Test Bank For Adult Development and Aging Biopsychosocial Perspectives 5Th ed By Susan Krauss Whitbourne

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Test Bank For Adult Development and Aging Biopsychosocial Perspectives 5Th ed By Susan Krauss Whitbourne

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WITH ANSWERS

 

Adult Development and Aging Biopsychosocial Perspectives 5Th ed By Susan Krauss Whitbourne

 

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

Chapter 1

Themes and Issues in Adult Development and Aging

 

As the opening chapter to the book, the material covered here provides the orientation to the course.  There is enough material in this chapter to cover two to three lectures.  During the first lecture, it is particularly important to provide students with a sense of excitement about the field.  Reflect on your own enthusiasm for teaching this topic and, if appropriate, relate personal experiences that have led you to want to become involved in adult development and aging.  It would also be useful to find out why students have chosen to taken the course, as it is quite likely that many of them are there for personal reasons as well.

 

Lecture Guidelines

There is a logical break between the theoretical issues in the first part of the chapter and the demographic material presented at the end.  The lecture on demography can begin with a discussion of current issues relevant to aging, such as the effect on the population of the graying of America.  A discussion of the Baby Boomers would also be interesting, as many of the students have parents, or possibly grandparents, in this generation. You can also encourage students to contrast their views about Baby Boomers with Millennials, Gen-Xers, and the like. Ask them if they believe that generational labels are helpful in understanding the behavior of individuals.

 

Videos and Films

There are many potentially relevant materials to include in the lectures based on this chapter.  Keep your eyes open for news items that concern aging in the U.S., Canada, and the world relevant to the economy, social trends, and population dynamics. Non-stereotypic older adults can also be shown to counter negative representations that students may have such as older persons engaging in activities that would not normally be associated with aging. There are two excellent films by PBS: The Way We Get By (http://www.pbs.org/pov/waywegetby/) and Frontline Living Old (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/livingold/view/).

Because there are many statistics to summarize in the demography section, it is helpful to provide anything that will put a human face to the numbers.

There is an excellent series available on YouTube divided into five parts, called The Worlds Oldest People:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bjd8_9dtLHo

Discussion questions

The biopsychosocial perspective

Why is the biopsychosocial perspective important?

How does the material in this course relate to other courses that you have taken which employ an interdisciplinary perspective?

Four principles of adult development and aging

Do you feel that you are a different person than you were when you were younger?

Do you know of individuals who illustrate the principle of individual differences in development?

What are the important intraindividual dimensions that psychologists should study?

What are the implications for the field when you consider that the only people we can study in old age are those who survived?

How can you be a survivor?

Name some changes that you think are age-related and see if they are in fact age- or disease-related.

How many of the CDC Five Ways to Shorten Your Life lifestyle habits do you follow?

The meaning of age

How would you define a person as an adult? Do you feel that you qualify as an adult?  What are appropriate criteria to use for this distinction other than or in addition to age?

What are the pros and cons of using these age-based divisions?

How could the alternative indices of age be implemented in a practical sense so that they would replace chronological age?

Can you come up with examples of influences on development that have affected you?

Key Social factors in adult development and aging

How is your identity affected by your gender?

Why is race a difficult concept to measure?

Do you feel that the U.S. Census measure of race is an appropriate one?  What might be its problems?

How has your social class affected your own life so far?

How do you think social class will affect your life in the future?

What sorts of influences do you think that social class has on peoples lives and why is it important in development?

How has your religion affected your own development?

Why do you think religion has not been examined in previous research on adult development and aging?

The Baby Boomers grow up: Changes in the middle-aged and older population in the United States and the world

What are the implications of an aging population?

Will the aging Baby Boomers change the way that we think about aging, or have they done so already? Who are famous aging Baby Boomers you can think of in the media who defy traditional stereotypes?

What are the implications of changes in the racial and ethnic distribution of the aging population?

 

Multiple Choice Questions

Aging today

 

1.     Subjective age

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: B

Research on adaptation to aging suggests that the most important factor determining your health, happiness, and longevity may very well be your ______ age.

  1. chronological
  2. subjective
  3. biological
  4. sociological

 

The biopsychosocial perspective

2.    Definition- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: A

The term __________ captures the concept that aging involves an interaction among processes such as physical changes, cognition, and social context:

  1. biopsychosocial
  2. physiocultural
  3. multidirectional
  4. transformational

 

3.    Biological example- stem

 

Of the following areas of aging, which would be considered a biological component of the biopsychosocial model?

  1. Changes in muscle mass.
  2. Loss of a spouse.
  3. Retirement from a job.
  4. Gains in vocabulary skills.

 

4.    Sociocultural example- choice

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: C

Which of the following would be considered a social age-related factor in the biopsychosocial perspective?

