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Test Bank For Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology 4th Edition by Simon

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COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS
Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology 4th Edition by Simon  Test Bank 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2: Research Methods in Psychology  

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

2.1-1.  The idea that all events, physical, mental, and behavioral, are the result of, or are determined by, specific causal factors is known as

 

  1. hypothesis.
  2. replication.
  3. generalization.
  4. determinism.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-1

Page Ref:        21-22

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. determinism.

% correct 80      a= 6  b= 3  c= 10  d= 80      r = .53

 

 

2.1-2.  Which of the following is most likely to be an assumption of individuals conducting psychological research?

 

  1. Human behavior is unpredictable and random.

Incorrect: On the contrary, the assumption of determinism suggests that behavior follows predictable patterns.

  1. Behavior follows discoverable, lawful patterns.

Correct: Lawful patterns exist in behavior and in mental processes and are discovered and revealed through research.

  1. All explanations of behavior are to be found in the environment.
  2. Human behavior is the result of predetermined forces acting upon the individual.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-2

Page Ref:        22

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. Behavior follows discoverable, lawful patterns.

 

 

2.1-3.  Psychological theories should

  1. be simple.
  2. be complex.

Incorrect: In fact, some of the best psychology theories are some of the simplest.

  1. avoid making claims about causal forces.
  2. generate new ideas and hypotheses.

Correct: Theories account for known facts; they are a set of concepts that explain something. Through the process of research, theories also suggest new ideas for relationships between causes and consequences.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-3

Page Ref:        22

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. generate new ideas and hypotheses.

 

 

2.1-4.  If an athlete imagines having a good performance, then that athlete is more likely to be successful in an event. This statement is a description of

 

  1. a theory.

Incorrect: A theory generates hypotheses, not the other way around.

  1. determinism.
  2. a hypothesis.

Correct: Hypotheses are often thought of as if-then predictions, specifying certain outcomes from specific conditions.

  1. a non-causal relationship.

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-4

Page Ref:        22

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. a hypothesis.

 

 

2.1-5.  A psychologist has generated a hypothesis. Now,

 

  1. it becomes a theory.
  2. researchers are bound to accept it as valid.

Incorrect: Hypotheses have to be tested by research to see if they hold water.

  1. research is needed to verify the if-then link.

Correct: Researchers use the scientific method to test whether the if-then relationship can be verified; this will answer the question of whether the suggested if-then link in fact exists in the way that the psychologist hypothesized that it would exist.

  1. researchers are likely to move on to other hypotheses.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-5

Page Ref:        22

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. research is needed to verify the if-then link.

 

 

2.1-6.  There is a joke among scientists about a researcher who tells others that he belongs to a secret scientific society, where no one but the researcher will ever know about the studies members are doing. This joke is humorous because it violates the principle of

 

  1. determinism.
  2. control groups.
  3. open-mindedness.

Incorrect: Being open-minded is not the same thing as having ones research available for scrutiny by the scientific community. The best answer to this question is public verifiability.

  1. public verifiability.

Correct: This means that other researchers must have the opportunity to inspect, criticize, or disprove the data and the methods by which the data was collected and interpreted.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-6

Page Ref:        22

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. public verifiability.

 

 

2.1-7.  When psychological researchers are ready to put their hypotheses to the test, they rely on

 

  1. intuition.
  2. the scientific method.
  3. common sense.
  4. subjective judgments.

 

Difficulty:       1

Question ID:   2.1-7

Page Ref:        22

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. the scientific method.

 

 

2.1-8.  An observer bias is

  1. an educated guess about what will happen.
  2. the direct result of the context of discovery.
  3. the direct result of the context of justification.
  4. an error due to personal motives and expectations.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-8

Page Ref:        22

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. an error due to personal motives and expectations.

% correct 84      a= 8  b= 4  c= 4  d= 84      r = .56

 

 

2.1-9.  A researcher believes that boys are more aggressive than girls. He goes to a playground to watch children play and finds support for his viewpoint. This researchers data collection may be subject to

 

  1. observer bias.

Correct: Expectations and beliefs can have an effect on what we see and hear. The biases of the researcher acted like filters through which some things were noticed and made salient while others were ignored and made irrelevant. In this case, any aggressive behavior by boys was much more likely to be noticed than was aggressive behavior by girls.

  1. standardization.
  2. dependent variables.

Incorrect: Dependent variables are the situation or circumstance under observation and measurement in an experiment.

