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<< Test Bank For Biology Science for Life with Physiology 4th Edition by Belk | Test Bank For Community Based Corrections 10th Edition by Alarid >> |

**CHAPTER 2: GRAPHICAL AND TABULAR DESCRIPTIVE TECHNIQUES**

**TRUE/FALSE**

- Your age group (1-9; 10-19; 20-29; 30-39; etc.) is an interval variable.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Your gender is a nominal variable.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Your final grade in a course (A, B, C, D, E) is a nominal variable.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Your age is an interval variable.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Interval data may be treated as ordinal or nominal.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Whether or not you are over the age of 21 is a nominal variable.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The values of quantitative data are categories.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Interval data, such as heights, weights, and incomes, are also referred to as quantitative or numerical data.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- All calculations are permitted on interval data.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Nominal data are also called qualitative or categorical data.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A variable is some characteristic of a population or sample.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- With nominal data, there is one and only one way the possible values can be ordered.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- You cannot calculate and interpret differences between numbers assigned to nominal data.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A bar chart is used to represent interval data.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- One of the advantages of a pie chart is that it clearly shows that the total percentages of all the categories add to 100%.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Bar and pie charts are graphical techniques for nominal data. The former focus the attention on the
*frequency*of the occurrences of each category, and the later emphasizes the*proportion*of occurrences of each category.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A relative frequency distribution lists the categories and their counts.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A frequency distribution lists the categories and the proportion with which each occurs.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- From a pie chart you are able to find the frequency for each category.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The intervals (classes) in a histogram do not overlap.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The intervals (classes) in a histogram are equally wide.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- In a histogram, each observation is assigned to one or more classes.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The number of class intervals in a histogram depends on the number of observations in the data set.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A relative frequency distribution describes the proportion of data values that fall within each category.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A stem-and-leaf display reveals more information about the original data than does a histogram.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The number of observations within each class may be found in a frequency distribution.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The advantage of a stem-and-leaf display over a histogram is that we can see the actual observations.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- According to the stem-and-leaf plot below, the median quiz score for this data set is 8.

Stem-and-leaf of Quiz Score; N = 75 | ||

Leaf Unit = 1 | ||

9 | 0 | 000112333 |

14 | 0 | 56899 |

21 | 1 | 0000123 |

26 | 1 | 66699 |

33 | 2 | 3334445 |

(8) | 2 | 66677888 |

34 | 3 | 0023344 |

27 | 3 | 56669999 |

19 | 4 | 000122233 |

10 | 4 | 5556667799 |

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A cumulative relative frequency distribution lists the number of observations that lie below each of the class limits.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- According to the stem-and-leaf plot below, this data set has a negative median.

Stem-and-leaf of P/E ratio; N = 75 | |||

Leaf Unit = 0.01 | |||

1 | -2 | 6 | |

2 | -2 | 0 | |

5 | -1 | 555 | |

8 | -1 | 420 | |

22 | -0 | 99999887777665 | |

36 | -0 | 44322111111000 | |

(14) | 0 | 01122233333344 | |

25 | 0 | 66678889999 | |

14 | 1 | 0022222334 | |

4 | 1 | 56 | |

2 | 2 | 03 | |

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A histogram represents interval data.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A stem-and-leaf display represents nominal data.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- According to the stem-and-leaf plot below, this data set is symmetric.