  1. Improving in wisdom.
  2. Losing muscle strength.
  3. Becoming a grandparent.
  4. Increasing in conscientiousness.

 

5.    Sociocultural example- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

The changes that individuals experience in income and residence when they retire and move out of the home where they spent their working lives would fall into the ____________ domain of the biopsychosocial model.

  1. psychological
  2. sociocultural
  3. biological
  4. cognitive

 

6.    Psychological- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: D

Changes over time in an individuals thoughts, feelings, and behaviors as they cope with the physical changes involved in aging fall into which domain of the biopsychosocial perspective toward aging?

  1. Sociocultural
  2. Biological
  3. Gerontological
  4. Psychological

 

 

 

Four principles of adult development and aging

7.    Continuity of changes- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: C

According to the continuity principle of adult development and aging, the experiences you have as a young adult will play what role in your development?

  1. Young people are able to make up for any damage they do their bodies when they get older.
  2. The friends people have in their college years will most likely be the same ones they have later in life.
  3. People retain their identities about as they get older, even though their appearance changes.
  4. Older adults would prefer to be treated as old rather than as the people they were when younger.

8.    Continuity of changes- choice

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

The ________________ principle of adult development and aging proposes that changes build on themselves over life in a cumulative fashion.

  1. selection
  2. continuity
  3. individuality
  4. normative

 

9.    The survivors grow old- choice

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: D

Because the _____________ are the individuals we study in later life, researchers caution that the findings may not be true for everyone born in a given period of time.

  1. institutionalized
  2. less able
  3. young-old
  4. survivors

 

 

10. Survivor behaviors

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

Which of the following might account for the fact that the people who live to old age are the survivors?

  1. They ate foods that are rich in dietary cholesterol.
  2. Their families provided a strong support network.
  3. They have lived a life in which they took high risks.
  4. They avoided exercising or being too physically active.

11. Implications of survivor principle

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: D

How does the fact that older adults are survivors influence research on aging?

  1. Researchers must adapt their test instruments to accommodate them.
  2. Healthy older adults tend to be the exception rather than the rule.
  3. Psychological studies have less validity than studies on biology of aging.
  4. The available samples are positively selected on important characteristics.

 

12. Cigarette smoking- choice

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: A

The Centers for Disease Control regards which of the following as one of the five most important bad habits that can reduce the quality and quantity of a persons life?

  1. Cigarette smoking.
  2. Eating too many fruits and vegetables.
  3. Taking in too little alcohol.
  4. Being underweight.

 

13. Interindividual differences example-choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: A

75-year-old Mrs. A. has difficulty with her vision due to cataracts but her friend Mrs. B., also 75, can see perfectly. However, Mrs. B.s arthritis makes it difficult for her to walk while Mrs. A. recently ran a senior marathon. This example illustrates which principle of adult development and aging?

  1. Interindividual differences.
  2. Normal aging is different from disease.
  3. Survivors are an increasingly select group.
  4. Changes are continuous over the life span.

 

14. Multidirectionality example- choice

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

A 77-year-old man has loved to jog for his entire life, and he is still able to keep up a pretty good pace.  However, he is suffering hearing loss which makes it difficult for him to enjoy the music he likes to play while out on his run. In addition, hes noticing that its getting harder for him to see the street signs unless the sun is brightly shining. This man illustrates which principle of aging?

  1. continuity
  2. multidirectionality
  3. survivor effects
  4. tertiary aging

15. Individual differences in hippocampus

 

Difficulty: .80

Correct choice: C

Researchers studying the volume of the hippocampus within the brain showed the importance of examining individual differences in aging by finding that:

  1. most of the adults 70 and older had greater hippocampal volume than the younger adults.
  2. the overall direction of hippocampal volume change was slightly positive starting at age 30.
  3. at least some older adults studied had equal or higher brain volume than some young adults.
  4. the greatest variation in hippocampal volume occurred among adults who were in their late 20s.

 

16. Multidirectionality- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

The idea there are differences within the individual in the rate of aging is referred to as:

  1. interindividual variability.
  2. personal aging.
  3. nonnormative influences.

 

17. Individuality- choice

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: C

The idea that people become more different from each other as they grow older is known as the principle that:

  1. changes are continuous.
  2. aging is interdisciplinary.
  3. individuality matters.
  4. only the survivors grow old.

 

18. Tertiary aging choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: A

The rapid loss of functioning that individuals may experience at the very end of their lives is known as _________ aging:

  1. tertiary
  2. primary
  3. normal
  4. accelerated

 

19. Normal aging- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: D

Changes due to normal aging include which type of processes?