  1. independent variables.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-9

Page Ref:        22-23

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. observer bias.

 

 

2.1-10.  In an anecdote presented in the textbook, Hugo Munsterberg, a leading psychologist around the beginning of the 20th century, describes the various reported reactions to a speech he gave on peace. The reactions illustrate

 

  1. the potential effect of observer bias.

Correct: Reporters saw and heard the same speech in very different ways and reported it very differently from one another. This was likely based on the preconceived ideas they had about the speaker and the subject of his speech.

  1. the rational for the use of operational definitions.
  2. how Munsterberg got the idea for the scientific method.
  3. the importance of the within-subjects design.

Incorrect: There is nothing in this example that distinguishes between a within-subjects and between-subjects design.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-10

Page Ref:        23

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. the potential effect of observer bias.

 

 

2.1-11. In the research study described by your authors where married couples were asked how sure they were about the future of their relationship, what was demonstrated?

  1. Outside observers were able to determine accurately how certain each partner was based on the amount of eye contact that they made during their conversation.
  2. Men were more certain of the future of their relationship if both partners rated their sexual interactions favorably.
  3. Women were more dominating of conversations that included emotional questions.
  4. A persons assessment of their partners behavior was influenced by the level of certainty they felt about their relationship.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-11

Page Ref:        23

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. A persons assessment of their partners behavior was influenced by the level of certainty they felt about their relationship.

 

 

2.1-12.  A research assistant who is working in a psychologists laboratory learns the importance of keeping complete records of observations and data analyses. Such procedures are followed in order to

 

  1. increase objectivity.

Correct: Conclusions must be uninfluenced by researchers emotions or biases. The best way to be objective is to use standard or uniform and consistent procedures in all phases of data collection

  1. increase subjectivity.

Incorrect: In order for research to be as pure as possible, it must reduce subjectivity and increase objectivity.

  1. increase observer bias.
  2. prevent other researchers from replicating a study.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-12

Page Ref:        23

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. increase objectivity

 

 

2.1-13.  Imagine a situation in which a researcher is hired by a pharmaceutical company to test a new cancer drug. The researcher finds the drug to be effective, but other scientists cannot replicate the original findings. One possible explanation for the original results that should be considered is

 

  1. debriefing.

Incorrect: This refers to the fact that research participants who are deceived as part of the data collection are given a full description of the true nature of the research after their participation is complete.

  1. determinism.
  2. observer bias.

Correct: The first researcher may have a commitment to a particular hypothesis because of prior experiences; without realizing it, he/she may influence the results of the current research by considering certain data relevant and discounting other data.

  1. public verifiability.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-13

Page Ref:        23

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. observer bias.

 

 

2.1-14.  In carrying out psychological research, the basic concept underlying the use of standardization is that

 

  1. all research participants are treated uniformly.

Correct: All research participants should experience exactly the same experimental conditions.  Standardization means asking questions of every subject in the same way and scoring all responses according to pre-established rules.

  1. each research participant has a unique experience.

Incorrect: On the contrary, it is necessary that each participant have the same experience, except in their receipt of an independent variable.

  1. operational definitions are successfully avoided.
  2. each research procedure uses both an independent variable and a dependent variable.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-14

Page Ref:        23

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. all research participants are treated uniformly.

% correct 81      a= 81  b= 0  c= 2  d= 17      r = .46

 

 

2.1-15.  If a researcher defines variables or conditions in terms of the specific procedures used to determine their presence, he or she is using a(n) ________ definition.

 

  1. biased
  2. confounded
  3. operational
  4. hypothetical

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-15

Page Ref:        23

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. operational

% correct  81     a= 12  b= 5  c= 81  d= 2      r = .51

 

 

2.1-16.  When carrying out an experiment, the factor that the researcher manipulates is known as the ________ variable; the researcher measures the ________ variable.

 

  1. dependent; dependent
  2. dependent; independent
  3. independent; dependent
  4. independent; independent

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-16

Page Ref:        23

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. independent; dependent

% correct  74     a= 0  b= 3  c= 74  d= 22      r = .43

 

 

2.1-17.  A psychologist believes that music affects a persons mood. He has some participants listen to waltzes and others listen to military marches, and then measures each participants mood with a paper-and-pencil test. What are the independent and dependent variables?

 

  1. The waltz music is the independent variable and the military march music is the dependent variable.
  2. The type of music is the independent variable and the participants mood is the dependent variable.

