Test Bank For Adolescence -16th Edition by John W. Santrock

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Test Bank For Adolescence -16th Edition by John W. Santrock

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WITH ANSWERS

 

Adolescence -16th Edition by John W. Santrock

 

,

Chapter 07

Moral Development, Values, and Religion

 

  1. Moral development includes moral
  2. thought.
  3. feelings.
  4. behavior.
  5. D. All of these choices are correct.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Basic

Learning Goal: 1

  1. The theorist who developed a major stage theory of moral development is
  2. A. Lawrence Kohlberg.
  3. John Money.
  4. Timothy Malone.
  5. Susan Cloninger.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Basic

Learning Goal: 1

  1. The key concept in understanding Kohlbergs theory of moral development is
  2. externalization.
  3. B.
  4. individualism.
  5. collectivism.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. The two stages of Kohlbergs preconventional reasoning level are individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange, and
  2. A. punishment and obedience orientation.
  3. social systems morality.
  4. social contract morality.
  5. None of these choices are correct.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Chip obeys adults because they tell him to obey them. According to Kohlberg, Chip is in which stage of moral development?
  2. mutual interpersonal perspective
  3. B. punishment and obedience orientation
  4. conventional reasoning
  5. conformity orientation

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APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Kohlbergs conventional reasoning level consists of two stages. One is called mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity. The other is called
  2. universal ethical principles.
  3. heteronomous morality.
  4. C. social systems morality.
  5. social contract morality.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Basic

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Lucia argues that community members need to obey laws in order for the community to work effectively. According to Kohlberg, Lucia is in which stage of moral development?
  2. A. social systems morality
  3. social contract morality
  4. mutual interpersonal expectations morality
  5. universal ethical principles

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APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. The highest level of Kohlbergs theory of moral development is
  2. conventional reasoning.
  3. utilitarian reasoning.
  4. C. postconventional reasoning.
  5. universal reasoning.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Basic

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Which of the following statements regarding Kohlbergs theory of moral development is NOT true?
  2. Most adolescents reason at Stage 3.
  3. Stage 5 never characterizes more than 10 percent of the individuals.
  4. Stage 6 has recently been removed from the Kohlberg moral judgment scoring manual.
  5. D. Most people in their mid-thirties reason at Stage 3.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Which of the following factors has been found to influence movement through Kohlbergs stages of moral development?
  2. cognitive conflict
  3. modeling
  4. peer relationships
  5. D. All of these choices are correct

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Lances parents encourage family discussions about value-laden issues such as the death penalty, abortion, and amnesty for illegal immigrants. As a result, Lance is likely to think at
  2. A. more advanced levels of moral reasoning than other people his age.
  3. the same level as his parents.
  4. Stages 5 or 6 of Kohlbergs stages.
  5. None of these choices are correct.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on the role of ______ in moral development.
  2. values clarification programs
  3. B. parenting
  4. teachers
  5. peers

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APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Criticisms of Kohlbergs theory of moral development have included all of the following, EXCEPT that Kohlberg
  2. placed too much emphasis on moral thought.
  3. may not have done high-quality research.
  4. may have underestimated the care perspective.
  5. D. placed too much emphasis on moral behavior.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Which of the following statements regarding Kohlbergs theory of moral development and culture is

TRUE?

  1. Stages 5 and 6 have been found in all cultures.
  2. Kohlbergs scoring system is appropriate for all cultures.
  3. C. Moral reasoning is more culture-specific than Kohlberg envisioned.
  4. People around the world shift from Stage 3 to Stage 4 at approximately the same time.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Carol Gilligans theory is based on a(n) ______ perspective toward morality.
  2. equity
  3. justice
  4. C. care
  5. individualistic

