Test Bank For A History of World Societies Combined Volume 10th Edition By John P. McKay

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Test Bank For A History of World Societies Combined Volume 10th Edition By John P. McKay




A History of World Societies Combined Volume 10th Edition By John P. McKay




Answer each of the following questions with an essay. Be sure to include specific examples that support your thesis and conclusions.



1. What are some of the problems in using evidence from contemporary gatherer societies to study early humans?



2. How did early Homo erectus spread out of East Africa into other parts of the world? Where did they go, and how early did they reach those places?



3. What were the key features of Paleolithic food attainment and Paleolithic diets?



4. What are some of the theories about gender relationships in Paleolithic societies? What changed in those relationships in the Neolithic period? What kinds of evidence are used in supporting or arguing against these theories?



5. What is the relationship between pastoralism, disease, and humans?



6. How did material goods create, define, and perpetuate social hierarchies in Neolithic societies?


Choose the letter of the best answer.



1. How is the term species generally defined?
  A) A group of organisms that can communicate with one another
  B) A group of organisms that will share food with one another
  C) A group of organisms that can mate and produce fertile offspring of both sexes
  D) A group of organisms that originate from a different ancestor



2. During which of the following periods did the ancestor common to both chimpanzees and humans probably live?
  A) 3 to 5 million years ago
  B) 5 to 7 million years ago
  C) 10 to 12 million years ago
  D) 12 to 14 million years ago



3. Scientists used which of the following to label the first periods of human history?
  A) The material used for tools
  B) The height of the human form
  C) Language ability and skill level
  D) The location of human settlements



4. Although the date varies by location, when did the shift to agriculture first occur?
  A) 3000 B.C.E.
  B) 15,000 B.C.E.
  C) 9000 B.C.E.
  D) 1000 B.C.E.



5. What term is used for the first fully bipedal hominid known to paleontologists?
  A) Ardipithecus
  B) Homo habilis
  C) Australopithecus
  D) Homo sapiens



6. Where have the majority of Australopithecus skeletal remains been found?
  A) The Sahara Desert
  B) The Great Rift Valley
  C) Jericho Valley
  D) The Island of Java



7. How did Homo erectus differ from modern humans?
  A) Homo erectus had a slightly smaller brain size than modern humans.
  B) Homo erectus had no capacity for making and using tools.
  C) Homo erectus lived in larger groups than modern humans.
  D) Homo erectus shared food preparations and gathering.



8. How Homo erectus migrate from China about 1.5 million years ago to settle on Java?
  A) By sailing woven grass boats
  B) By walking over land
  C) By floating on planks
  D) By paddling canoes



9. Where did Homo sapiens first evolve?
  A) The Black Sea region
  B) The Nile Valley
  C) China
  D) East Africa



10. Why were better social skills especially important for early human females?
  A) They needed help with food gathering.
  B) They needed help with home building.
  C) They needed help attracting a mate.
  D) They needed help with child rearing.



11. Which of the following skills did Homo sapiens acquire around 25,000 years ago?
  A) The capacity to weave cloth
  B) The capacity to make tools from stone
  C) The capacity to domesticate sheep
  D) The capacity to use fire for warmth



12. Which of the following is evidence that Neanderthals understood death to have a symbolic meaning?
  A) They drew pictures of the dead on walls.
  B) They buried the dead with symbolic objects.
  C) They wrote stories about the meaning of death.
  D) They built large funerary monuments.



13. The Neanderthals of Europe were a branch of what hominid group?
  A) Homo sapiens
  B) Homo habilis
  C) Australopithecus
  D) Homo erectus



14. Between 1 and 4 percent of the DNA in modern humans is shared with what early hominid?
  A) Homo sapiens
  B) Cro-Magnon
  C) Neanderthals
  D) Australopithecus



15. Which of the following allowed Homo sapiens to migrate to Australia and New Guinea?
  A) Simple rafts
  B) Land bridges
  C) Large boats
  D) Swimming



16. What was one of the results of endogamy?
  A) An increase in fertility
  B) A lack of diversity of languages
  C) The inability of Homo sapiens to mate with one another
  D) Differences in physical features and spoken language



17. The term forager is now used by historians instead of what traditional term?
  A) Hunter-gatherer
  B) Stone-age man
  C) Caveman
  D) First people