Correct: The type of music the participants listen to is manipulated by the experimenter; this is the causal part of the experiment (the independent variable). The measured mood after listening is the effect (the dependent variable) and depends directly on the type of music played (the independent variable).

  1. The participants mood is the independent variable and the type of music is the dependent variable.

Incorrect: This is the opposite of the correct answer.

  1. The participants mood is the independent variable and the scores on the paper-and-pencil test are the dependent variable.

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-17

Page Ref:        23

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. The type of music is the independent variable and the participants mood is the dependent variable.

 

 

2.1-18.  A store owner is trying to determine how much advertising increases her overall profit. If she conducted an experiment, amount of advertising would be the ________ variable.

 

  1. dependent

Incorrect: The store owner can calculate the effect of the advertising on her profit (the dependent variable.)

  1. independent

Correct: The store owner creates the advertising and decides how much of it she will do (she manipulates the advertising, which is the independent variable.)

  1. operational
  2. confounding

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-18

Page Ref:        23

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. independent

 

 

2.1-19.  Suppose you wanted to test the hypothesis that viewing pornographic material increases aggressive behavior. The dependent variable would be

 

  1. aggressive behavior.

Correct: The hypothesis is that the amount of aggressive behavior displayed will depend on the pornographic materials viewed (the cause). Aggression is the effect part of the cause-and-effect relationship.

  1. the age of the participants.
  2. viewing pornographic material.

Incorrect: This would be the manipulated variable, so that would make it an independent variable in this study.

  1. whether men or women served as participants.

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-19

Page Ref:        23

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. aggressive behavior.

% correct 58      a= 58  b= 3  c= 29  d= 10      r = .32

 

 

2.1-20.  Which statement best captures the basic idea underlying the experimental method?

 

  1. Sample participants carefully observe their behavior and report the results.
  2. One should describe and measure behavior under a wide variety of uncontrolled conditions.
  3. It is important to manipulate an independent variable to look for an effect on a dependent variable.

Correct: The goal of this method is to make strong causal claims about the impact of one variable on the other.

  1. A researcher manipulates a dependent variable to look for an effect on an independent variable.

Incorrect: This is the opposite of the correct answer.

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-20

Page Ref:        23

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. Manipulate an independent variable to look for an effect on a dependent variable.

% correct 88      a= 0  b= 2  c= 88  d= 10      r = .28

 

 

2.1-21.  The main reason that psychological researchers use the experimental method is to

 

  1. make claims concerning causality.

Correct: In an experimental setting, researchers most often wish to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables. The independent variable can be manipulated in this setting to demonstrate the effect that it has on participants

  1. eliminate operational definitions.
  2. suggest possible confounding variables.
  3. determine whether two variables are related.

Incorrect: The best type of research to examine a simple, non-causal relationship between two variables is correlational research.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-21

Page Ref:        23

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. make claims concerning causality.

 

 

2.1-22.  The results of a research study would be confounded if

 

  1. the experimenters interpretation of the data has been supported.
  2. participants do not respond in the way the experimenter has expected.
  3. a participants behavior has resulted solely because of the independent variable.
  4. a variable other than the independent variable has influenced a participants behavior.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-22

Page Ref:        25

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. a variable other than the independent variable has influenced a participants behavior.

% correct 77      a= 10  b= 10  c= 4  d= 77      r = .59

 

 

2.1-23.  A researcher theorizes that people are likely to perspire more when telling embarrassing stories than when telling funny stories. Volunteers are asked to record a memory of an embarrassing or a funny incident and their perspiration is measured. On some days, but not others, the lab where the recordings are done is very hot. Based on this information, the researcher should be concerned most about

 

  1. placebo effects.
  2. expectancy effects.
  3. the presence of a confounding variable.

Correct: The heat in the laboratory is just as likely to be causing perspiration as is the memory of the embarrassing or funny story. The heat is confounding or confusing the cause-effect relationship.

  1. coming up with an operational definition of embarrassment.

Incorrect: It is necessary to come up with an operational definition of variables in question prior to conducting the research. This question examines a problem during the research.

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-23

Page Ref:        25

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. the presence of a confounding variable.