Stem-and-leaf of P/E ratio; N = 10 | ||

Leaf Unit = 0.10 | ||

2 | -1 | 53 |

4 | -0 | 97 |

(2) | -0 | 65 |

4 | 0 | 3 |

3 | 0 | 6 |

2 | 1 | 3 |

1 | 1 | 8 |

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- When a distribution has more values to the left and tails off to the right, it is skewed negatively.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A histogram is said to be symmetric if, when we draw a vertical line down the center of the histogram the two sides are nearly identical.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A skewed histogram is one with a long tail extending either to the right or left.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- When a distribution has more values to the right and tails to the left, we say it is skewed negatively.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The sum of relative frequencies in a distribution always equals 1.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The sum of cumulative relative frequencies always equals 1.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The original observations cannot be determined once they are grouped into a frequency distribution.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A modal class is the class with the largest number of observations.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Experience shows that few students hand in their statistics exams early; most prefer to hand them in near the end of the test period. This means the time taken by students to write exams is positively skewed.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The graph below is an example of a histogram.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The sum of cumulative relative frequencies always equals 1.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A line chart is created by plotting the values of the variable on the vertical axis and the time periods on the horizontal axis.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Time series data are often graphically depicted on a line chart, which is a plot of the variable of interest over time.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A line chart that is flat shows no fluctuation in the variable being presented.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The graph below represents a line graph.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A department stores monthly sales (in thousands of dollars) for the last year were as follows. A histogram should be used to present these data.

Month | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 |

Sales | 78 | 74 | 83 | 87 | 85 | 93 | 100 | 105 | 103 | 89 | 78 | 94 |

ANS: F

NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The line chart below shows tomato prices each month from January (month 1) to December last year ($ per pound). By looking at this chart you can see the lowest tomato prices occurred in July.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The line chart below shows cucumber prices fluctuated from $2.00 per pound to over $4.50 per pound during the year.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The graphical technique used to describe the relationship between two interval variables is the scatter diagram.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The two most important characteristics revealed by the scatter diagram are the strength and direction of the linear relationship.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Data for calories and salt content (milligrams of sodium) in 17 brands of meat hot dogs are shown in the scatter diagram below. According to this diagram, it appears that hot dogs that are high in sodium are generally low in calories, and hot dogs with low sodium are generally high in calories.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- If we draw a straight line through the points in a scatter diagram and most of the points fall close to the line, there must be a positive relationship between the two variables.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The two most important characteristics to examine in a scatter diagram are the number of possible categories for
*X*and*Y*and the number of observations in each category.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- When two variables are linearly related, and tend to move in opposite directions, we describe the nature of their association as a negative linear relationship.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Correlation implies causation.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- If two variables have a strong linear relationship, that means one variable is
*causing*the other variable to go up or down.

ANS: F NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The scatter diagram below depicts data with a negative linear relationship.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The first scatter diagram below shows a stronger linear relationship than the second scatter diagram. (Assume the scales on both scatter diagrams are the same.)

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A professor examines the relationship between minutes studying and exam score (out of 200 points) for a random sample of his students. The scatter diagram is shown below. It appears that study time has somewhat of a positive linear relationship with exam score.

ANS: T NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

**MULTIPLE CHOICE**

- The classification of student major (accounting, economics, management, marketing, other) is an example of a(n)

a. | nominal random variable. |

b. | interval random variable. |

c. | continuous random variable. |

d. | parameter. |

ANS: A NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The classification of student class designation (freshman, sophomore, junior, senior) is an example of a(n)

a. | nominal random variable. |

b. | interval random variable. |

c. | ordinal random variable. |

d. | a parameter. |

ANS: C NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A researcher wishes to estimate the textbook costs of first-year students at Barry University. To do so, he recorded the textbook cost of 300 first-year students and found that their average textbook cost was $195 per semester. The variable of interest to the researcher is

a. | textbook cost. |

b. | class rank. |

c. | number of students. |

d. | name of university. |

ANS: A NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- All calculations are permitted on what type of data?

a. | Interval data |

b. | Nominal data |

c. | Ordinal data |

d. |
All of these choices are true. |

ANS: A NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Values must represent ordered rankings for what type of data?

a. | Interval data |

b. | Nominal data |

c. | Ordinal data |

d. |
None of these choices. |

ANS: C NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- For what type of data are frequencies the only calculations that can be done?