18. Which of the following foods dominated the diet of Paleolithic foragers?
  A) Trapped animals
  B) Fish
  C) Hunted animals
  D) Plants



19. Paleolithic humans may have encouraged the growth of new plants by doing what?
  A) Planting seeds
  B) Hunting large game
  C) Harvesting crops
  D) Setting fires



20. How many hours a week did early foragers generally spend gathering food?
  A) One to three hours
  B) Forty hours
  C) Fifty hours or more
  D) Ten to twenty hours



21. Which of the following is true of Paleolithic mating patterns?
  A) Most Paleolithic humans sought mates from outside their kinship groups.
  B) Mates were usually selected from within the same kinship group.
  C) Most mates were purchased from a distant tribal group.
  D) Mates were generally people taken captive in conflict.



22. The burial sites of Paleolithic humans reveal that they believed that all things and natural occurrences had which of the following?
  A) Meaning
  B) Economic value
  C) Danger
  D) Spirits



23. What did Paleolithic peoples believe about dead members of their kinship groups?
  A) That the dead were gone forever
  B) That deceased family members were still with them
  C) That the dead became new gods
  D) That the dead would return one day



24. Who in Paleolithic society was believed to regularly receive messages from the spirit world?
  A) The chief
  B) The shaman
  C) The king
  D) The warriors



25. What was one of the shamans primary duties?
  A) Healing the sick
  B) Leading the war band
  C) Harvesting crops
  D) Leading building projects in urban areas



26. What discovery marks the transition from Paleolithic to Neolithic?
  A) Stone tools
  B) Religion
  C) Burial
  D) Agriculture



27. What major climate change occurred about 15,000 years ago?
  A) Temperatures warmed and glaciers melted.
  B) Monsoon patterns began.
  C) Temperatures became slightly colder.
  D) El Nio wind patterns first developed.



28. What term describes a crop that has been modified by selective breeding?
  A) Trained
  B) Marketed
  C) Domesticated
  D) Husbanded



29. Horticulture refers to the growing of plants using what tool?
  A) Clubs
  B) Plows
  C) Digging sticks
  D) Sickles



30. Beginning about 9000 B.C.E., people in the Fertile Crescent began to domesticate what crop?
  A) Yams
  B) Wheat
  C) Squash
  D) Rice



31. How did womens work change as a result of settled agriculture?
  A) Women were responsible for working the fields while their husbands hunted.
  B) Women became merchants because they now had time to produce things to sell.
  C) Women continued to be quite mobile and continued to add to family diet through foraging.
  D) Women likely began to spend more time tending to household needs.



32. How did the amount of labor required for horticulture compare to that for foraging?
  A) Horticulture required less time and labor than foraging.
  B) Horticulture required more time and labor than foraging.
  C) Horticulture required the same amount of time and labor as foraging.
  D) Horticulture required more time and labor than foraging, but only during harvesting season.



33. By 4000 B.C.E., how far north of the Fertile Crescent had horticulture spread?
  A) To Britain
  B) To Scandinavia
  C) To Ethiopia
  D) To Russia



34. Potatoes and quinoa were domesticated by 3000 B.C.E. in what region?
  A) Indus Valley
  B) Western United States
  C) Andes Mountains
  D) Fertile Crescent



35. What species of animal did humans domesticate around 15,000 years ago?
  A) Sheep
  B) Dogs
  C) Cattle
  D) Horses



36. Which of the following was a consequence of humans living in close proximity with animals?
  A) Humans had an easier time domesticating animals.
  B) Humans spread disease to animals, leading to the extinction of some species.
  C) Humans were exposed to more pathogens.
  D) Humans began to consider animals as property.



37. Animal domestication led to humans becoming able to digest which of the following?
  A) Milk
  B) Meat
  C) Grain
  D) Minerals



38. The natural herding instinct of what animal paved the way for pastoralism?
  A) Pigs
  B) Yaks
  C) Humans
  D) Sheep



39. Beginning in the sixth millennium B.C.E., people attached wooden sticks to frames and pack animals to use as a simple version of what developing technology?
  A) Weapons
  B) Fences to mark boundaries of territory
  C) Early threshers
  D) Plows



40. How did the moldboard plow aid early farmers?
  A) It turned over soil, breaking it up for easier planting.
  B) It planted seeds as it moved through the soil.
  C) It helped to harvest crops.
  D) It made straighter furrows.