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Basic

Learning Goal: 1

  1. What differences exist between Kohlbergs and Gilligans theories of moral development?
  2. Gilligan postulated an ethic of justice; Kohlberg postulated an ethic of care.
  3. B. Kohlberg postulated an ethic of justice; Gilligan postulated an ethic of care.
  4. Gilligan postulated an ethic of equity; Kohlberg postulated an ethic of care.
  5. Gilligan postulated an ethic of individualism; Kohlberg postulated an ethic of collectivism.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Gilligan found that girls, ages 6-18, consistently interpreted moral dilemmas in terms of
  2. A. human relationships.
  3. fairness and gender equity.
  4. social norms.
  5. All of these choices are correct.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Basic

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Which of the following statements regarding gender differences in moral development between males and females is TRUE?
  2. Males generate more interpersonal conflict than females.
  3. B. There is no evidence to support Gilligans claim that Kohlberg downplayed female moral thinking.
  4. Young adolescent girls use more justice-based reasoning about dating dilemmas than do boys.
  5. Females rated prosocial dilemmas as less significant than did males.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. The Defining Issues Test (DIT) was designed by
  2. A. James Rest.
  3. Robert Sternberg.
  4. Carol Gilligan.
  5. Joel Olsteen.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Basic

Learning Goal: 1

  1. The Defining Issues Test (DIT) expands on Kohlbergs series of moral dilemmas by adding
  2. a list of definitions of the major issues involved.
  3. rating scales for each issue involved.
  4. lists for the four most important issues involved in a moral dilemma.
  5. D. All of these choices are correct.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Alberto has taken a test that gives him a series of moral dilemmas to evaluate. He is asked to rate the importance of each issue involved and to develop a list of the four most important issues involved in each dilemma. Alberto has taken the
  2. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI).
  3. B. Defining Issues Test (DIT).
  4. 16 PF Test.
  5. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Which of the following has been used to explain how adolescents learn moral behavior and why behaviour differs from one person to another?
  2. reinforcement
  3. punishment
  4. modeling
  5. D. All of these choices are correct

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Rileys parents praise her frequently for volunteering at Community Table, an organization that provides dinners for the poor and the homeless. Riley is likely to
  2. A. continue to volunteer at the Community Table.
  3. stop volunteering at the Community Table, but volunteer at another service-based organization.
  4. continue to volunteer at the Community Table and expand her volunteer activities to other places.
  5. cut back on the hours that she volunteers at the Community Table.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Which of the following statements regarding moral behavior is NOT true?
  2. Moral behavior is situation-dependent.
  3. Adolescents are more likely to cheat when their friends pressure them to do so.
  4. C. Adolescents are likely to display consistent moral behavior in diverse social settings.
  5. Adolescents are more likely to cheat when the chance of being caught is slim.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Which theory of moral development emphasizes a distinction between adolescent moral competence and moral performance?
  2. self-efficacy theory
  3. B. social cognitive theory
  4. social competence theory
  5. None of these choices are correct

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Marcy believes that self-regulation, rather than abstract reasoning, is the key to positive moral development. Which of the following theorists shared Marcys view?
  2. George Kelly
  3. Abraham Maslow
  4. B. F. Skinner
  5. D. Albert Bandura

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APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Denise helps organize a five-mile walk to raise money for a good cause, the Brain Injury Association. Denises work is an act of
  2. A.
  3. egocentrism.
  4. proactive behavior.
  5. empathy.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Which of the following statements regarding prosocial behavior is NOT true?
  2. Adolescents engage in more prosocial behavior than do children.
  3. Adolescent females regard themselves as more prosocial than adolescent males.
  4. The biggest gender difference in prosocial behavior is in kindness and considerate behavior.
  5. D. Prosocial behavior occurs more in childhood than in adolescence.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. According to Freud, children develop the superego by
  2. identifying with their opposite-sex parent.
  3. B. identifying with their same-sex parent.
  4. projecting their basic hostility onto their siblings.
  5. internalizing their own anxiety.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Which of the following statements accurately reflects the psychoanalytic account of moral development?
  2. Inwardly directed hostility is experienced as depression.
  3. Children are openly hostile to their parents until age 4 or 5.
  4. Adolescents avoid committing transgressions for fear of punishment.
  5. D. Children and adolescents conform to societal standards to avoid guilt.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. According to Freud, when the moral standards of the _____ are violated, the individual feels _____.
  2. id; anger
  3. ego; shame
  4. C. conscience; guilt
  5. ego ideal; doubt

