Test Bank For Aging Concepts and Controversies 8th Edition by Harry R. Moody

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Test Bank For Aging Concepts and Controversies 8th Edition by Harry R. Moody

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WITH ANSWERS

 

Aging Concepts and Controversies 8th Edition by Harry R. Moody  Test Bank 

 

Controversy 2

Why Do Our Bodies Grow Old?

 

  1. The maximum human life span is approximately:
  2. A) 77 years
  3. B) 82 years
  4. C) 100 years

*D)      120 years

  1. E) 150 years

 

  1. The time-dependent biological process that involves functional loss and susceptibility to disease and death is called:
  2. A) The Gompertz law

*B)      Normal aging

  1. C) Successful aging
  2. D) The wear-and-tear theory of aging
  3. E) The Hayflick limit

 

  1. Which of the following are considered to be wear-and-tear theories of aging?
  2. A) Somatic mutation theory of aging
  3. B) Error accumulation theory of aging
  4. C) Accumulative waste theory of aging

*D)      All of the above

  1. E) A and B above

 

  1. According to the cellular theory of aging, which of the following processes occurs?
  2. A) Free radical damage eventually gives rise to the symptoms we know as aging.
  3. B) Cross-linking compounds in the collagen begin to accumulate and eventually impair cellular function.
  4. C) The bodys immune system begins to weaken and can no longer distinguish between bodily tissues and foreign tissues.

*D)      The capacity for cell division weakens over time.

  1. E) None of the above

 

  1. The Hayflick Limit refers to which of the following processes?
  2. A) HeLa cells continue to divide and grow.

*B)      Normal human cells grown in tissue culture go through a limited number of cell divisions.

  1. C) Aging is regulated by glandular cells, perhaps of the hypothalamus, thymus, or pituitary gland.
  2. D) Waste products and other harmful substances build up in the cells.
  3. E) None of the above

 

 

  1. Compression of morbidity refers to which of the following processes?
  2. A) The acceleration of the inverse relationship of morbidity and mortality

*B)      When illness is pushed further into old age

  1. C) An increase in the maximum life span
  2. D) Whenever the natural life span is exceeded
  3. E) None of the above

 

  1. According to Hayflick, when does aging begin?
  2. A) At conception
  3. B) At birth

*C)      Following the reproductive period

  1. D) When the animal becomes independent of its parents
  2. E) None of the above

 

  1. According to Fries and Crapo, all of the following are true except:

*A)      The number of extremely old persons will increase.

  1. B) The percentage of a typical life spent in dependency will decrease.
  2. C) The period of adult vigor will be prolonged.
  3. D) The need for intensive medical care will decrease.
  4. E) The cost of medical care will decrease.

 

  1. Explanations for the improvement in functioning of current cohorts of older persons include:
  2. A) Increases in the educational levels of newer cohorts of elders
  3. B) Decreases in the frequency of obesity
  4. C) Improvements in medical interventions
  5. D) All of the above are true.

*E) Both A and C are true.

 

  1. According to de Grey, the therapies being developed by the SENS (Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence) project to prevent and cure aging will be available for mice in ______ years and for humans in ______ years.
  2. A) 50, 75
  3. B) 50, 50
  4. C) 25, 25
  5. D) 25, 20

*E)      10, 20

 

  1. Although cultural stereotypes suggest that women are more biologically fragile than men, the Gompertz law indicates that women and men are equally likely to die.
  2. A) True

*B)      False

 

  1. Many biologists believe that aging may be explained by a single cause.

*A)      True

  1. B) False

 

  1. The maximum life span for a species is unalterable.
  2. A) True

*B)      False

 

  1. Research in the area of cryobiology has found that raising and maintaining a higher body temperature can increase the life span in fruit flies and some vertebrates.
  2. A) True

*B)      False

 

  1. Over the 20th century both life expectancy and lifespan increased.
  2. A) True

*B)      False

 

  1. Hayflick likens aging to the ticking on of a cheap watch that eventually results in its failure.

*A)      True

  1. B) False

 

  1. According to Hayflick, scientists have made significant progress during the last century in uncovering the fundamental cause of aging.
  2. A) True

*B)      False

 

  1. Like other biomedical goals, discovering the processes that cause aging or determine our lifespan would have a strictly positive value.
  2. A) True

*B)      False

 

  1. According to Fries and Crapo, average life expectancy has increased while life span has remained the same.

*A)      True

  1. B) False

 

  1. According to Fries and Crapo, if all disease and trauma were eliminated, death would still occur.

*A)      True

  1. B) False

 

  1. Premature deaths resulting from violence will comprise a smaller proportion of total premature deaths, according to Hayflick.
  2. A) True

*B)      False

 

  1. According to Mor, the compression of morbidity hypothesis is now generally accepted as valid.

*A)      True

  1. B) False

 

  1. The concepts of morbidity and disability can be used interchangeablythey mean the same thing when considering the compression of morbidity hypothesis.
  2. A) True

*B)      False

 

  1. Disability free or active life expectancy is the number of years an individual can expect to live beyond age 65 without significant functional impairment due to disability or chronic illness.