41. In most Neolithic communities, which group of people were the first to work out written codes of law?
  A) Craftsmen
  B) Priests
  C) Warriors
  D) Farmers



42. Every society that has left a written record was organized around what important hierarchical system?
  A) Patriarchy
  B) Theocracy
  C) Pastoralism
  D) Matriarchy



43. What is depicted in the earliest Egyptian hieroglyph for weaving?
  A) Children weaving
  B) A loom and shuttle
  C) Sheep being sheared
  D) A woman with a shuttle



44. Which of the following was an important feature of the houses of atal Hyk?
  A) They were constructed without roofs.
  B) Elites lived in round houses with two doors.
  C) They were made of mud brick.
  D) They were spaced far apart to combat disease.



45. For what did Neolithic peoples use obsidian?
  A) It was melted to construct plow blades.
  B) It was used to make knives and blades.
  C) It was easily carved into storage jars.
  D) It was woven into carpets to make them stronger.



46. What alloy is created by mixing copper with another metal such as arsenic?
  A) Iron
  B) Steel
  C) Tin
  D) Bronze



47. Why did Neolithic peoples build circular structures?
  A) It helped them to predict where best to herd their animals.
  B) Circular structures were believed to predict the movements of the stars.
  C) Circular structures were believed to possess magical powers to help people know where to migrate next.
  D) Priests taught their populations that building large circular structures would ensure a large harvest for years to come.



48. What characteristics did the gods of polytheistic Neolithic societies develop?
  A) They took on social hierarchies and had specific labor responsibilities.
  B) They were originally believed to resemble people but later were depicted as animals.
  C) They were always depicted as strong animals.
  D) They were seen as heavenly creatures with wings.



49. As Neolithic religious structures became more hierarchical, what was the purpose of the most important religious practice?
  A) Ensuring military success
  B) Granting a special skill
  C) Foretelling the future
  D) Ensuring fertility



50. By what time was the Bronze Age well under way?
  A) 10,000 B.C.E.
  B) 7500 B.C.E.
  C) 5000 B.C.E.
  D) 2500 B.C.E.


Choose the letter of the best answer.



1. What material was used for writing in Mesopotamia?
  A) Animal bones
  B) Papyrus
  C) Soft clay
  D) Parchment



2. How did papyrus compare with clay tablets as a writing material?
  A) It was less prone to disintegration.
  B) It was more fragile and less likely to survive.
  C) It required a stylus to carve the symbols.
  D) It was more difficult to write on.



3. In general, how did residents of ancient cities tend to view residents of rural areas?
  A) City dwellers viewed themselves as more sophisticated.
  B) City dwellers saw themselves as equal to the farmers.
  C) City dwellers looked up to and envied those who lived in the country.
  D) City dwellers tried to imitate the people of the rural areas.



4. What method did early states use to control their populace?
  A) Exemption from taxation
  B) Promises of wealth
  C) Threats of violence
  D) Offers of free food



5. Social hierarchies in early states were usually heightened by the introduction of what state mechanism?
  A) Written laws
  B) Economic records
  C) Written religious texts
  D) Coinage



6. In what region did the first known states develop?
  A) Egypt
  B) India
  C) Persia
  D) Mesopotamia



7. What natural feature in Sumer helped settled agriculture develop there first?
  A) Naturally occurring irrigation ditches that helped water the crops
  B) Rivers that brought new soil with annual floods
  C) Constant annual rainfall that irrigated the fields
  D) An abundance of labor to work the fields



8. What role did the first rulers of Ur, Uruk, and other Sumerian city-states play?
  A) Priests
  B) Merchants
  C) Farmers
  D) Scribes



9. Where did Sumerians build their large ziggurat temples?
  A) On the outskirts of the cities
  B) In the middle of crop fields
  C) On man-made islands in the river
  D) In the center of the city



10. Which of the following best describes a ziggurat-style temple?
  A) Underground cavern
  B) Floating island
  C) Beehive-shaped dome
  D) Stepped pyramid