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty: Difficult

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of Eriksons three stages of moral development?
  2. specific moral learning in childhood
  3. ideological concerns in adolescence
  4. ethical consolidation in adulthood
  5. D. identity development in emerging adulthood

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Alex, age 12, always helps his elderly grandmother by carrying her plate to the table and making sure that she always has her cane ready before she gets up. Alex says he feels sad that his Nana is getting weaker and not able to do as much for herself. Alex is showing
  2. sympathy.
  3. B.
  4. pity.
  5. neurotic anxiety.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Which one of the following is more likely show empathy?
  2. a 15-year-old boy
  3. a 7-year-old boy
  4. C. a 15-year-old girl
  5. All are equally likely to show empathy.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Contemporary moral development theorists emphasize that
  2. both positive feelings and negative feelings contribute to moral development in adolescence.
  3. both positive and negative emotions provide the foundation for the acquisition of moral values.
  4. moral emotions are not enough to build adolescents moral awareness.
  5. D. All of these choices are correct.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Recently there has been an interest in the fourth dimension of moral development, which is
  2. A. moral personality.
  3. moral emotions.
  4. moral values.
  5. moral beliefs.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the three aspects of the moral personality?
  2. moral identity
  3. moral character
  4. C. moral integrity
  5. moral exemplar

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Basic

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Gretchens moral notions and commitments are central to her life. A developmentalist would say that Gretchen has developed a:
  2. moral character.
  3. B. moral identity.
  4. moral integrity.
  5. moral exemplar.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Recent research has found that having a weak moral identity is related all but which of the following?
  2. moral self-reflection
  3. depression and anxiety
  4. sexual risk taking
  5. drug use

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Which of the following is part of James Rests view of moral character?
  2. having the strength of your convictions
  3. persisting
  4. overcoming obstacles
  5. D. All of these choices are correct

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Moral character presupposes that the person has
  2. A. set moral goals and is committed to act in accord with these goals.
  3. formally learned the morals of society.
  4. had moral guides or mentors.
  5. All of these choices are correct.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. People who have lived exemplary lives are known as:
  2. A. moral exemplars.
  3. moral characters.
  4. moral elitists.
  5. moral dignitaries.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the types of moral exemplars?
  2. brave
  3. just
  4. caring
  5. D. honest

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Basic

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Researchers consider the core of all three types of moral exemplars to include the traits of honesty and
  2. agreeableness.
  3. conscientiousness.
  4. emotional stability.
  5. D.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Jodie is trying to decide how she feels about cheating and those who cheat. This internal struggle is consistent with which theory of moral development?
  2. A. social domain theory
  3. social cognitive theory.
  4. Kohlbergs stages of moral development
  5. Freuds psychoanalytic theory

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Margarets parents refuse to talk to her if she displeases them in any way. They tell her younger brother that Margaret is a big disappointment to them if she gets any grade below a B. Margarets parents are using which of the following discipline techniques?
  2. A. power assertion
  3. induction
  4. deduction
  5. love withdrawal

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. What is the primary way in which parents influence the moral development of teens?
  2. A. Providing opportunities for their children to question their own moral beliefs.
  3. Providing explanations of their own moral beliefs.
  4. Imposing rules and regulations without explanations.
  5. Interaction with teens in situations in which moral reasoning is required.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Difficult

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Freud believed in encouraging moral development in children by instilling
  2. confidence.
  3. B. fear of losing parental love.
  4. collaboration.
  5. control.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Basic

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Parents who attempt to gain control over their adolescent or his or her resources are using a discipline technique known as
  2. authoritative.
  3. induction.
  4. C. power assertion.
  5. love withdrawal.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Basic

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Chelseas father takes away her cell phone and her iPod whenever she does something that he views as disrespectful. Chelseas father is using which of the following discipline techniques?
  2. authoritative
  3. B. power assertion
  4. love withdrawal
  5. induction