*A) True

  1. B) False

 

  1. A challenge in determining the need for care in the older population is that population surveys on health in later life measure health status in multiple ways.

 

*A)  True

  1. B) False

 

  1. Even if the compression of morbidity continues, there will still be an increase in health care resources needed because the size of the older population is increasing.

*A) True

  1. B) False

 

  1. International research on health trends in later life provides consistent results across countries.
  2. A) True

*B) False

 

  1. According to de Grey, even though it may be possible for people to live to be 1,000 years of age, none of the added life span will be lived in frailty, debility, or dependence.

*A) True

  1. B) False

 

  1. de Grey argues that the first person to live to 1,000 years of age has not yet been born.
  2. A) True

*B) False

 

  1. The various therapies that will be able to repair all the types of molecular and cellular damage that occur over time will have to be implemented before that damage is evident.
  2. A) True

*B) False

 

 

  1. Olshansky agrees with de Grey (We will be able to live to 1,000) that with sufficient resources devoted to research, we can find a cure for aging.
  2. A) True

*B) False

 

 

  1. Olshansky finds that throughout much of human history, many individuals have believed that physical immortality was soon within reach.

*A) True

  1. B) False

 

  1. Olshansky argues that research on aging should focus on improved physical health and mental functioning, and not on the search for a cure to aging.

*A) True

  1. B) False

 

  1. Olshansky concedes that the science of aging has significantly advanced in recent decades such that gerontology is close to discovering the key to physical immortality.
  2. A) True

*B) False

 

Type: E

  1. According to the various biological theories of aging, is the maximum human life span really finite? Explain.

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. In your opinion, how much emphasis should be placed on promoting health versus curing diseases in old age? Explain.

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. What if medical technology succeeds in significantly prolonging the human lifespan? What are the implications for health care economics?

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. What hope do we have for compressing morbidity or extending longevity according to Hayflick? Would these discoveries necessarily have positive consequences? Explain.

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. Describe what is meant by the rectangular curve. How does the rectangular curve assist us in our understanding of human aging and future changes in life expectancy?

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. Mor suggests that the compression of morbidity may turn out to be a cohort effect and not a lasting improvement in the functioning of older adults. What does Mor base his argument on? Do you agree or disagree with his thinking?

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. Parker and Thorslund suggest that trends in compression of morbidity are more complex than initially thoughtthe general trend seems to be that older sectors of the population report more diseases and health problems, at the same time that their functional ability is maintained for longer periods. How do the authors explain this trend? Do you think this trend will continue into the 21st century?

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. Do you agree or disagree with de Grey that developing therapies that would dramatically increase life expectancy is tantamount to playing God?

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. Compare and contrast de Greys We Will Be Able to Live to 1,000 and Olshanskys views on the likelihood of preventing and curing aging. What evidence does Olshansky use to refute de Greys argument?

*A) Varies

 

Type: E

  1. There is increasing evidence of social inequalities in longevity and the potential for experiencing a healthy old age. Discuss the factors that are important to consider in the compression-of-morbidity discussion.Controversy 9

    What Is the Future of Social Security?

     

    1. When did Congress recognize that Social Security could no longer operate in the future as a purely pay-as-you-go system?
    2. A) In the 1930s
    3. B) In the 1950s

    *C)      In the 1980s

    1. D) In the 1990s
    2. E) None of the above

     

    1. What happens to the surplus payroll taxes generated by Social Security?
    2. A) The surplus money is deposited into individual workers personal savings accounts.

    *B)      The surplus money is used to buy U.S. Treasury notes.

    1. C) The surplus money is deposited into supplemental retirement accounts for current beneficiaries.
    2. D) The surplus money is deposited into the General Fund.
    3. E) None of the above

     

    1. The most recent report from the Trustees of the Social Security system expect the system to be able to pay full benefits until ______, and after that, pay 80 75% percent of benefits, even if nothing is done to change the system.
    2. A) 2015

    *B)      2033

    1. C) 2045
    2. D) 2052
    3. E) 2060

     

    1. The income threshold for taxing Social Security benefits is ______.
    2. A) $5,000
    3. B) $19,999

    *C)      $25,000

    1. D) $29,999
    2. E) None of the above

     

    1. The age of eligibility for full Social Security benefits was ______, but between 2002 and 2007 rose to ______.
    2. A) 62, 65
    3. B) 62, 70

    *C)      65, 67

    1. D) 65, 70
    2. E) 67, 70

     

    1. Which of the following factors contributes to the long-term deficit in Social Security, according to Diamond and Orszag?
    2. A) Improvements in life expectancy
    3. B) Increased earnings inequality
    4. C) The generosity of benefits to early beneficiaries

    *D)      All of the above

    1. E) A and B above

     

    1. To address the effect of earnings inequality on Social Security, Diamond and Orszag propose which of the following solutions?
    2. A) Raise the maximum taxable earnings base
    3. B) Reduce benefits for relatively high wage earners
    4. C) Create personal savings accounts to enable workers to have more control over their Social Security taxes
    5. D) All of the above

    *E)      A and B above

     

    1. Which of the following is the major problem with Social Security according to Ponnuru?

    *A)      When benefits paid out begin to exceed revenues, the government will have to find money to pay off the IOUs in the trust fund.