11. Why did Sumerians likely begin a system of taxation?
  A) To pay for establishing a public school system
  B) To pay for the construction of temples and the expenses of temple officials
  C) To pay for the construction of libraries to hold cuneiform tablets
  D) To encourage economic growth and the development of market squares for traders



12. To counter the temples power, military leaders who became kings began to build what kinds of structures?
  A) Rival temples to worship war gods
  B) Public cemeteries to honor war dead as heroes
  C) Palaces to demonstrate the kings strength
  D) Marketplaces to highlight goods from conquered territories



13. Who were known as clients in Sumer?
  A) Free people who were dependent on the nobility
  B) Household slaves
  C) Destitute persons supported by the city temple
  D) Indentured servants who had contracts with local nobles



14. Who worked the land owned by the king, nobles, and temples in ancient Sumer?
  A) Hired laborers
  B) Priests in training
  C) Client farmers and slaves
  D) Scribes and soldiers



15. Why did older men have the most power in the Mesopotamian social system?
  A) Mesopotamian societies were patriarchal.
  B) The most important value in Mesopotamian society was reverence for elders.
  C) Older men tended to form political alliances with powerful priests.
  D) Older men presided over important ancestor-worship rituals.



16. Which of the following describes the earliest Sumerian writings?
  A) They were ideograms in which each sign symbolized an idea.
  B) They were pictographs in which each sign pictured an object.
  C) Each symbol represented a sound in the spoken language.
  D) They were written using the first known alphabet.



17. How did Sumerian scribes learn the cuneiform writing system?
  A) They were taught at special schools.
  B) Their fathers taught them at home.
  C) Priests were solely responsible for this important teaching.
  D) They were taught as part of their mandated training as members of the army.



18. Sumerian scribes were trained largely to do what?
  A) To record religious texts and ritual manuals
  B) To write tax documents and legal cases
  C) To write official histories of royal families
  D) To keep property and wealth records



19. What is the key theme of the Epic of Gilgamesh?
  A) The duty of a soldier to serve the king
  B) The constant battle between good and evil
  C) The idea that men and women were created by magic
  D) Humanitys search for immortality



20. The Sumerian mathematical system was based on units of sixty, ten, and six and survives in what modern system?
  A) Calculus
  B) Musical notation
  C) Time measurement
  D) Square roots



21. Around 2300 B.C.E., what chieftain conquered Sumer and created an empire?
  A) Hammurabi
  B) Menes
  C) Akhenaten
  D) Sargon



22. How did Sargon reinforce his rule in Mesopotamia?
  A) He converted all the people to his Semitic religion.
  B) He tore down the defensive walls of major cities and appointed his own sons as rulers.
  C) He wrote the first law code.
  D) He claimed to be a descendant of the god Marduk.



23. How did religion contribute to Hammurabis political success?
  A) He demonstrated his strength by forcing the exile of all Sumerian priests.
  B) He partitioned all of Mesopotamia into small political units governed by priests.
  C) He destroyed all existing Mesopotamian religions and forced acceptance of his Babylonian faith.
  D) He claimed that divine authority stood behind the laws that he established.



24. What was the intended function of Hammurabis code?
  A) To regulate the relationships among his people and promote their welfare
  B) To intimidate the common people in order to prevent social upheaval
  C) To protect the position of nobles and priests at the expense of the commoners
  D) To increase the nobilitys power over the priesthood



25. According to Hammurabis code, who controlled a womans dowry after she married?
  A) A judge
  B) The womans husband
  C) The womans father
  D) The woman herself



26. What geographic feature had the largest impact on Egyptian culture and prosperity?
  A) The Sinai Desert
  B) The Nile River
  C) The Red Sea
  D) The Mediterranean Sea



27. How did Egyptians view the afterlife?
  A) As bleak and very frightening
  B) As pleasant
  C) As a place of punishment
  D) As a fictional realm that nonetheless inspired great wonder



28. According to Egyptian belief, the Niles rise and fall was dictated by
  A) tides.
  B) Ra.
  C) the pharaoh.
  D) priests.



29. One of the earliest deities Egyptians worshiped was Amon, god of
  A) the sky.
  B) the underworld.
  C) the dead.
  D) fertility.



