Test Bank For American Corrections 10th Edition by Todd R. Clear

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Test Bank For American Corrections 10th Edition by Todd R. Clear

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WITH ANSWERS
American Corrections 10th Edition by Todd R. Clear  
Test Bank

 

CHAPTER 2

The Early History of Correctional Thought and Practice

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The purpose of punishment as a public spectacle was:
a. immediate deterrence
b. specific deterrence.
c. exhibition of the sovereigns power.
d. both crime control and exhibition of the sovereigns power.

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   27                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. The following is an example of corporal punishment:
a. forgiveness.
b. whipping.
c. imprisonment.
d. religious education.

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   27                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. Jeremy Benthem argued that effective punishments prevent _________________in the future.
a. negative behavior
b. positive behavior
c. similar behavior
d. coerced behavior

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   37                  OBJ:   4

 

  1. Political liberals and _______________ encouraged reform of the prison system during the Enlightenment Period.
a. Political conservatives
b. independents
c. religious groups
d. political liberals

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   36                  OBJ:   2

 

  1. The penitentiary was developed during the:
a. 1740s.
b. 1790s.
c. 1830s.
d. 1900s.

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   28                  OBJ:   1, 2

 

  1. The invention of the penitentiary occurred because of:
a. the influence of the Age of Reason.
b. a response to negative social conditions and their influence on the rise of crime.
c. the growth of the surplus labor due to the Industrial Revolution.
d. all of these

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   38-39             OBJ:   1, 2, 3

 

  1. By the 1900s, punishments were carried out under the supervision of:
a. the governor.
b. the king.
c. correctional staff.
d. the victim.

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   27                  OBJ:   2, 3

 

  1. Lex talionis embodies which of the following principles?
a. Punishment should correspond in degree and kind to the offense.
b. An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth is legal punishment.
c. Punishment needs to be proportionate.
d. All of these

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   28                  OBJ:   1, 2, 3

 

  1. The belief that a punishment inflicted on an offender must achieve enough good to outweigh the pain inflicted is called:
a. utilitarianism.
b. classical criminology.
c. the Enlightenment.
d. wergild.

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   37                  OBJ:   2, 3

 

  1. The practice of removing offenders from the community to another land was known as:
a. benefit of clergy.
b. galley slavery.
c. wergild.
d. transportation.

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. The Penitentiary Act was based upon four core principles where prisoners were confined in solitary cells and labored silently in common rooms. They include
a. secure and sanitary conditions.
b. nonsystematic inspections.
c. fees for inmates.
d. a continued regimen.

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   38                  OBJ:   1, 2

 

 

  1. The founder of the Classical School of Thought is ___________________.
a. Cesare Beccaria
b. John Howard
c. Cesare Lombroso
d. Jeremy Benthem

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   36                  OBJ:   3

 

  1. The period known as the Enlightenment had what effect(s) on society?
a. It brought a reaction against feudal society and the monopoly of religion.
b. It stressed the notion of equality for all citizens.
c. It was largely influenced by the growth of scientific thinking.
d. All of these

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   36                  OBJ:   2, 3, 4

 

  1. The Enlightenment proposed which of the following ideas for correctional reform?
a. A rewriting of penal codes to increase the severity of criminal sanctions.
b. A greater belief in the application of pain as a specific and general deterrent.
c. The invention of the penitentiary, where prisoners could be isolated from the temptations of the outside world.
d. An increase in the number of criminal laws and, as a result, a growth in the numbers and types of prisoners.

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   36                  OBJ:   2, 3, 4

 

  1. For the purpose of deterrence, which principle(s) did Beccaria believe were most important?
a. Severity
b. Swiftness
c. Certainty
d. Both swiftness and certainty

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   37                  OBJ:   2, 3

 

  1. The term wergild focuses on which of the following:
a. rehabilitation for offenders
b. money paid to relatives or victims of a crime
c. educational programs
d. vocational programs

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   28                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. How was the existing system of justice altered during the Enlightenment?
a. People reconsidered the administration of law and redefined corrections.
b. During this period the classical school of criminology emerged, with its insistence on a rational link between the gravity of the crime and the severity of the punishment.
c. The social contract and utilitarianism emphasized limitations on the government and the need to erect a system of punishments so that people would be deterred from crime.
d. All of these

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   36                  OBJ:   1, 2, 3

  1. During the Age of Reason, advances in scientific thinking led to a questioning attitude that emphasized which of the following?
a. Observation
b. Experimentation
c. Technological development
d. All of these

 

ANS:  D                    REF:35                     OBJ:   2, 3, 4

 

  1. As a social institution, corrections reflects the vision and concerns of the:
a. government.
b. larger community.
c. warden and administrators.
d. sentencing judges.