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. The discipline technique in which a parent uses reason and explanation of the consequences for others of the adolescents actions is known as
  2. deduction.
  3. rationality.
  4. C.
  5. None of these choices are correct.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the effects of parental discipline on an adolescent is NOT true?
  2. Any discipline produces arousal on the part of the adolescent.
  3. B. Power assertion evokes a high level of anxiety.
  4. Love withdrawal evokes considerable anxiety.
  5. Both B and C

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the use of the induction technique of discipline is TRUE?
  2. A. Induction works better with older children and adolescents than with preschool children.
  3. Induction focuses on the adolescents shortcomings.
  4. Induction works just as well as love withdrawal for adolescents.
  5. Induction works better on children from low SES families than with children from middle SES families.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Research has found that moral children have parents who do all EXCEPT
  2. A. foster an external sense of morality.
  3. involve children in family decision-making.
  4. model moral behaviors.
  5. use inductive discipline.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research

Blooms Taxonomy: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Sandy and Will are the parents of two sons, William, age 15, and Thomas, age 14. The boys have to call one of their parents as soon as they get home from school, and they are not allowed to do anything but homework or reading until their parents get home. They are only allowed to socialize with teens whose parents are friends of Sandy and Will. They can attend school dances only when Sandy or Will chaperone. Sandy and Will are using which type of parenting strategy?
  2. A. cocooning
  3. pre-arming
  4. pampering
  5. protecting

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Katies parents know that their daughter will inevitably be confronted by peers who want to offer her alcohol or drugs. They spend time talking with her about how to resist these harmful situations, and they even role-play with her to increase her skills. Katies parents are engaging in which type of parenting strategy?
  2. cocooning
  3. B. pre-arming
  4. pampering
  5. protecting

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Justins school has rules about behaviors, and teachers clearly transmit the attitude that students should be respectful and considerate of others. According to John Dewey, the rules and moral atmosphere of Justins school make up its
  2. values curriculum.
  3. belief system.
  4. overt curriculum.
  5. D. hidden curriculum.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Currently 40 out of 50 states provide mandates to schools requiring them to provide some sort of
  2. values-clarification.
  3. service learning.
  4. C. character education.
  5. cognitive moral education.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Isabel learns in school that some behaviors, such as lying and cheating, are wrong and do harm to others. Isabels school has adopted which approach to teaching basic moral literacy?
  2. values clarification
  3. B. character education
  4. cognitive moral education
  5. explicit moral code

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. A relatively new approach to character education that helps students to develop moral concepts emphasizes
  2. A. a care perspective.
  3. an equity perspective.
  4. a justice perspective.
  5. None of these choices are correct.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Basic

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Maria participates in a moral education program where students are encouraged to define their own values and understand the values of others. This program is using which approach to moral development?
  2. cognitive moral education
  3. service learning
  4. values sharing
  5. D. values clarification

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Kendras class on moral education consists of small-group discussions on a number of moral issues. Kendras school has adopted a _____ approach to moral education.
  2. values clarification
  3. B. cognitive moral education
  4. moral character
  5. moral literacy

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. In a cognitive moral education program, teachers act as
  2. directors.
  3. instructors.
  4. coaches.
  5. D.

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APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Basic

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Mr. Hale has his tenth-grade honors English class tutor younger children in reading and writing. Mr. Hales students are engaged in
  2. volunteerism.
  3. co-operative learning.
  4. C. service learning.
  5. moral induction.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Which of the following statements regarding service learning is NOT true?
  2. A. Boys participate more in service learning than girls.
  3. Service learning takes learning out into the community.
  4. Service learning is often more effective when the students have a choice of activities.
  5. Service learning benefits adolescents in a number of different ways.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Austin volunteers to help senior citizens learn basic computer skills. If Austin is like many students who participate in service learning, Austin will
  2. A. have high grades in school.
  3. have excellent computer skills.
  4. have elderly grandparents who inspire him to give back to the community.
  5. probably not volunteer when he gets older.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Recent research on the benefits for volunteers and those who receive volunteer services suggest that
  2. recipients benefit when adolescents are mandated to participate in service learning; adolescents are negatively affected.
  3. required service learning results in hostility and is not good for either the volunteer or the recipient.
  4. C. more adolescents should be required to participate in service learning programs.
  5. service learning programs should be introduced in middle school.

