TEST BANK FOR THE ESSENCE OF ANTHROPOLOGY 4TH EDITION By HAVILAND

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TEST BANK FOR THE ESSENCE OF ANTHROPOLOGY 4TH EDITION By HAVILAND

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WITH ANSWERS

 

THE ESSENCE OF ANTHROPOLOGY 4TH EDITION By HAVILAND  TEST BANK 

 

True / False

 

1. Anthropologists can be considered synthesizers.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   3
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

2. By utilizing a holistic perspective, anthropologists do not experience ethnocentrism in regard to other cultures.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   3
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

3. A North American researcher disapproving of Japanese resistance to organ transplantation is an example of culture-bound theory.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   4
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

4. Anthropologist Elizabeth Guillettes study of the effects of pesticide exposure on childrens performance of normal childhood activities in a Yaqui village in northern Mexico is an example of applied medical anthropology.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   6
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

5. Participant observation means that the anthropologist should be involved in everything that a cultural group does in order to understand their culture.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   7
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Modify

 

6. Only apes have a language as complex as human language.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   8
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

7. Linguistic anthropologists are interested in both spoken and written language.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   8
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

8. Historical linguistics is a primary branch of anthropological linguistics.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   9
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

9. Societies termed prehistoric are those that placed less emphasis on recording and transmitting information.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   10
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

10. When available, historical documents are always preferred to the study of material remains.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   10
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

11. The anthropological study of genes and genetic relationships is known as genetic anthropology.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   12
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

12. Primatology is the study of living and fossil primates.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   12
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

13. All primate species are endangered today.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   12
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

14. Our bones can tell stories about how we lived, including whether we were right-handed or left-handed.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   13
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

15. Studies of growth and development can provide data on the evolutionary history of humans.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   13
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

16. All living humans are members of the same species.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   12
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

17. Archaeologists excavate artifacts to study them in isolation.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   21
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

18. The point of reference within a datum is called a grid.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   22
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

19. Chronometric dating is another name for absolute dating.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   22
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

20. Any object made by humans is classified as an artifact.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   20
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

21. Archaeologists use only absolute dating techniques to date fossils.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   22
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

22. Archaeologists frequently use eliciting devices to probe underground sites.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   25
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

23. Ethnographers consider themselves to be key consultants because they work directly with living peoples.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   24
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

24. The American Anthropological Association has recently petitioned to guard the confidentiality of ethnographic notes taken in medical settings and not make them subject to subpoena.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   26
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

25. Maintaining ones own culture is an internationally recognized basic human right.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   26
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

26. Anthropology is well equipped to grapple with globalization.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   27
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

Multiple Choice

 

27. Which of the following characteristics uniquely defines the anthropological approach?

  a. a concern with the study of humans
  b. a focus on human relationships and society
  c. a focus on humans as biological organisms
  d. a holistic perspective

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   3
OTHER:   Pickup
NOTES:   Conceptual

 

28. The holistic anthropological perspective is expansive and inclusive because it seeks to understand:

  a. human nature
  b. global forces
  c. biological and cultural homologies
  d. evolutionary change

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   3
OTHER:   Modify
NOTES:   Conceptual

 

29. Which of the following is not a primary perspective of anthropology?

  a. a holistic perspective
  b. an ethnocentric perspective
  c. a cross-cultural perspective
  d. an evolutionary perspective

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   3
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

30. One aspect that makes anthropology unique among social sciences is its traditional focus on:

  a. peoples of Caucasian and African descent
  b. European peoples
  c. non-Western peoples and cultures
  d. peasants and farmers

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   4
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

31. Which perspectives best guard against culture-bound theories?

  a. multiple cross-cultural perspectives
  b. a cross-cultural and evolutionary perspective
  c. an evolutionary and philosophical perspective
  d. all perspectives guard against culture-bound theories

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   4
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Modify

 

32. Anthropological studies help us trace human connectedness; for example, in exploitative eastern Congolese mines they extract coltan, which we use every day in our:

  a. mobile phones
  b. diesel cars
  c. fluorescent lights
  d. water treatment plants

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   2
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

33. What difference did Margaret Lock find between Japanese and North American perceptions of death?

  a. Japanese are more comfortable harvesting organs from those declared brain dead than North Americans.
  b. North Americans are more comfortable harvesting organs from those declared brain dead than Japanese.
  c. Japanese do not use human organ transplants in any medical situation.
  d. North Americans do not medically classify people as brain dead.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   4
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

34. Individuals within all four subfields of anthropology practice:

  a. ethnological anthropology
  b. applied anthropology
  c. development anthropology
  d. molecular anthropology

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   5
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

35. Which of the following is not a common practice within applied anthropology?

  a. collaboration between anthropologists and community members
  b. conducting research together as a team with community members
  c. solving specific problems
  d. focus on issues primarily of theoretical value

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   5
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Modify

 