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   28                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. According to the text, Legal sanctions, in the form we are familiar with today, emerged in the:
a. 1700s.
b. 1200s.
c. 1500s.
d. 1800s.

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   28                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. The response to crime was viewed as essentially a private affair prior to the ______century?
a. 17th
b. 15th
c. 13th
d. 18th

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   28                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. ________ was a leader of reform in England and the developer of a utilitarian approach to crime and punishment
a. Jeremy Bentham
b. John Howard
c. Cesare Beccaria
d. Bishop Nicholas Ridley

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   36                  OBJ:   3, 4, 5

 

  1. Wergild developed as:
a. a barter system.
b. a method for the king to bring his subjects directly under his rule.
c. a method of treating private wrongs as public crimes.
d. a system of compensation.

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   28                  OBJ:   1

 

 

  1. The dominant social institution during the Middle Ages in England and Europe was:
a. the king.
b. the sheriff.
c. the penitentiary.
d. the church.

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   29                  OBJ:   1, 2, 3

 

  1. The law of the civil society as distinguished from church law is known as:
a. natural law.
b. lex talionis.
c. secular law.
d. benefit of clergy.

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   28                  OBJ:   1, 2, 3

 

  1. Benefit of clergy was extended to:
a. all worthy men of the realm.
b. only wealthy aristocrats of the realm.
c. monks and nuns only.
d. all literate persons.

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   29                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. The _________was born out of concern for the sinfulness of sloth.
a. wergild
b. workhouse
c. penitentiary
d. bridewell

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   31                  OBJ:   1

 

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Attempts to reform prisons began in the 1500s with the disintegration of feudalism.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. The new industrialism brought about a shift from penal to economic considerations as the basis for punishment.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   35                  OBJ:   2

 

  1. Major efforts began by the start of the 19th century in both Europe and the United States to devise a more severe penal sanction that focused completely on the body.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   27                  OBJ:   2, 3, 4

 

  1. Under the law of retaliation, lex talionis, vengeance was a duty to be carried out by the person wronged or by a family member.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   28                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. In England by the year 1200, a system of wergild, or payment of money as compensation, had developed as a way for the king to collect additional resources from the citizens.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   28                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. Best known for his utilitarian theories and often referred to as his hedonic calculus, Jeremy Bentham was a leading scholar of his time.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   37                  OBJ:   2, 4

 

  1. The Age of Reason brought about new ideas based on rationalization, the importance of individuals and the limitations of government.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   35                  OBJ:   2

 

  1. One of the major reasons England and Europe resorted to sending offenders to the New World was that their prisons and houses of corrections were filled to overflowing.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. The Enlightenment period recognized that people in America and Europe began to rethink procedural matters toward offenders.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   35                  OBJ:   2

 

  1. Public opinion about punishment has remained static over the last 200 years.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   28                  OBJ:   1, 2, 3, 4, 5

 

  1. Shaming is a new punishment idea.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   35                  OBJ:   1

 

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. Scholars point to the _________________ as the first comprehensive statement of prohibited behavior.

 

ANS:  Hammurabic Code

REF:   29                  OBJ:   1

 

 

 

  1. Because punishment was considered a powerful general ___________, authorities in from the sixteenth to eighteen century in Europe carried sanctions out in the market square for all to see.

 

ANS:  deterrent

REF:   33                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. The leading reformer in England and the developer of the utilitarian approach to crime and punishment was _____________________.