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APA: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Which of the following students would be considered a cheater?
  2. Brooke, who falsifies her lab reports
  3. Bobbi, who adds six unearned hours to her monthly record of service learning
  4. Ariel, who buys a research paper from a friend
  5. D. All of these choices are correct

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APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Ms. Saccos U.S. history students perceive her to be incompetent. They also think that she is unfair and that she does not care about her students. According to recent research, Ms. Saccos students are likely to
  2. hate U.S. history.
  3. complain to the principal about her class.
  4. C. cheat in her class.
  5. be rude and disrespectful to her.

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APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Difficult

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Mr. Gates, who teaches World Geography, frequently gives out a test and then leaves the room to pick up his mail in the office or to get coffee. What does research predict Mr. Gates students are likely to do while he is out of the room?
  2. A. cheat on his tests
  3. not cheat on his tests, because he clearly trusts them
  4. have increased anxiety about his tests because he is not in the room
  5. report his behavior to their parents

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APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Professor Dawson clearly spells out, both verbally and on his syllabus, what constitutes cheating in his class. His colleague, Professor Curtis, assumes that students know what behaviors are cheating and doesnt mention her policies. According to research, what is likely to happen in these two professors classes?
  2. Students in Professor Curtis class will be less likely to cheat than students in Professor Dawsons class.
  3. B. Students in Professor Dawsons class will be less likely to cheat than students in Professor Curtis class.
  4. Students in both classes will cheat approximately 50 percent of the time.
  5. Whether or not students cheat depends on the subject material.

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APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. An integrative approach to moral education encompasses the _____ and ______.
  2. reflective moral thinking of Kohlberg; values clarification approach
  3. cognitive moral education approach; service learning
  4. C. reflective moral thinking of Kohlberg; character education
  5. care perspective of Gilligan; values clarification

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APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty: Difficult

Learning Goal: 2

  1. The Child Development Project is an example of
  2. a moral exemplar program.
  3. a values-clarification program.
  4. a service-learning program.
  5. D. an integrated approach to moral education.

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APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Basic

Learning Goal: 2

  1. A program in which adults coach students in ethical decision making, and students have a caring experience in the classroom and community is called the
  2. Child-Centered Learning Project.
  3. B. Child Development Project.
  4. Innocence Project.
  5. No Child Left Behind Initiative.

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APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Basic

Learning Goal: 2

  1. The goal of the integrative ethical education program is to
  2. help students to define and clarify their moral values.
  3. have students practice their ethical skills in the community.
  4. C. turn moral novices into moral exemplars.
  5. have students identify clear moral and immoral behaviors.

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APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. According to the proponents of integrative ethical education, moral experts possess all of the following skills EXCEPT
  2. A. ethical mandates.
  3. ethical sensitivity.
  4. ethical judgment.
  5. ethical actions.

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APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 2

  1. Our beliefs and attitudes about the way things should be are our
  2. A.
  3. ethics.
  4. morals.
  5. stereotypes.

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APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Basic

Learning Goal: 3

  1. Jordan says that he wants to make as much money as he can after college so that he can retire at age 45. He plans to save every dime that is not needed for his basic living expenses. David says that he wants to earn a decent salary but that he is more interested in using some of his earnings to travel and meet interesting people. Jordan and David have different
  2. ideas about how to spend their time.
  3. goals for their lives.
  4. C. values about money.
  5. None of these choices are correct.

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APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 3

  1. Which of the following statements about the values of todays college students is NOT true?
  2. A. Todays college students are less interested than earlier students in personal well-being.
  3. Todays college students are less interested than earlier students in the well-being of others.
  4. College students today are strongly motivated to be well-off financially.
  5. Todays college students are less motivated than earlier students to develop a meaningful philosophy of life.