30. For which of the following was a pharaoh believed to be responsible?
  A) Achieving integration between gods and humans
  B) Ruling over earth and sky
  C) Ensuring his peoples safe passage to the afterlife
  D) Organizing Egypts agricultural system



31. Egyptian hieroglyphs were recorded on papyrus sheets and on what else?
  A) Clay tablets
  B) Glass items
  C) Walls of tombs
  D) Clay pots



32. How did Egyptian and Mesopotamian women compare in terms of their ability to own and control property?
  A) Neither culture allowed women to own or control property independently.
  B) Mesopotamian women owned and controlled more property than Egyptian women.
  C) In both cultures, women were able to own and control property freely.
  D) Egyptian women owned and controlled more property than Mesopotamian women.



33. During what period did slavery become widespread in Egypt?
  A) Second Intermediate Period
  B) Old Kingdom
  C) New Kingdom
  D) First Intermediate Period



34. What important contribution did the Hyksos make to Egyptian society?
  A) They encouraged Egyptians to worship the god Amon.
  B) Their bronze technology and weaponry was adopted by Egyptians.
  C) As naval pioneers, they introduced the center-stern rudder to Egyptian ships.
  D) Their mathematicians introduced the abacus to Egypt.



35. How was the New Kingdom different from the previous Middle and Old Kingdoms?
  A) Pharaohs increasingly tried to ensure peace because they realized war was too expensive.
  B) In response to multiple social problems, pharaohs encouraged more religious activities.
  C) Egyptians now focused more on trade than on farming because the Nile became unpredictable.
  D) Egyptians now focused more on conquest of new territories and created the first Egyptian empire.



36. Which of the following contributed to the expansion of slavery in the New Kingdom period?
  A) Economic problems forced families to sell children into slavery to pay off debts.
  B) As the Egyptian population diminished, the agricultural system required more laborers to maintain farming efficiency.
  C) Power struggles within the royal family led to more people becoming slaves.
  D) Focus on the conquest of other peoples resulted in slaves being brought back to Egypt from conquered territories.



37. Why was Akhenatens interest in worship of a new sun-god Aten ultimately a failure?
  A) The elaborate worship rituals were too confusing.
  B) The hated and corrupt priesthood endorsed it.
  C) It was imposed from above and failed to find a place among the people.
  D) It attempted to do away with worship of the widely popular sun-god.



38. Why did the Hittites and Egyptians conclude a peace treaty in 1258 B.C.E.?
  A) Both sides were exhausted by war.
  B) The Egyptians signed to avoid a total defeat by the Hittites.
  C) The Hittites brutally conquered the Egyptians.
  D) Both sides recognized the impossibility of defeating the other.



39. Which civilization produced some of the best iron products in the world?
  A) India
  B) Sumer
  C) Mero
  D) Persia



40. In 727 B.C.E., King Piye conquered and unified Egypt from his home kingdom of
  A) Kush.
  B) Phoenicia.
  C) Persia.
  D) Babylonia.



41. What was the Phoenicians greatest cultural achievement?
  A) They developed settled agriculture.
  B) They developed the first sun-based calendar.
  C) They created the first fully phonetic alphabet.
  D) They were responsible for the composition of The Iliad.



42. What remains our most important source of knowledge about ancient Jews?
  A) Archaeological excavations
  B) The Hebrew Bible
  C) Governmental records
  D) Oral epic histories



43. The Hebrews created a monarchy with Saul as leader by fighting what other Palestinian people in the eleventh century B.C.E.?
  A) Philistines
  B) Phoenicians
  C) Egyptians
  D) Assyrians



44. Which Hebrew leader captured the city of Jerusalem?
  A) Judah
  B) David
  C) Saul
  D) Solomon



45. What happened to the Hebrew kingdom after Solomons death?
  A) Its leaders continued to consolidate politically.
  B) Conflict led to its split into two separate kingdoms.
  C) The kingdom was largely destroyed by an internal power struggle.
  D) Leaders gained the military protection of the Assyrians.



46. How did the Hebrew religion change as a result of the Babylonian Captivity?
  A) It was redefined and established as the law of Yahweh.
  B) It almost disappeared.
  C) It was exposed to Zoroastrianism.
  D) It was adopted by the Chaldeans.




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