 

ANS:  John Howard

REF:   38                  OBJ:   5

 

  1. Secular law is the law of _________ society

 

ANS:  civil

REF: 28                    OBJ:   2

 

  1. According to the authors The Enlightenment was a reaction against feudal and __________ traditions.

 

ANS:  monarchical

REF:   36                  OBJ:   1, 2

 

  1. A school of criminology that views behavior as stemming from free will is known as the ____________ school.

 

ANS:  classical

REF:   36                  OBJ:   2, 3

 

  1. Until the 1800s, _______ was authorized to house pretrial detainees, debtors, and vagrants.

 

ANS:  jail

REF:   31                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. The doctrine that the aim of all action should be the greatest balance of pleasure over pain and that a punishment inflicted on an offender must achieve enough good to outweigh the pain is called _______________.

 

ANS:  utilitarianism

REF:   37                  OBJ:   2, 3, 4

 

  1. The rationalist philosophy of the __________ emphasizes individual rights.

 

ANS:  Enlightenment

REF:   35                  OBJ:   2, 3

 

  1. The humanistic concerns of the ____________ helped launch penal reforms.

 

ANS:  Quakers

REF:   39                  OBJ:   2

 

MATCHING

 

 

Match each item to the phrase or sentence listed below.

a. punishment to a body inflicting pain f. the right to be tried in ecclesiastical court
b. law of civil society g. Retaliation
c. forced rowing h. Age of Reason
d. detention facility i. A form of banishment
e. pleasure over pain j. free will and severe punishment

 

  1. Benefit of Clergy
  2. classical criminology
  3. corporal punishment
  4. Enlightenment
  5. galley slavery
  6. House of corrections
  7. Hulk
  8. Lex talionis
  9. Secular Law
  10. Utilitarianism

 

 

  1. ANS:  F                    REF:   29
  2. ANS:  J                     REF:   36
  3. ANS:  A                    REF:   33
  4. ANS:  H                    REF:   35
  5. ANS:  C                    REF:   29
  6. ANS:  D                    REF:   31
  7. ANS:  I                     REF:   33
  8. ANS:  G                    REF:   28
  9. ANS:  B                    REF:   28
  10. ANS:  E                    REF:   37

 

 

ESSAY

 

 

  1. Briefly summarize the social, political, and scientific ideas advocated during the Age of Reason and the effect they had on correctional thinking. Discuss whether you recognize any of these ideas in todays society.

 

ANS: Answers will vary          OBJ: 2

 

  1. Shaming is not a new idea but it is making a comeback. Give historically early examples of shaming and discuss whether you think it is a useful tool of social control. Why or why not? Are there any negative associations with shaming?

 

ANS: Answers will vary          OBJ: 1

 

 

  1. Define the various periods discussed in chapter 2. Name each and what they stand for during their time. Then discuss in which era would you prefer to be punished? Discuss why you chose the time period and punishments that you did.

 

ANS: Answers will vary          OBJ: 1, 2

 

 

  1. Discuss the contributions of Cesare Beccaria and the classical school of thought. Are the concepts still in use today? If so, how? If not, why not?

 

ANS: Answers will vary          OBJ: 3

 

  1. Discuss the many forms of punishment to criminals in the early years of corrections. How do they compare to today? Should they or should they not still be in place? If so, why and if not, why not?

 

ANS: Answers will vary          OBJ: 1

CHAPTER 4

The Punishment of Offenders

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The concept of good time is provided to inmates in certain correctional facilities based on:
a. medical issues
b. complaints to internal affairs
c. visits from family
d. vocational programs

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   73                  OBJ:   2

 

  1. Which concept holds that human behavior is governed by the individuals calculation of the benefits versus the costs of ones acts:
a. Egalitarianism.
b. Utilitarianism.
c. Positivism.
d. Marxism.

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   66                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. The concept of selective incapacitation rests on the idea that:
a. most serious offenders require short periods of incarceration.
b. a small number of offenders are responsible for a disproportionate number of violent and property crimes.
c. the cost of incarceration can be decreased by housing only serious and repetitive offenders.
d. the crime rate will remain relatively stable if serious felons are incarcerated for long periods.

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   68                  OBJ:   1, 3

 

  1. According to the author, In a retributive justice model those who commit a particular crime should be punished:
a. subjectively.
b. alike.
c. differently.
d. mercifully.

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   69                  OBJ:   1, 3

 

  1. With reference to time, rehabilitation is:
a. future-oriented.
b. present-oriented.
c. past-oriented.
d. both future- and present-oriented.