  1. Abnormal and disease-related
  2. Sudden and rapid
  3. Preventative and compensatory
  4. Universal and progressive

20. Normal aging example- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

Which of the following would be considered an example of normal age-related psychological changes?

  1. lowering of self-esteem
  2. moderation of personal qualities
  3. development of sleep problems
  4. losing interest in hobbies

 

21. Secondary aging example- stem

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: B

Which of the following is considered an example of secondary aging?

  1. Developing diabetes at the age of 67.
  2. Marrying for the third time at age 55.
  3. Working part-time at the age of 72.
  4. Moving to a retirement community at age 62.

 

22. Secondary aging example- choice

 

Difficulty:  Hard

Correct choice: C

Due to the process of ______ aging, an older adult may develop a disease such as skin cancer after years of exposure to the sun.

  1. primary
  2. tertiary
  3. secondary
  4. normal

 

 

The meaning of age

23. Young-old

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: D

A term in gerontology used to refer to people who are in the age group of 65-74 is:

  1. oldest-old
  2. middle-old
  3. healthy-old
  4. young-old

24. Old-old- stem

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: B

People referred to as old-old have which specific characteristic?

  1. Prematurely gray and wrinkled
  2. Between the ages of 75-84
  3. Retire after the age of 65
  4. Become grandparents in middle age

25. Oldest-old

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: C

A centenarian falls technically into the category of which division of the older adult population?

  1. young-old
  2. oldest old
  3. old-old
  4. super-old

26. Supercentenarian- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: D

People now considered supercentenarians, such as Jeanne Louise Calment, live past the age of:

27. Psychological age

 

Difficulty:  Moderate

Correct choice: A

The index of age that represents a persons functioning on measures such as intelligence, memory, and learning ability is called ___________ age.

  1. Psychological
  2. Social
  3. Biological
  4. Secondary

28. Social age- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: D

A world-class tennis player decides to end her career and retire at the age of 24.  Her _____ age would be approximately 65 years old.

  1. psychological
  2. biological
  3. physiological
  4. social

 

29. Emerging adulthood- stem

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice:  B

Individuals who are in the period of emerging adulthood are likely to show which qualities?

  1. Early signs of the normal aging process.
  2. Transition to responsible family and work roles.
  3. Difficulties in interacting with older family members.
  4. Psychological but not physiological maturity.

 

30. Emerging adulthood example- choice

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: A

Genevieve is 27 years old, finishing graduate school and living with her parents. As she makes her transition into adulthood, psychologists would consider her an example of someone in the age period called _______ adulthood:

  1. emerging
  2. young-old
  3. psychological
  4. normative

 

31. Normative history-graded example- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

The large impact that Hurricane Sandy had on residents of the Northeast U.S. in 2012 makes it a ________________ influence on development.

  1. secondary aging
  2. normative history-graded
  3. personal aging
  4. normative age-graded

 

Key social factors in adult development and aging

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: B

The term gender refers to:

  1. biologically assigned characteristics.
  2. self-identification as male or female.
  3. treatment of women in society.
  4. orientation toward sexual partners.

 

32. Whitehall II focus

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: C

The main focus of the large British study known as Whitehall II is on the role of ____________ as a factor in development.

  1. historical change
  2. racial disparities
  3. social class
  4. nationality

 

33. Race categories in U.S. Census

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

Which of the following categories would be considered an example of race as used in the 2010 U.S. Census?

  1. Hispanic
  2. American Indian
  3. Asian American
  4. Latino

 

34. Sex and gender influences

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: D

Which of the following topics would be considered to provide evidence on the effect of sex in development?

  1. Disparities in income.
  2. Social role expectations.
  3. Identification as a male or female.
  4. Role of hormones in behavior.

 

The Baby Boomers grow up: Changes in the middle-aged and older population in the United States and the world

35. Age-sex structure

 

Difficulty:

Correct choice: D

Highly developed countries that have nearly equal birth and death rates have an age-sex structure that resembles which shape?

 

36. Greatest Generation- choice

 

Difficulty:

Correct choice: A

The term ____________ is used to refer to individuals who fought in World War II:

  1. Greatest Generation
  2. Baby Boom
  3. Millennials
  4. Gen Xers

 

37. Number over 65- choice

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: A

Census 2010 estimates that the number of people 65 plus and older in the U.S. is _____ million.

  1. 3
  2. 1
  3. 4
  4. 7.