a. | Interval data |

b. | Nominal data |

c. | Ordinal data |

d. |
None of these choices. |

ANS: B NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- For which type of data are the values arbitrary numbers?

a. | Interval data |

b. | Nominal data |

c. | Ordinal data |

d. |
None of these choices. |

ANS: B NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Which of the following statements about pie charts is false?

a. | A pie chart is a graphical representation of a relative frequency distribution. |

b. | You can always determine frequencies for each category by looking at a pie chart. |

c. | The total percentage of all the slices of a pie chart is 100%. |

d. | The area of a slice of a pie chart is the proportion of all the individuals that fall into that particular category. |

ANS: B NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Which of the following situations is best suited for a pie chart?

a. | The number of dollars spent this year on each type of legal gambling. |

b. | The percentage of a charitable donation that goes to administrative costs vs. directly to the charity. |

c. | The number of students in your class who received an A, B, C, D, F on their exam. |

d. |
All of these choices are true. |

ANS: B NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Which situation identifies when to use pie charts and/or bar charts?

a. | You want to describe a single set of data. |

b. | Your data is nominal. |

c. | You want to show the number or the percentage of individuals in each category. |

d. |
All of these choices are true. |

ANS: D NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Suppose you measure the number of minutes it takes an employee to complete a task, where the maximum allowed time is 5 minutes, and each time is rounded to the nearest minute. Data from 130 employees is summarized below. How long did it take most employees to complete the task?

Time (minutes) | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |

Frequency | 25 | 40 | 50 | 35 | 30 |

a. | 5 minutes |

b. | 3 minutes |

c. | 30 minutes |

d. | 50 minutes |

ANS: B NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Car buyers were asked to indicate the car dealer they believed offered the best overall service. The four choices were Convoy Motors (C), Mako Chrysler (M), Torrent Auto (T), and Unequaled Chevrolet (U). The following data were obtained:

T | C | C | C | U | C | M | T | C | U |

U | M | C | M | T | C | M | M | C | M |

T | C | C | T | U | M | M | C | C | T |

T | U | C | U | T | M | M | C | U | T |

What percentage of car buyers identified Convoy Motors as having the best overall service?

a. | 1/4 = 0.25 or 25% |

b. | 14/40 = 0.35 or 35% |

c. | 14% |

d. |
None of these choices. |

ANS: B NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Which of the following represents a graphical presentation of interval data?

a. | A bar chart. |

b. | A histogram. |

c. | A pie chart. |

d. |
All of these choices are true. |

ANS: B NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Which of the following statements about histograms is false?

a. | A histogram is a summary of interval data. |

b. | A histogram is made of a series of intervals, called classes. |

c. | The classes in a histogram cover the complete range of observations. |

d. |
All of these choices are true. |

ANS: D NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Which of the following statements about histograms is false?

a. | The intervals of a histogram do not overlap. |

b. | Every observation is assigned to one and only one class in a histogram. |

c. | The intervals of a histogram are equally wide. |

d. |
None of these choices. |

ANS: D NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Which of the following describes the shape of the histogram below?

a. | Positively skewed |

b. | Negatively skewed |

c. | Symmetric |

d. |
None of these choices |

ANS: C NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The relative frequency of a class in a histogram is computed by

a. | dividing the frequency of the class by the number of classes. |

b. | dividing the frequency of the class by the class width. |

c. | dividing the frequency of the class by the total of all frequencies. |

d. |
None of these choices. |

ANS: C NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Compare the two histograms below. Which statement is true?

a. | The center of histogram A is lower than the center of histogram B. |

b. | The center of histogram A is higher than the center of histogram B. |

c. | The center of histogram A is the same as the center of histogram B. |

d. | You cannot compare the centers of these two histograms without the original data. |

ANS: A NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Compare the two histograms below. Which statement is true?

a. | The spread of histogram A is smaller than the spread of histogram B. |

b. | The spread of histogram A is larger than the spread of histogram B. |

c. | The spread of histogram A is the same as the spread of histogram B. |

d. | You cannot compare the spreads of these two histograms without the original data. |