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   69                  OBJ:   1, 3

 

  1. Among the stated goals of the correctional process as mentioned by the authors, which of the following does not overlap with the objectives of the other purposes?
a. Rehabilitation
b. Deterrence
c. Incapacitation
d. Retribution

 

ANS:  A                    REF:69                     OBJ:   1, 2, 3

 

  1. The goal of rehabilitation is oriented solely toward the _____________and does not imply any consistent relationship between the severity of the punishment and the gravity of the crime.
a. state
b. victim
c. offender
d. law

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   69                  OBJ:   1, 3

 

  1. According to Herbert Packer, which of the following is NOT an element of punishment?
a. an offense
b. the infliction of pain because of the commission of the offense
c. use of community justice tactics to deter the offender
d. a dominant purpose to prevent further offenses or to inflict pain on the offender

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   66                  OBJ:   1, 3, 4

 

  1. According to Clear, Cole, and Reisig, __________ is the most visible penalty imposed by the criminal justice system.
a. imprisonment
b. probation
c. parole
d. the death sentence

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   68                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. Experts usually cite _________ as reasons wrongful convictions occur.
a. plea-bargaining pressures
b. community pressure
c. eyewitness error
d. all of these

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   87                  OBJ:   4

 

  1. Probationary sentences emphasize guidance and ______________ in the community.
a. employment
b. educational attainment
c. supervision
d. family connectivity

 

ANS:  C                    REF: 77                    OBJ:   3

 

  1. The most notably used sentencing guidelines used throughout the United States is the _______________________:
a. Minnesota Sentencing Guideline
b. New York Sentencing Guideline
c. Pennsylvania Sentencing Guideline
d. Georgia Sentencing Guideline

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   84                  OBJ:   3

 

  1. ______ asserts that a person who has infringed the rights of others deserves to be penalized or punished.
a. Deterrence
b. Retribution
c. Incapacitation
d. Rehabilitation

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   66                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. According to the concept of __________, offenders are returned to society once they are cured.
a. deterrence
b. retribution
c. incapacitation
d. rehabilitation

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   68                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. Punishment of criminals that is intended to be an example to the public and to discourage the commission of offenses by others is known as:
a. specific deterrence.
b. specific retribution
c. general deterrence.
d. general rehabilitation.

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   67                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. Depriving an offender of the ability to commit crimes against society, usually by detention in prison, is:
a. deterrence.
b. retribution.
c. incapacitation.
d. rehabilitation.

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   68                  OBJ:   2

 

  1. Punishment designed to repair damage to both victim and community is:
a. rehabilitation.
b. retribution.
c. reintegration.
d. restorative justice.

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   69                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. Since the _________, retribution as a justification for the criminal sanction has aroused new interest.
a. 1930s
b. 1950s
c. 1970s
d. 1990s

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   66                  OBJ:   3

 

  1. Sentencing guidelines are designed to:
a. reduce disparity in sentencing for similar offenses
b. increase and decrease punishments for certain offenders and offenses
c. reduce prison overcrowding
d. all of these

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   83                  OBJ:   3

 

  1. Legislatures concerned with the correctional goal of treatment prescribe a(n):
a. determinate sentencing scheme.
b. indeterminate sentencing scheme.
c. mandatory sentencing scheme.
d. presumptive sentencing scheme.

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   73                  OBJ:   1, 3

 

  1. Punishments less severe than prison but more restrictive than traditional probation are:
a. restorative sanctions.
b. indefinite sanctions.
c. immediate sanctions.
d. intermediate sanctions.

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   76                  OBJ:   2

 

  1. Judges may go outside of the sentencing guidelines if aggravating or __________ circumstances exist however they must provide a written explanation for this.
a. mitigating
b. maddening
c. frustrating
d. exaggerating

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   83                  OBJ:   3

 

  1. In the Booker decision, the justices said that sentencing guidelines are:
a. mandatory.
b. discretionary.
c. ridiculous.
d. binding.

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   85                  OBJ:   2, 3

 

  1. Restorative justice sees crime as a violation against which of the following?
a. Victim and community
b. Offender and the state
c. Law and justice
d. Fairness and equity

 

ANS:  A                    REF:69                     OBJ:   2

 

  1. Divergence in the lengths and types of sentences imposed for the same crime or crimes of comparable seriousness when no reasonable justification can be discerned is:
a. judicial disparity.
b. sentencing disparity.
c. systemic racism.
d. a miscarriage of justice.