 

38. Percent over 65- choice

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: B

As of the latest estimates in 2010, the percentage of people in the United States population 65 years and older is:

  1. 1
  2. 0
  3. 7
  4. 2

 

39. Life span definition- choice

 

Difficulty: .98

Correct choice: B

The term life ______ refers to the maximum number of years that a species lives, reflecting its genetic inheritance.

  1. length/expectancy
  2. span
  3. limit
  4. potential

40. Life expectancy changes

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: B

The increased population of adults 65 and older in the U.S. can be attributed specifically to the higher life _______ being achieved by current generations.

  1. length
  2. expectancy
  3. growth
  4. span

 

41. Health expectancy definition- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: D

The number of years a person can expect to live with relatively little disability is known as:

  1. life span projection
  2. morbidity-free span
  3. functional age
  4. health expectancy

 

42. Silent generation

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: C

The parents of people in the Baby Boom generation are known as:

  1. Gen B
  2. Senior Boom
  3. Silent Generation
  4. Pioneer Cohort

 

43. Life expectancy value in 2010

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice:  B

What was the average life expectancy at birth in 2010?

  1. 3
  2. 7
  3. 8
  4. 1

 

44. Gender proportions

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: C

What percent of the total U.S. 65 and older population is male?

  1. 31
  2. 56
  3. 42
  4. 39

 

45. State percent

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: C

Because the state of _______________ has such a high percentage of adults 65 and older, political candidates put heavy emphasis into making promises about Medicare and Social Security when they campaign there.

  1. California
  2. South Carolina
  3. Florida
  4. New Mexico

 

 

46. Minority population changes U.S.

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice:  C

Which racial/ethnic minority group in the U.S. is expected to show the largest decrease in the U.S. population between 2010 and 2050?

  1. Asian alone
  2. Non-hispanic Black
  3. Non-hispanic White
  4. Hispanic of any race

 

47. World population in 2050

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: C

The number of people 65 and older projected to be alive around the world in 2050 is approximately:

  1. 106 million
  2. 3 billion
  3. 5 billion
  4. 670 million

 

48. Highest number in world

 

Difficulty:  .94

Correct choice: A

The country with the highest number (not percent) of individuals 65 and older is:

  1. China
  2. Sweden
  3. United States.

 

 

49. Developed vs. developing nations

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: A

The least percentage growth in populations over the age of 65 will occur around the world in countries that are described as:

  1. non-industrialized.

 

50. Number of 65 and older in the world in 2050

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: C

The number of people 65 and older projected to be alive around the world in 2050 is approximately:

  1. 106 million
  2. 3 billion
  3. 5 billion
  4. 670 million

 

 

Short Answer Questions

The biopsychosocial perspective

  1. Provide examples of concepts from the fields involved in the biopsychosocial perspective.
  2. Why is the biopsychosocial perspective important in understanding the processes of adult development and aging?

 

Four principles of adult development and aging

  1. What are the four principles underlying the study of adult development and aging?
  2. Why is it important to distinguish normal aging from disease?

 

The meaning of age

  1. What are advantages and disadvantages of using a particular age to define adult?
  2. Define and explain the purpose of using alternative indices of age.
  3. List the three influences on development and provide examples of each.
  4. Why do researchers believe it is important to distinguish personal from social aging?

 

KEY Social factors in adult development and aging

  1. List and define the 5 major social categorizations used in describing the findings and theories in adult development and aging.
  2. What might be the reasons for so few studies on the role of religion in aging? What might researchers be missing by failing to study this topic?

The Baby Boomers grow up: Changes in the middle-aged and older population in the United States and the world

  1. What are the two main factors that have contributed to changes in life expectancy in the last 100 years?
  2. What are the four main implications of changes in the age distribution of the population in the U.S. over the next 30 to 40 years?

Essay Questions

What is the value of using age as a means of understanding development?  Would alternative indices be more useful? Why or why not?

Why is it important to understand individual differences in the process of development in later life?

How will changes in the age distribution of the population affect society as a whole? Provide specific examples.

 

Chapter 3

The Study of Adult Development and Aging: Research Methods

Lecture guidelines

This chapter is the third and final chapter that serves as background for what is to follow in the rest of the course.  Given that the topic is not one that inherently of great interest to students, some imagination is required to keep students motivated.  It is recommended that the instructor make ample use of charts and diagrams to provide explanations of the various research designs.  Furthermore, examples of specific research studies can be inserted throughout the lecture on design to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of particular methods.

Videos and films

As stated above, it is helpful to use some imagination in planning the research methods lecture because the material is not of strong inherent interest to students.  Suggested videos would include recent studies from the national news media using cross-sectional or longitudinal designs.  A segment from 56 Up (http://www.pbs.org/pov/56up/#.UbedgPm1GCl) can be used to illustrate longitudinal research. Neil is a particularly interesting case.