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APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 3

  1. Recent research has shown that more college freshmen today than in 1990 are interested in
  2. immigration.
  3. the homeless.
  4. the working poor.
  5. D. volunteer or community-service programs.

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APA: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 3

  1. Which of the following is a recent trend in religion among adolescents and emerging adults?
  2. There is a downward trend in religious interest among college students.
  3. Religious issues are important to many adolescents and emerging adults.
  4. More than twice as many first-year students as in 1978 reported no religious preference.
  5. D. All of these are recent trends.

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APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 3

  1. Religiousness is associated with all of the following EXCEPT
  2. A. attendance at religious services.
  3. frequency of prayer.
  4. overall importance of religion in everyday life.
  5. frequency of discussing religious teachings.

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APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 3

  1. Which of the following statements regarding religiousness around the world is TRUE?
  2. Attending religious services is highest at age 12.
  3. Emerging adults in developing nations were more likely than their counterparts in developed nations to be religious.
  4. Belief in God is high among adolescents and emerging adults in Japan.
  5. D. Attending religious services declines from ages 14-18 and then rises again at age 20.

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APA: 3.3 Adopt values that build community at local, national, and global levels

Blooms Taxonomy: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 3

  1. Researchers have found that having a religious affiliation is linked to
  2. lower rates of delinquency.
  3. lower rates of drug use.
  4. lower rates of depression.
  5. D. All of these choices are correct.

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APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 3

  1. Brandi has begun to question how God can let so many people die in natural disasters, and she struggles to reconcile how an all-powerful God and an all-merciful God can exist in the same being. Brandi is most likely in which developmental period?
  2. A. adolescence
  3. emerging adulthood
  4. young adulthood
  5. late childhood

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APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 3

  1. Aaron thinks about what kind of life he wants to live. He wonders if there really is a God, and whether he truly believes or is going along with the beliefs of his parents. Aaron is most likely in which developmental period?
  2. adolescence
  3. B. emerging adulthood
  4. young adulthood
  5. late childhood

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APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 3

  1. The type of moral reasoning that focuses on social consensus is
  2. empathy reasoning.
  3. behavioral reasoning.
  4. prosocial reasoning.
  5. D. social conventional reasoning.

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APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Basic

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Alyssa, age 17, was brought up in the Baptist church but recently she has begun to go to the Buddhist temple in the next town. She tells her parents that she is all done with the Baptists. According to research, Alyssa probably
  2. is testing her parents.
  3. is going through a phase, and will return to the Baptist church within a year.
  4. C. has conflict with her parents.
  5. None of these choices are correct.

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APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 3

  1. Joel shuts his cell phone off upon entering a church to attend a funeral service. Joels action is an example of
  2. A. a conventional rule.
  3. a moral rule.
  4. an ethical rule.
  5. None of these choices are correct.

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APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Which of the following statements regarding religion and parenting is NOT true?
  2. Adolescents who have a positive relationship with their parents are likely to adopt their parents religious affiliation.
  3. Children and adolescents tend to adopt the religious teachings of their parents.
  4. Mothers are more influential than fathers in religious development of their children.
  5. D. Adolescents who have a positive relationship with their parents are more likely to seek a religion that is different from their parents religion.

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APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 3

  1. Moral rules are _____, while conventional rules are _____.
  2. personal; impersonal
  3. to promote organization; to ensure justice
  4. optional; obligatory
  5. D. obligatory; optional

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APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty: Difficult

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Which of the following statements about religion and sexual activity is TRUE?
  2. A. Most churches discourage premarital sex.
  3. All churches forbid premarital sex.
  4. Most religions do not talk about sexual matters in their services.
  5. Adolescents who attend religious services are more likely than those who do not to engage in sex as a way of rebellion.