ANS: C NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Compare the two histograms below. Which statement is true?

a. | The shape of histogram A is the same as the shape of histogram B. |

b. | The shape of histogram A is positively skewed compared to histogram B. |

c. | The shape of histogram A is negatively skewed compared to histogram B. |

d. | You cannot compare the shapes of these two histograms without the original data. |

ANS: A NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A modal class in a histogram is the class that includes

a. | the largest number of observations. |

b. | the smallest number of observations. |

c. | the largest observation in the data set. |

d. | the smallest observation in the data set. |

ANS: A NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The sum of the relative frequencies for all classes in a histogram always equals

a. | the number of classes. |

b. | the class width. |

c. | the total of all the frequencies. |

d. | one. |

ANS: D NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Which of the following statements about shapes of histograms is true?

a. | A histogram is said to be symmetric if, when we draw a vertical line down the center of the histogram, the two sides are identical in shape and size. |

b. | A negatively skewed histogram is one with a long tail extending to the left. |

c. | A positively skewed histogram is one with a long tail extending to the right. |

d. |
All of these choices are true. |

ANS: D NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Compare the spread of the two histograms below. Which of the following is true?

a. | Data Set A has a larger spread than Data Set B. |

b. | Data Set A has a smaller spread than Data Set B. |

c. | Data Set A has the same spread as Data Set B. |

d. | You cannot compare the spreads of these histograms without the original data. |

ANS: B NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Which of the following is true about a stem-and-leaf display?

a. | You can recreate the original data set from it. |

b. | Its shape resembles a histogram turned on its side. |

c. | It provides an organized way to depict interval data. |

d. |
All of these choices are true. |

ANS: D NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- What does the length of each line of a stem-and-leaf display represent?

a. | The percentage of observations in the interval represented by that stem. |

b. | The number of observations in the interval represented by that stem. |

c. | The total frequency of observations within or below that stem. |

d. | The number of digits to the left of the decimal point. |

ANS: B NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- What values are displayed on a cumulative relative frequency distribution?

a. | The number of observations that fall into each class interval. |

b. | The proportion of observations that fall into each class interval. |

c. | The number of observations that fall below each class interval. |

d. | The proportion of observations that fall below each class interval. |

ANS: D NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- What type of graph depicts the data below?

a. | A line chart |

b. | A histogram |

c. | A dot plot |

d. | A bar chart |

ANS: A NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Observations that are measured at successive points in time is what type of data?

a. | Time-series data |

b. | Cross-sectional data |

c. | Successive data |

d. |
None of these choices. |

ANS: A NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Observations that are measured at the same time represent what type of data?

a. | Time-series data |

b. | Cross-sectional data |

c. | Synchronous data |

d. |
None of these choices. |

ANS: B NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Which of the following represents time-series data?

a. | The length of time each of the top 100 stocks have been available on the NYSE. |

b. | The most popular time of year that people purchase the top 100 stocks on the NYSE. |

c. | The value of the #1 stock on the NYSE each month over a one-year period. |

d. |
All of these choices are true. |

ANS: C NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Time-series data are often graphically depicted how?

a. | Bar chart |

b. | Histogram |

c. | Line chart |

d. |
All of these choices are true. |

ANS: C NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Which of the following statements describes a line chart?

a. | A line chart is a graph of time-series data. |

b. | A line chart is a plot of a variable over time. |

c. | The horizontal axis of a line chart contains time periods. |

d. |
All of these choices are true. |

ANS: D NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- What kind(s) of data can be depicted by a line chart?

a. | Frequencies of an interval over time. |

b. | Frequencies of a nominal variable over time. |

c. | Relative frequencies of a nominal variable over time. |

d. |
All of these choices are true. |

ANS: D NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Which of the following statements describe(s) the line chart below?