36. What is the most significant scientific contribution of Elizabeth Guillettes research on pesticide use among the Yaqui?

  a. It presents scientific evidence that common pesticides cause more problems to adults than to children.
  b. It highlights the importance of using pesticides to increase production levels for agriculturalists everywhere.
  c. It suggests that highland indigenous communities may suffer increased effects from pesticides because of high altitude.
  d. It suggests that pesticide use among agricultural communities may cause health problems worldwide.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   6
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

37. Another name for cultural anthropology is:

  a. sociology
  b. ethnology
  c. sociocultural anthropology
  d. ethnography

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

38. Culture is considered anthropologys most distinguishing feature for all of the following reasons except:

  a. The focus on culture intersects with biology, material remains, social behavior, and language.
  b. Anthropologists use the concept of culture to establish an understanding of those groups in a society that practice culture and those that do not.
  c. Anthropologists focus on humans as culture-producing and culture-reproducing creatures.
  d. Understanding culture is integral to each of anthropologys subfields.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   7
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

39. The detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork is called:

  a. ethnology
  b. ethnography
  c. forensic anthropology
  d. molecular anthropology

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   7
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

40. On-location research is also known as:

  a. cultural resource management
  b. ethnology
  c. fieldwork
  d. site research

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   7
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

41. Participant observation:

  a. is a research method that involves the anthropologist both observing and participating in another culture
  b. is an analytical method that uses both cross-cultural data and also informant participation in staged cultural activities
  c. is used in all subfields and is a primary component of applied anthropology
  d. is found only in cultural anthropology and is only used when studying in non-Western societies

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   7
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

42. Which of the following best describes ethnology?

  a. cross-cultural comparative research
  b. detailed description of a particular culture
  c. study of customary patterns in human behavior
  d. participant observation research

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   7
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

43. All of the following are approaches that linguistic anthropologists may take except:

  a. studying the way languages change over time
  b. describing the way that a language is formed
  c. analyzing which languages are superior
  d. studying the relation between language and culture

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   8
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

44. Which of the following cases best illustrates the practice of ethnology?

  a. analyzing the patterns of behavior in an indigenous religious ritual
  b. comparing weddings in France with those in the United States
  c. studying ways that young children learn to play piano in a Chinese family
  d. doing participant observation in a rural setting in Taiwan

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   7
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

45. Anthropologist Nancy Scheper-Hughes founded the group Organs Watch as a way to solve the global problem of human organ trafficking. This is an example of:

  a. applied cultural anthropology
  b. applied biological anthropology
  c. forensics
  d. ethnology

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   8
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

46. Linguists estimate today that there are approximately how many human languages?

  a. 56
  b. 800
  c. 12,000
  d. 6,000

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   8
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

47. Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding language today?

  a. Nearly half of the worlds remaining languages will become extinct over the next hundred years.
  b. Nearly all of the worlds remaining languages will become extinct over the next 50 years.
  c. Language is currently in a stage of revitalization and growth, and linguists project that more than 200 new languages will emerge in the next 100 years.
  d. Languages constantly grow, develop, and die and there has never been a net loss of human language.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   8
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

48. Archaeology is the study of:

  a. human material remains and environmental data
  b. human fossils
  c. human skeletal remains
  d. ancient written documents

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   10
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

49. Shallow, restricted concentrations of charcoal commonly indicate:

  a. hunting sites
  b. food processing sites
  c. farming sites
  d. religious sites

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   10
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

50. The term prehistory refers to a period in which:

  a. people had no means of recording their thoughts
  b. there was no written record
  c. people had no history
  d. humans had not yet diverged from the primate line

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   10
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

51. The study of mummified skeletal remains to provide evidence of early surgery is an example of:

  a. cultural resource management
  b. bioarchaeology
  c. medical anthropology
  d. ethnology

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   10
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

52. Which of the following is the most objective source of information for an archaeological site?

  a. official government records
  b. material remains at the site
  c. interviews with local people
  d. objective information varies by site

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   10
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

53. The Garbage Project is an example of:

  a. ethnoarchaeology
  b. applied anthropology
  c. bioarchaeology
  d. prehistoric archaeology

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   11
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

54. All of the following are important focal aspects of study in the Garbage Project except:

  a. enforcing measures to decrease consumption levels in the United States
  b. testing the process of decay for biodegradable materials
  c. understanding differences between what people say and what they do
  d. understanding contemporary social issues affecting a United States population

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   11
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Modify

 

55. Which of the following federal acts provides for the protection and return of Native American cultural items or human remains?

  a. Native American Preservation of Historic and Prehistoric Places Act of 1984
  b. Native American Environmental Policy Act of 1969
  c. Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990
  d. Archaeological and Historical Preservation Act of 1974

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   11
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

56. All of the following are characteristics of the study of biological anthropology except:

  a. primatology
  b. human adaptation
  c. human growth and development
  d. ethnology