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APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 3

  1. Which of the following is considered a personal, rather than moral or conventional, issue?
  2. choice of friends
  3. choice of activities
  4. privacy
  5. D. All of these choices are correct

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APA: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychologys content domains

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Mackenzie, a 20-year-old college student, attends church weekly and makes prayer a part of her daily activities. According to research, Mackenzie is likely to have
  2. fewer sexual encounters than her less religious counterparts.
  3. a fear of contracting HIV from unprotected sexual intercourse.
  4. a fear of an unplanned pregnancy from unprotected sexual intercourse.
  5. D. All of these choices are correct.

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APA: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Blooms Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 3

  1. Define and list the three components of moral development.

 

Moral development involves thoughts, behaviors, and feelings regarding standards of right and wrong. Moral development has an intrapersonal dimension (a persons basic values and a sense of self) and an interpersonal dimension (a focus on what people should do in their interactions with other people). The intrapersonal dimension regulates a persons activities when he or she is not engaged in social interaction. The interpersonal dimension regulates peoples social interactions and arbitrates conflict.

 

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Name and describe Kohlbergs first level of moral reasoning and its two stages.

 

Kohlbergs first level of moral reasoning is known as preconventional reasoning. At this level, the individual shows no internalization of moral values. Instead, moral reasoning is controlled by external rewards and punishments. The two stages of the preconventional level are 1) punishment and obedience orientation, and 2) individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange. In the first stage, moral thinking is tied to punishment. In the second stage, individuals pursue their own interests but let others do the same. Thus, what is right involves an equal exchange.

 

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Name and describe Kohlbergs second level of moral reasoning and its two stages.

 

Conventional reasoning is the second, or intermediate, level in Kohlbergs theory of moral development. At this level, internalization is immediate. Individuals abide by certain standards (internal), but they are the standards of others (external), such as parents or the laws of society. The conventional reasoning level has two stages: 1) mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity; and 2) social systems morality. In the first stage, mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity, individuals value trust, caring, and loyalty to others as a basis of moral judgment. In the second stage, social systems morality, moral judgments are based on understanding the social order, law, justice, and duty.

 

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Name and describe Kohlbergs third level of moral reasoning and its two stages.

 

Postconventional reasoning is the third and highest level in Kohlbergs theory of moral development. At this level, morality is completely internalized and is not based on others standards. The individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options, and then decides on a personal moral code. The postconventional level consists of two stages: 1) social contract or utility and individual rights and 2) universal ethical principles. Social contract or utility and individual rights is Kohlbergs fifth stage. At this stage, individuals reason that values, rights, and principles undergird or transcend the law. A person evaluates the validity of actual laws and examines social systems in terms of the degree to which they preserve and protect fundamental human rights and values. Universal ethical principles is the sixth and highest stage of Kohlbergs theory of moral development. At this stage, the person has developed a moral standard based on universal human rights. When faced with a conflict between law and conscience, the person will follow conscience, even though the decision might involve personal risk.

 

Blooms Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Describe James Rests Defining Issues Test and explain why this test was developed.

 

Some developmentalists fault the quality of Kohlbergs research and stress that more attention should be paid to the way moral development is assessed. James Rest argued that, rather than relying on a single method that requires individuals to reason about hypothetical moral dilemmas, alternative methods should be used to collect information about moral thinking. The Defining Issues Test (DIT) attempts to determine which moral issues individuals feel are most critical in a given situation, by presenting them with a series of dilemmas and a list of definitions of the major issues involved. Subjects are given five stories and asked to rate the importance of each issue in deciding what ought to be done. Then they are asked to list what they believe are the four most important issues. Rest argued that this method provides a way to assess moral thinking that is more valid and reliable way than Kohlbergs method.

 

Blooms Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Compare and contrast Gilligans theory of moral development with Kohlbergs theory of moral development.

 

Gilligan argues that Kohlbergs theory of moral development does not adequately reflect relationships and concern for others. Kohlbergs theory is a justice perspective, a moral perspective that focuses on the rights of the individual. In this perspective, individuals stand alone and make independent moral decisions. By contrast, Gilligans perspective is a care perspective, which views people in terms of their connectedness with others. This perspective emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships with others, and concern for others. Gilligan believed that Kohlberg greatly underplayed the care perspective in moral development. In addition, Kohlberg did most of his research with males, rather than females. In contrast, Gilligan studied females, primarily girls, 6 to 18 years of age.