a. | November experienced the lowest sales throughout the year. |

b. | August experienced the highest sales throughout the year. |

c. | Sales did not fluctuate more than 30 units on either side of 90. |

d. |
All of these choices are true. |

ANS: D NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The relationship between two interval variables is graphically displayed by a

a. | scatter diagram |

b. | histogram |

c. | bar chart |

d. | pie chart |

ANS: A NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- In order to draw a scatter diagram, we need interval data for

a. | one variable |

b. | two variables |

c. | three variables |

d. | four variables |

ANS: B NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Which of the following statements is false?

a. | You can examine the relationship between two nominal variables using a cross-classification table. |

b. | You can only apply statistical techniques to one variable at a time. |

c. | You can examine the relationship between two interval variables using a scatter diagram. |

d. |
None of these choices. |

ANS: B NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- How do you determine whether two interval variables have a positive linear relationship?

a. | Most of the points fall close to a straight line with positive slope. |

b. | As the X variable increases, the Y variable increases in a linear way. |

c. | The scatter diagram shows a linear pattern that is going uphill. |

d. |
All of these choices are true. |

ANS: D NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- If the data in a scatter diagram is scattered completely at random, what do you conclude?

a. | There is no linear relationship between X and Y. |

b. | There is a strong linear relationship between X and Y. |

c. | There is a strong linear relationship between X and Y that is described by a horizontal (flat) line. |

d. |
None of these choices. |

ANS: A NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Which of the following is the method statisticians use to draw the best fitting straight line through the data on a scatter diagram?

a. | The fit best method. |

b. | The least squares method. |

c. | The point-intercept method. |

d. |
None of these choices. |

ANS: B NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Which of the following describes a positive linear relationship between
*X*and*Y*?

a. | As the X values increase, the Y values increase in a linear manner. |

b. | As the X values decrease, the Y values decrease in a linear manner. |

c. | The X and Y values move uphill together in a linear manner. |

d. |
All of these choices are true. |

ANS: B NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- When two variables tend to move in opposite directions, yet still form a linear pattern, how do you describe their relationship?

a. | A positive linear relationship. |

b. | A negative linear relationship. |

c. | A proportional inverse relationship. |

d. |
None of these choices. |

ANS: B NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

**COMPLETION**

- The Chief of Police conducted a survey of the officers on his squad. An officers shooting score at target practice is an example of a(n) ____________________ variable.

ANS:

interval

quantitative

numerical

NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The Dean of Students conducted a survey on campus. The gender of each student is an example of a(n) ____________________ variable.

ANS:

nominal

categorical

qualitative

NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The Dean of Students conducted a survey on campus. Class rank (Freshman, Sophomore, Junior, and Senior) is an example of a(n) ____________________ variable.

ANS: ordinal

NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- The final grade received in a Literature course (A, B, C, D, or F) is an example of a(n) ____________________ variable.

ANS:

nominal

categorical

qualitative

NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- In purchasing a used computer, there are a number of variables to consider. The age of the computer is an example of a(n) ____________________ variable.

ANS:

interval

quantitative

numerical

NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- In purchasing an automobile, there are a number of variables to consider. The body style of the car (sedan, coupe, wagon, etc.) is an example of a(n) ____________________ variable.

ANS:

nominal

categorical

qualitative

NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- Two types of graphs that organize nominal data are ____________________ and ____________________.

ANS:

pie charts; bar charts

bar charts; pie charts

NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A bar chart is used to represent ____________________ data.

ANS:

nominal

categorical

qualitative

NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A pie chart is used to represent ____________________ data.

ANS:

nominal

categorical

qualitative

NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A(n) ____________________ chart is often used to display frequencies; a(n) ____________________ chart graphically shows relative frequencies.

ANS: bar; pie

NAT: Analytic; Descriptive Statistics

- A pie chart shows the ____________________ of individuals that fall into each category.

ANS:

perce

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