    1. B) Benefits dont rise in exact proportion to wages.
    2. C) Benefit cuts and tax increases are not balanced.
    3. D) All of the above
    4. E) A and B above

     

    1. Which of the following is a benefit of personal accounts, according to Ponnuru?
    2. A) Personal accounts would give people wealth to pass on to their heirs.
    3. B) Personal accounts would move Social Security from a pay-as-you-go system to a pre-funding model.
    4. C) Personal accounts would enable people to supplement reduced Social Security benefits with wealth built up in their accounts.

    *D)      All of the above

    1. E) A and B above

     

    1. Social Security was never intended to be the sole source of income for people in retirement.

    *A)      True

    1. B) False

     

    1. One criticism of Social Security is that benefits do not keep pace with inflation.
    2. A) True

    *B)      False

     

    1. Even though Social Security benefits are derived from taxation, they are subject to taxation.

    *A)      True

    1. B) False

     

    1. The Social Security trust fund holds personal savings account for individual workers for their own Social Security benefits.
    2. A) True

    *B)      False

     

    1. The baby bust generation does not have enough workers to contribute promised benefits to the baby boom generation upon its retirement.

    *A)      True

    1. B) False

     

    1. The Social Security Act of 1935 was a response to the Great Depression at a time when only 5% of the U.S. population was over age 65.

    *A)      True

    1. B) False

     

    1. The Social Security tax is a heavier burden for people earning more money than those who are at the poverty level.
    2. A) True

    *B)      False

     

    1. It is projected that starting in 2023, expenditures will begin to exceed revenues, and the robust reserves will need to be drawn down to pay benefits.

    *A)      True

    1. B) False

     

    1. Diamond and Orszag argue that all of the adjustments for increased life expectancy should be made to Social Security by reducing benefits.
    2. A) True

    *B)      False

     

    1. The legacy debt refers to the excess Social Security benefits paid to early beneficiaries who contributed minimal payroll taxes.

    *A)      True

    1. B) False

     

    1. According to Ponnuru, even if economic growth doubled, Social Security would still become insolvent if nothing is done to change the programs benefit structure.

    *A)      True

    1. B) False

     

    1. According to Ponnuru, setting up personal accounts in Social Security would not increase the federal deficit.
    2. A) True

    *B)      False

     

    1. The hypothetical average worker used in most discussions of Social Security policy receives a benefit that is substantially higher than that of actual retirees.

    *A)      True

    1. B) False

     

    1. Thompson argues that the age increase from 65 to 67 in the Social Security program will cause more benefits to fall below minimally adequate levels of support.

    *A)      True

    1. B) False

     

    1. According to Thompson, the only way to ensure the continued solvency of Social Security is to reduce benefits.
    2. A) True

    *B)      False

     

    1. The majority of people polled about the future of Social Security are confident that it will be around when they need it.
    2. True

    *B) False

     

    1. Steuerle and Favreault argue that the debate over Social Security is mainly about whether individual workers should be allowed to place some of their retirement money into individual accounts.
    2. A) True

    *B)      False

     

    1. The inequities in Social Security are largely being ignored in current debates about changing the system.

    *A)      True

    1. B) False

     

    1. According to Steuerle and Favreault, Social Security reflects outdated norms of family life.

    *A)      True

    1. B) False

     

    1. Steuerle and Favreault argue that it is possible to implement reforms in Social Security such that everybody wins.
    2. A) True

    *B)      False

     

    Type: E

    1. How does Social Security benefit younger age groups and not just older age groups?

    *A) Varies

     

    Type: E

    1. How does Social Security embody the principles of equity and adequacy? How would this balance be affected by changing Social Security into a privatized system?

    *A) Varies

     

    Type: E

    1. Describe how Social Security is a pay-as-you-go system. How do dependency ratios help us project future contributions to and payouts from Social Security? Can Social Security continue to run as a purely pay-as-you-go system in the future? Explain.

    *A) Varies

     

    Type: E

    1. What can be done to improve the financial health of Social Security? Describe the benefits and drawbacks of the major proposals to change Social Security as outlined in the reading, The Future of Social Security: Proposals You Should Know About.

    *A) Varies

     

    Type: E

    1. Discuss Diamonds and Orszags strategies for improving the solvency of Social Security. Do you agree or disagree with their proposal?

    *A) Varies

     

    Type: E

    1. Do you agree or disagree with Ponnurus proposal for improving the solvency of Social Security? Explain.

    *A) Varies

     

    Type: E

    1. How is Social Security structured so as to redistribute retirement benefits to low wage workers?

    *A) Varies

     

    Type: E

    1. Do you agree or disagree with Steuerle and Favreault who argue that Social Security should be restructured to better reflect the various configurations of todays families? Explain.

    *A) Varies

     

     

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