introduced DRGs.
d. They are part of the incremental changes designed to provide more universal care.
2. A patient tells the nurse, I didnt sign up for health care insurance at my job because Im young and healthy and can use the money in other ways. The response that best explains the advantage of health insurance would be, With insurance
a. a fiscal middleman pays your health care bills.
b. your individual contributions go directly to paying your personal expenses.
c. you can borrow money for unexpected health care expenses at a very low interest rate.
d. you are spreading the risk in case you have a serious health event, such as cancer or major trauma.
3. A patient asks the nurse, What do health maintenance organizations (HMOs) do to reduce health care costs? The response giving the best example of an HMO cost-containment method would be
a. HMOs pool individual contributions for use in catastrophic illness.
b. HMOs provide supplemental coverage for items not covered by Medicare.
c. HMOs use a retrospective pay

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