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   86                  OBJ:   4

 

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. According to the author, Rehabilitation is oriented solely toward the offender and does not imply any consistent relationship between the severity of the punishment and the gravity of the crime.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   68                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. The public must be constantly reminded about punishment for deterrence to work.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   67                  OBJ:   1, 2

 

  1. The United States employs a national standard approach to sentencing.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   71                  OBJ:   3

 

  1. The restorative justice approach views crime as more than a violation of penal code requiring accountability to victims on the part of the offender.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   69                  OBJ:   2

 

  1. Most Western democracies impose the death penalty.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   77                  OBJ:   2

 

  1. In the past decade, many have argued that the needs of the victim and the community should be the focus of punishment goals.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   69                  OBJ:   1, 3

  1. Recent knowledge of the effectiveness of deterrence shows that social science is able to measure the effects of various punishments.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   67                  OBJ:   1, 4

 

  1. All punishments are visible.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   79                  OBJ:   2

 

  1. Incapacitation focuses on characteristics of the offenders instead of characteristics of the victims.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   68                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. As soon as a prisoner goes free, his/her punishment is over and done with.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   73                  OBJ:   2

 

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. __________ assumes that society can remove an offenders capacity to commit further crimes by detention in prison or by execution.

 

ANS:  Incapacitation

REF:   68                  OBJ:   1, 2

 

  1. Retribution espouses that an offender should be punished ____________ to the gravity of the offense.

 

ANS:  in proportion

REF: 66                    OBJ:   2, 3

 

  1. ________________ presumes that punishment inflicted on criminals will discourage them from committing future crimes.

 

ANS:  Specific deterrence

REF:   67                  OBJ:   1

 

 

  1. Offenders who repeat certain kinds of crime are sentenced to long prison terms through the concept of ________________________.

 

ANS:  selective incapacitation

REF:   68                  OBJ: 1

 

  1. The use of ____________ was greatly expanded in the 1980s as a weapon in the War on Drugs.

 

ANS:  mandatory minimums

REF:   73                  OBJ:   3

 

  1. ___________ is the punishment inflicted on a person who has violated a criminal law and so deserves to be punished.

 

ANS:  Retribution

REF:   66                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. In keeping with the goal of treatment, _________________ gives correctional officials and parole boards significant control over the amount of time an offender serves through a lack of fixed time of incarceration.

 

ANS:  indeterminate sentencing

REF: 76                    OBJ:   1, 3

 

  1. The most frequently applied criminal sanction is ___________.

 

ANS:  probation

REF:   76                  OBJ:   2

 

  1. A convicted offender who is imprisoned for a fixed period of time has been given a __________ sentence.

 

ANS:  determinate

REF:   73                  OBJ:   1

 

  1. ___________ presumes members of the general public will be deterred by observing the punishments of others and will conclude the costs of crime outweigh the benefits.

 

ANS:  General deterrence

REF:   67                  OBJ:   1

 

 

MATCHING

 

Match each item to the phrase or sentence listed below.

a. Remove an offenders capacity to commit crime f. Deserved punishment
b. Min/max range of incarceration g. Incarcerated for the betterment of society
c. Punishment as an example to the public h. Repair damage
d. Restoring the offender to society i. Fixed time of incarceration
e. Control over the amount of time a prisoner serves j. Punishment for the individual

 

 

  1. General deterrence
  2. Retribution
  3. Incapacitation
  4. Specific deterrence
  5. Indeterminate Sentencing
  6. Selective incapacitation
  7. Rehabilitation
  8. Determinate sentencing
  9. Restorative Justice Presumptive sentencing
  10. Mandatory sentencing

 

 

  1. ANS:  C                    REF:   67
  2. ANS:  F                    REF:   66
  3. ANS:  A                    REF:   68
  4. ANS:  J                     REF:   67
  5. ANS:  E                    REF:   73
  6. ANS:  G                    REF:   68
  7. ANS:  D                    REF:   68
  8. ANS:  I          &nbs

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