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   12
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

57. Molecular anthropology is the anthropological study of:

  a. pottery and prehistoric technology
  b. genes and genetic relationships
  c. chemical reactions associated with soil typology
  d. exchange networks and trade

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   12
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

58. Paleoanthropology can best be described as the study of:

  a. Paleolithic hunters
  b. genetic commonalities among the primates
  c. early human toolmaking
  d. human evolution

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   12
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

59. How is paleoanthropology unique among evolutionary studies?

  a. It takes a biocultural approach.
  b. It focuses on nonhuman primates.
  c. It traces the biological relationships between different human species.
  d. It considers humans to be primates and related to monkeys.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   12
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

60. Archaeologists are especially interested in features known as middens because they provide information on:

  a. ancient trash that would include artifacts that people used and consumed
  b. minerals that early populations used for mining and the production of tools
  c. water sources that ancient people used for agriculture and household use
  d. architectural data that indicate where household sites and temples were located

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   10
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

61. Genetic analyses indicate that the first human ancestors likely originated:

  a. 10 to 15 million years ago
  b. 7 to 10 million years ago
  c. 5 to 8 million years ago
  d. 2 to 5 million years ago

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   12
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

62. Which of the following is not usually studied by primatologists?

  a. living and fossil primates
  b. socioeconomic status
  c. primate anatomy
  d. contemporary tool use

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   12
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

63. Anthropologists commonly study the basis of healthy human growth among living populations through all of the following except:

  a. physiology
  b. genetics
  c. hormonal development
  d. linguistics

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   12
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

64. Franz Boas found that one of the major physical differences between first-generation immigrants to the United States and their children was in the area of:

  a. intelligence
  b. longevity
  c. height
  d. weight

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   12
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

65. The enlargement of the right heart ventricle among Quechua Indians is a developmental adaptation to:

  a. cold weather
  b. high altitude
  c. poor nutrition
  d. farming

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   13
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Modify

 

66. Short-term biological changes in response to particular environmental stimuli are referred to as:

  a. cultural adaptations
  b. environmental adaptations
  c. physiological adaptations
  d. biosocial adaptations

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

67. The identification of human skeletal remains is the primary focus of:

  a. primatology
  b. physical anthropology
  c. molecular anthropology
  d. forensic anthropology

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   13
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

68. The relationships between a forensic anthropologist and a forensic archaeologist can be likened to that between:

  a. a coroner and a pathologist
  b. a forensic crime investigator and a funeral director
  c. a forensic pathologist and a crime scene investigator
  d. a police investigator and a crime scene investigator

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   13
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

69. Clyde Snow is a well-known forensic anthropologist associated internationally with cases of:

  a. human rights abuses
  b. corporal punishment
  c. imprisonment and federal execution
  d. ancient prehistoric burials

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   14
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

70. Forensic anthropologist Karen Burns investigated alleged atrocities in northern Iraq following the 1991 Gulf War. She established that one individual was murdered (and not buried by his family) simply through evidence of:

  a. a large skull fracture on the left side of the cranium
  b. a gun buried beside the individual
  c. two polyester threads attached to his legs
  d. two cotton shrouds wrapping his lower body

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   14
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

71. What most distinguishes anthropology from other sciences is:

  a. its focus on humans as the central topic of study
  b. its use of biological data
  c. its use of social observations
  d. the diversity of ways in which scientific research is conducted

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   15
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

72. What does it mean to say that Anthropology is an empirical science?

  a. It focuses on the study of humans.
  b. It works with hypotheses based on intuition.
  c. It is based on sensory observations.
  d. It involves both qualitative and quantitative methods.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   14
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Modify

 

73. What are the basic ingredients of science according to the authors?

  a. creativity and imagination
  b. imagination and skepticism
  c. skepticism and creativity
  d. rationalism and imagination

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   15
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

74. An explanation supported by a reliable body of data is called a:

  a. hypothesis
  b. law
  c. theory
  d. fact

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   16
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

75. In the Original Study, what did the scientists find at Ukkuqsi?

  a. a small girl buried in her toboggan and under part of the covering of a kayak
  b. a small girl who was believed to be related to the same species as famous Lucy; she was called Lucys child
  c. a burial chamber with many artifacts and fossils associated with Inupiat daily life
  d. a skeleton of a man dated at around 9,300 years ago and named Kennewick Man

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   18
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

76. Anthropologists work to establish the reliability of the research conclusions. This is known as:

  a. reflexivity
  b. validity
  c. culture
  d. displacement

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   16
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

77. All of the following are archaeological and paleoanthropological methods except:

  a. analyzing artifacts
  b. analyzing material culture
  c. processing fossils
  d. doing oral life histories

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   20
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

78. The preserved remains of plants and animals that have lived in the past are called:

  a. fossils
  b. artifacts
  c. casts
  d. mummies

 

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