Discussion questions:

Can you define independent and dependent variables?  Think of examples from research and label the variables as independent and dependent.

Can you think of examples of an experimental study?  Are studies on aging experimental or quasi-experimental?

Why is it that cohort, time of measurement, and age cannot truly be separated from each other?

Can you give some examples of cohort and time of measurement effects?

Prior to showing the box with disadvantages and advantages ask students to state what these might be.

Can you provide examples of cases where sequential designs would be important in the study of aging?

How would you interpret the age gradients for intellectual ability from the SLS?

Which designs seem to make more sense to you and would you use in conducting your own research?

Why do researchers maintain that it is not possible to draw cause-and-effect conclusions from correlational research?

What types of variables and problems are best studied through correlational methods?

What are the advantages to using multivariate designs in research on adult development and aging?

Is it truly possible to infer causal relationships from multivariate models? (This is a rather advanced question.)

How might an older adult feel when tested in a laboratory situation?

For what type of research questions would qualitative methods be particularly well-suited?

In what areas would archival research be of particular value? Why?

What types of special considerations might be needed in conducting surveys on older adults?

What can researchers do to reduce the subjectivity involved in a case report?

How could a focus group help a researcher begin to identify issues that can then be addressed in subsequent empirical studies?

If you were a consultant in a nursing home, how might you use observational methods to answer questions about the factors that affect the adjustment of residents?

Why is it necessary to establish the appropriateness of measures for different age groups of adults?

Why is it necessary to protect the rights of research subjects?

Under what sorts of conditions would it be necessary to keep subjects unaware of the purpose of the study until it had been completed?  What steps should be followed in such conditions to ensure that subjects are protected?

How did HIPAA change the way that health information is used in research?

Multiple choice questions

Aging Today

1.    Method of Research used in NSHAP

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: B

Which research method was used in the NSHAP study on aging and sexuality in which older adults reported on their sexual experiences?

  1. Focus groups.
  2. Case studies.
  3. Daily diaries.

 

Variables in developmental research

 

1.    Independent variable example- stem

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: A

Researchers studying the effects of videogame training on the cognitive abilities of older adults expose separate groups of male and female participants to a training condition and two other groups to a no-training condition in performance on a cognitive test. They then conduct a similar comparison involving male and female younger adults. In this study, the only true independent variable is:

  1. videogame training
  2. age group
  3. cognitive performance
  4. gender

2.    Dependent variable example- stem

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: B

A psychologist is conducting a study on the effect of intergenerational contact on happiness ratings, focusing on how such contact can be beneficial to older adults. .  In one condition, she pairs an older adult with a young child and in the other she pairs two older adults with each other.  Both sets of pairs meet for 30 minutes at a time. In this study, the dependent variable is the:

  1. pairings of young with old vs. old with old.
  2. happiness ratings of the older adults.
  3. length of time spent in contact.
  4. number of words each pair exchanges while they meet.

 

3.    Quasi-experimental design- choice

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: C

Because age cannot be an independent variable, research on aging uses a(n) ______________ type of design.

  1. true experimental
  2. bidirectional
  3. quasi-experimental
  4. semi-structured

 

4.    Cohort definition-stem

5.    Cohort definition- choice

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: A

Classifying groups of people studied in developmental research based on when they were born involves distinctions based on which type of categorization?

  1. cohort
  2. age
  3. sectional
  4. time of measurement

 

6.    Time of measurement effects- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: C

Developmental researchers who study time of measurement effects on psychological functioning are most interested in finding out:

  1. how people born at different years compare.
  2. the effect of aging on performance.
  3. how current social conditions affect scores.
  4. whether the least able drop out first.

 

7.    Cohort effect example- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: C

The fact that the Greatest Generation was raised in the 1930s, leading them to share certain sociocultural influences, is an example of which factor affecting developmental research results?

  1. time of measurement
  2. aging
  3. cohort
  4. mediation

 

8.    Age as an independent variable

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: C

Age cannot be used as an independent variable in developmental research because:

  1. People usually lie about their birthdate.
  2. There are no statistics to analyze age-based data.
  3. It cannot be manipulated by the experimenter.
  4. There are no good theories about aging.

 

Descriptive research designs

9.    Longitudinal example- choice

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

A British documentary film maker followed a group of children every 7 years starting when they were 7 years old and continuing to track them down through age 56. This film comes closest to which type of developmental research design?

  1. Cross-sectional
  2. Longitudinal
  3. Cross-sequential
  4. Time-sequential

 

10. Prospective study- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

In a prospective study of development, researchers use which type of approach?