 

Blooms Taxonomy: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. What are the basic processes that behaviorists argue are responsible for forming moral behavior in adolescents? How effective are these processes?

 

The familiar processes of reinforcement, punishment, and imitation have been invoked to explain how and why adolescents learn certain moral behaviors and why different peoples behaviors differ. These processes are effective in shaping moral behavior. When adolescents are positively reinforced for behavior that is consistent with laws and social conventions, they are most likely to repeat the behavior. Conversely, when adolescents are punished for immoral and unacceptable behaviors, those behaviors can be eliminated.

However, there are emotional side effects to the use of punishment. Although these methods are effective, the effectiveness of reinforcement and punishment depends on how consistently they are administered and the schedule that is adopted. The effectiveness of a model depends on the characteristics of the model and the presence of cognitive processes, such as symbolic codes and imagery, to enhance retention of the modelled behavior.

 

Blooms Taxonomy: Evaluation

Difficulty: Difficult

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Explain the social cognitive theory of moral development, and distinguish between moral competence and moral performance.

 

The social cognitive theory of moral development emphasizes a distinction between adolescents moral competence, their ability to produce moral behaviors, and moral performance, which is the enactment of those behaviors in specific situations. Competence is the outgrowth of cognitive-sensory processes.

Competencies include what adolescents are capable of doing, what they know, their skills, their awareness of moral rules and regulations, and their cognitive ability to construct behaviors. In contrast, adolescents moral performance or behavior is determined by their motivation and by rewards and incentives to act in a moral way.

 

Blooms Taxonomy: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Define prosocial behaviors, and discuss the gender differences in prosocial behavior found by recent research.

 

Prosocial behaviors are behaviors that help another person without expectation of any reward or gain on the part of the helper. Adolescent females view themselves as more prosocial and empathetic than males, and they also engage in more prosocial behavior than males. A review of research found that across childhood and adolescence, females engaged in more prosocial behavior than did males. The biggest gender differences occurred for kind and considerate behavior and the smallest difference for sharing.

 

Blooms Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. Describe Freuds psychoanalytical view of moral development.

 

In Freuds classical psychoanalytic theory, an individuals superego, the moral branch of the personality, develops in early childhood. To reduce anxiety, avoid punishment, and maintain parental affection, children form a superego by identifying with their same-sex parent. Through this identification, children internalize their parents standards of right and wrong, which in turn, reflect the norms of society. At the same time, children turn inward the hostility that was previously aimed at the same-sex parent. This inwardly directed hostility is then unconsciously experienced as guilt. In the psychoanalytic view of moral development, self-punitive guilt keeps children and adolescents from committing transgressions. The superego consists of two main components: the ego ideal and the conscience. The ego ideal is the component of the superego that involves behaviors approved by parents. The conscience is the component of the superego that involves behaviors not approved by parents. An individuals ego ideal rewards the individual by conveying a sense of pride and personal value when the individual acts according to moral standards. The conscience punishes the person for acting immorally by making the individual feel guilty and worthless.

 

Blooms Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty: Difficult

Learning Goal: 1

  1. List Eriksons three stages of moral development. Explain the stage related to adolescence.

 

Erikson outlined three stages of moral development: specific moral learning in childhood, ideological concerns in adolescence, and ethical consideration in adulthood. According to Erikson, individuals search for an identity during adolescence. If adolescents become disillusioned with the moral and religious beliefs that they acquired during childhood, they are likely to lose, at least temporarily, their sense of purpose and to feel that their lives are empty. This loss may lead adolescents to search for an ideology that will give some purpose to their lives.

 

Blooms Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Goal: 1

  1. What is the contemporary perspective of moral development in adolescents?

 

Today, many developmentalists believe that both positive feelings, such as empathy, sympathy, admiration, and self-esteem, as well as negative feelings, such as anger, outrage, shame, and guilt, cont

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