  1. Compare people at one time who did and did not experience a major life transition.
  2. Track participants before and after they experience a major life transition.
  3. Ask participants to recall what they were like when they were younger.
  4. Interview close friends and relatives of participants over several time points.

 

11. Prospective study example- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

A researcher studying retirement is concerned that most of the available data come from people who are already retired, instead of following people up through the transition. The best approach to counter this problem would involve which type of research design?

  1. cross-sectional
  2. prospective
  3. sequential
  4. archival

 

12. Selective attrition- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: A

Although always a problem in research on aging, the issue of selective attrition most clearly affects what type of study?

  1. Longitudinal
  2. Sequential
  3. Laboratory
  4. Observational

 

13. Terminal drop- choice

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: A

The gradual loss of cognitive abilities as individuals get closer to death is referred to in research terms as:

  1. terminal drop.
  2. mortality control.
  3. correlational fallout.

 

14. Selective attrition- stem

 

Difficulty:

Correct choice:  D

Selective attrition typically involves the people initially most ______________ dropping out of a longitudinal study earliest.

  1. motivated
  2. infirmed
  3. active
  4. capable

 

15. Selective attrition choice

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: C

When the unhealthy members of a sample die out, the scores of the survivors seem to rise even though they may not change in reality. This research problem in studies on aging is referred to as:

  1. sequential growth.
  2. time of testing.
  3. selective attrition.
  4. qualitative analysis.

 

16. Cross-sectional advantage

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: A

Researchers conducting cross-sectional studies on aging have which specific advantage over researchers who conduct longitudinal studies?

  1. They do not have to worry about practice effects.
  2. The data are not affected by selective survival.
  3. They have eliminated all possible cohort effects.
  4. They can give different measures to different age groups.

 

17. Cross-sectional study problems

 

Difficulty:

Correct choice: D

A researcher conducting a cross-sectional study on age differences in health habits wants to look at people in their 20s vs. people in their 70s. This research might be improved by which of the following steps?

  1. Limit the young adult group to college students to minimize bias.
  2. Examine the older adults in a computer lab to control test conditions.
  3. Pay the college students but not the older adults for participating.
  4. Include a middle-aged group to reduce the age span being compared.

 

18. Cross-sectional confound with cohort

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

In a cross-sectional study on aging, the most important factor to control for is:

  1. terminal drop.
  2. practice effects.
  3. cohort differences.
  4. lack of confidentiality.

 

19. Cross-sectional problem- example

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: A

Online headlines from a major new study report that sexual interest diminishes as people get older. However, as you read the article in more detail, you realize that the study only compared people of different ages. Therefore, this study was _____________ and could not permit conclusions about age changes.

  1. cross-sectional
  2. prospective
  3. cross-sequential
  4. observational

 

 

Sequential research designs

20. Most efficient design- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: A

The _____________ refers to the approach that combines the three sequential designs.

  1. Most Efficient Design
  2. Three Factor Method
  3. Cohort Sequential Design
  4. Quasi Statistical Model

 

 

21. Sequential design- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: A

In ____________ studies of aging, researchers collect data from more than one cohort at more than one time period.

  1. sequential
  2. longitudinal
  3. sectional
  4. prospective

 

22. Cross-sequential design- stem

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: A

The cross-sequential design is designed to allow researchers to determine whether cohort and ___________ influence the patterns of results in developmental studies.

  1. time of measurement
  2. age
  3. education
  4. nationality

 

23. Cohort-sequential design- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: C

In the cohort-sequential design, researchers manipulate cohort and:

  1. time of measurement
  2. gender
  3. age
  4. date of birth

 

24. Cross-sequential design- choice

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: D

A researcher finds that after completing all three analyses in the Most Efficient Design, the  50-year-olds differ from the 60-year-olds in two of the three analyses. To conclude that age was a factor in producing these results, which design would need to show no significant effects?

  1. Time-sequential
  2. Cohort-sequential
  3. Age-sequential
  4. Cross-sequential

 

25. Most Efficient Design- stem

 

Difficulty:

Correct choice:  C

The Most Efficient Design would most likely be employed when researchers wish to compare the effects of:

  1. gender vs. age
  2. education vs. cohort
  3. age vs. cohort
  4. months vs. years

 

26. Interpret sequential findings- choice

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: C

For a researcher in a given field to find that both the time-sequential and the cohort-sequential designs produce significant age effects, then it is possible that the results reflect true ________ aging:

  1. historical
  2. social
  3. personal
  4. cultural

 

Correlational designs

27. Mediation- choice

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: D

In multivariate correlational studies testing _________, researcher compare the correlation between two variables with and without the effect of a third.

  1. moderation
  2. association
  3. description
  4. mediation

 

28. Moderator example- choice

 

Difficulty:

Correct choice: B

In multivariate study, researchers are attempting to understand the joint contributions of age and gender to the outcome of scores on a measure of depression. Because age does not predict gender nor does gender predict age, both variables have the status of being:

  1. structures
  2. moderators
  3. latent
  4. mediators

29. Structural equation models- choice

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: B

Researchers who want to test causal hypotheses about a set of relationships involving age and other variables are likely to use which specific type of design?

  1. Cross-sequential.
  2. Structural equation model.
  3. Quasi-experimental.
  4. Correlational.

 

30. Path analysis- choice

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: B

Although only experimental studies can ultimately test causality, many researchers in the field of aging use multivariate techniques, such as ____________, because they allow for testing inferences about causality.

  1. archival methods
  2. path analyses
  3. cross-sectional studies
  4. case reports

 

31. Latent variable- choice

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: A

In a large-scale study investigating the relationship between intelligence and lifestyle, researchers administer a set of 10 intelligence tests which they then convert into one underlying factor. They relate this underlying factor, in turn, to various lifestyle variables such as exercise, diet, and leisure activity participation. The converted intelligence factor is known, in structural equation modeling terms, as a(n):

  1. latent variable.
  2. multiple factor.
  3. outcome variable.

 

32. Logistic regression method- choice

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice:  B

Researchers attempting to predict whether or not a person will develop a disease from a set of risk factors are most likely to use the statistical method called:

  1. structural equation modeling.
  2. logistic regression.
  3. mediational analysis.
  4. latent variable measurement.

 

Types of research methods

33. Qualitative method example- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: D

The qualitatitve method would be most appropriate for research investigating topic in the psychology of aging?

  1. The effects of aging on memory.
  2. Age differences in daily experiences.
  3. The prevalence by age of psychiatric disorders.
  4. How older adults feel about grandchildren.

34. Prevalence statistics- stem

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: A

In epidemiological studies, researchers obtain prevalence statistics when they want to investigate the percent of people who:

  1. ever had a given disease.
  2. first show symptoms of a disease.
  3. had a disease and are now recovered.
  4. were at risk but didnt get the disease.

35. Focus group method example- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: A

The most appropriate method of analysis for data obtained from focus groups, such as older adults discussing their views about healthcare, would be:

  1. epidemiological

 

36. Diary study- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: A

A method in which researchers gather data on a frequent basis from the same people over a period of weeks or months is called a(n) _______ study:

  1. diary
  2. incidence
  3. survey
  4. case

 

37. Archival method example- stem

 

Difficulty:

Correct choice:

An archival study examining a womans age of first marriage and her probability of divorce would involve what type of procedure?

  1. Interviewing women of different ages to find out how they feel about marriage.
  2. Gathering divorced women into small groups and asking them about their experiences.
  3. Examining day-to-day variations in the happiness ratings that married women provide.
  4. Looking at divorce statistics in a given population and comparing age groups of women.

 

38. Observational study example- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

In a study examining the factors that influence whether drivers of different ages are likely to speed through an intersection, researchers set up recording devices at several major traffic lights in one town. They then estimate their ages and estimated speeds from the recordings. This would be an example of what type of study?

  1. survey
  2. observational
  3. sequential
  4. qualitative

 

39. Survey example- choice (Aging Today)

 

Difficulty:

Correct choice: D

In the National Social Life, Health and Aging Study, researcher collected data on the sex lives of adults 57 to 85 years of aging by using which type of methodology?

  1. Focus group
  2. Laboratory
  3. Observational
  4. Survey

 

40. Incidence studies- choice

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: C

Which type of epidemiological study do researchers use when they want to estimate the percent of people who first show symptoms of a disease?

  1. Prevalence
  2. Multivariate
  3. Incidence
  4. Descriptive

 

41. Meta-analysis example- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: A

To evaluate the relationship between gender and psychological well-being, a researcher examines a set of 45 studies that all include similar types of measures. The researcher then is able to provide a measure of effect size to indicate the strength of the relationship. This type of approach is called a(n):

  1. meta-analysis
  2. archival study
  3. focused analysis
  4. descriptive study

 

Measurement issues in adult development and aging

42. Reliability- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: B

Tests that produce consistent results are said to be psychometrically:

  1. valid
  2. reliable
  3. predictive
  4. replicable

43. Validity- choice

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice:  C

Tests that are intended to measure personality need to meet psychometric criteria showing that they actually do relate to personality.  These criteria refer to a tests:

  1. reliability
  2. equivalence
  3. validity
  4. consistency

 

44. Discriminant validity- choice

Difficulty:

Correct choice:

A test that measures what it is supposed to measure and not relate to something else stands up to the psychometric criterion known as ____________ validity.

  1. discriminant
  2. criterion
  3. convergent
  4. differential

 

 

45. Criterion validity example- stem

 

Difficulty: Moderate

Correct choice: A

A personnel manager develops a test to determine whether he will be able to predict how well employees will be able to keep up with the technological advances in their field from questions that measure their ability to learn new information. This test is intended, then, to meet the psychometric quality known as:

  1. criterion validity.
  2. test-retest reliability.
  3. convergent validity.
  4. internal reliability.

 

Ethical issues in research

 

46. IRBs- stem

 

Difficulty:

Correct choice: C

The role of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) in the research process involves which procedures?

  1. Ensuring that all participants provide information that is anonymous.
  2. Funding researchers who work at that institution to conduct their work.
  3. Requiring that researchers protect the rights of their participants.
  4. Ensuring that investigations carried out at that institution are published.

 

47. Anonymity- choice

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: A

The ethical principle of ____________ cannot be maintained in longitudinal study, where researchers must keep track of the names of their participants.

  1. anonymity
  2. confidentiality
  3. informed consent
  4. portability

 

48. Confidentiality example- choice

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: A

A researcher obtains information about one of her older participants in a study that suggests the participant may have difficulty driving.  According to the ethical principle of ______________, however, she cannot report this to the participants family.

  1. confidentiality
  2. professionalism
  3. informed consent
  4. freedom of information

49. Debriefing- stem

 

Difficulty: Hard

Correct choice: D

The ethical principle of debriefing requires that a researcher who uses deception in an experiment is obligated to:

  1. continue to maintain the deception so that participants dont leak the findings.
  2. intervene by counseling directly any participants who seem to show distress.
  3. ensure that participants dont leave the experiment until they have completed it.
  4. provide a complete description of the studys purposes and answer any questions.

 

50. Informed consent- choice

 

Difficulty: Easy

Correct choice: C

Ethical guidelines require that researchers obtain ________________ in which they provide information about a studys risks and benefits to each participant and then obtain their signature indicating they understand it:

  1. assisted feedback
  2. confidential disclosure
  3. informed consent
  4. known agreement

 

Short answer questions

Variables in developmental research

  1. Compare an experimental with a quasi-experimental design. Which type of design is used in studies on aging?
  2. Define age, cohort, and time of measurement. What is each variable intended to represent?
  3. Why are age, cohort, and time of measurement dependent on each other? Why is this a problem in research on adult development and aging?

 

Descriptive research designs

  1. Define a longitudinal and a cross-sectional design. Compare two advantages and two disadvantages of each.
  2. What solutions have researchers developed to overcome the problems of descriptive research designs?

 

Sequential research designs

  1. What is the purpose of sequential research?
  2. What are the three sequential designs in the Most Efficient Design?

 

Correlational approaches in research on aging

  1. What is the reason that researchers do not allow cause-and-effect conclusions to be drawn from correlational studies?
  2. List and define two multivariate correlational approaches. How are these used to overcome the problem that correlation does not equal causality?

 

Types of research

  1. Provide examples of each of the following methods:

1) Case study

2) Observational study

3) Focus group

  1. You are hired to be a consultant in a nursing home to study socialization patterns of residents. Which research method would give you the most useful data? Why?

 

Measurement issues in adult development and aging

  1. What are the two forms of reliability? Why are each important?
  2. List the four forms of validity and provide an example of how each would be measured.
  3. Describe why it is important for researchers to establish the reliability and validity of measures for each age group in a cross-sectional study.

 

Ethical issues in research

  1. What are the four components of ethical standards in research?
  2. Why were ethical standards developed and why are they important?

 

Essay questions

  1. Design a study on a topic of interest to you using longitudinal and cross-sectional methods. Describe the potential problems you would have with each method and how you would overcome these problems.
  2. Describe how you would apply the sequential designs to a study you develop. Analyze how the pattern of results you obtain would indicate the effects of age, cohort, and time of measurement.
  3. Discuss the problems involved in simple correlational designs and explain the advantages to using multivariate designs instead. Think of a research example to illustrate these points.
  4. Analyze the issue of psychometrics in research on aging. Why is it important for researchers to ascertain that measures are equally applicable to each age group in a study?  Do the same considerations apply in longitudinal research designs?
  5. Describe how you would go about ensuring the rights of participants in a study on memory and aging. Design a consent form, a debriefing form, and a set of guidelines to use that will ensure protection of the confidentiality of data.

 

 

 

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