% correct 98      a= 0  b= 0  c= 98  d= 2      r = .36

 

 

2.1-24.  To measure the effects of task complexity on an individuals perception of time, a researcher has one group of participants do simple addition problems and another group solve complex mathematical formulas. Both groups are then asked to estimate the time elapsed since they began the task. Later, the researcher finds out that the participants given the complex task were in a room with higher noise levels than the other group. In this study, the noise level would be considered an example of

 

  1. the placebo effect.
  2. a dependent variable.

Incorrect: A dependent variable refers to the situation being monitored or measured in an experiment. The noise level is not of immediate interest to these experimenters.

  1. a confounding variable.

Correct: It will be difficult to tell which variable affected the perception of time for those who did the complex task, the task itself or the noise level. The noise level is confusing or confounding measurement of the cause-and-effect relationship.

  1. an independent variable.

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-24

Page Ref:        25

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. a confounding variable.

 

 

2.1-25.  Imagine that you have been hired to assist in an experiment investigating the verbal abilities of boys and girls. In preparing for the experiment, you read a research study that found higher verbal abilities in girls than boys. If this information about gender leads you somehow to communicate to the girls in the experiment that they should do better than the boys, we say that the ________ effect is operating.

 

  1. placebo
  2. expectancy

Correct: Expectancy effects occur when a researcher or observer subtly communicates to the participants the behavior he or she expects to find, thereby producing the desired reaction (higher verbal abilities in girls than in boys). The experimenters expectations (that girls will do better than boys) rather than the independent variable (gender) may actually have triggered the demonstration of higher ability levels in girls.

  1. double-blind

Incorrect: Double-blind research occurs when both the experiment and the participants are kept unaware as to who is in an experiment group and who is in a control group.

  1. between-subjects

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-25

Page Ref:        25

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. expectancy

 

 

2.1-26.  In Robert Rosenthals study of the effects of expectations, some students were led to believe that the rats they were training were maze-bright and other students were told their rats were maze-dull, although the rats were actually all the same. What did Rosenthal find in the study?

 

  1. The rats labeled bright were found to be much better learners.
  2. The students immediately became suspicious of how the rats were labeled.
  3. Surprisingly, the rats labeled dull were found to be much better learners.
  4. There was no relationship between the way the rats were labeled and whether students found their rats to be good or bad learners.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-26

Page Ref:        25

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. The rats labeled bright were found to be much better learners.

 

 

2.1-27.  A placebo effect occurs when

 

  1. an experimenter finds what he or she expected to discover.

Incorrect: This can refer to observer bias, not a placebo effect.

  1. participants have not been randomly assigned to experimental and control conditions.
  2. participants change their behavior because of their belief that a treatment has an effect.

Correct: In this case, the participants behavior changes because they believe something has been manipulated that will change their behavior. Actually, there has been no type of experimental manipulation.

  1. both participants and experimental assistants are unaware of which participants get which treatment.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-27

Page Ref:        25

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. participants change their behavior because of their belief that a treatment has an effect.

% correct  84     a= 163  b= 84  c= 0  d= 0      r = .55

 

 

2.1-28.  In the context of conducting psychological research, control procedures are intended to

 

  1. increase the likelihood that the experimenters hypothesis will be supported.
  2. hold constant variables and conditions other than those related to the hypothesis.
  3. encourage participants to respond in a manner consistent with their own expectations.
  4. ensure that participants are affected equally by both independent and dependent variables.

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-28

Page Ref:        25

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. hold constant variables and conditions other than those related to the hypothesis.

% correct 78      a= 4  b= 78  c= 6  d=  12     r = .48

 

 

2.1-29.  When neither research participants nor research assistants are aware of which participants receive which treatment, researchers have employed a

 

  1. placebo control.
  2. between-subjects design.
  3. single-blind control technique.
  4. double-blind control technique.

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-29

Page Ref:        25-26

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. double-blind control technique.

% correct 98      a= 2  b= 0  c=  0 d=  98     r = .40

 

 

2.1-30.  A psychologist is doing research for a pharmaceutical company. The drugs he is testing are numbered so that he does not know what they are, nor does he know which participants are receiving which drugs. Participants are also unaware of differences in treatments. The control that is being used in this study is called a

 

  1. within-subjects control.
  2. correlational method.

Incorrect: Correlational research is separate and different from a true experiment, so the two would not appear in the same study.

  1. double-blind control.

Correct: In this case, bias can be eliminated to the fullest extent possible by not allowing the experimenter or the participants to know who is receiving which treatment.

  1. random assignment by chance procedure.

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-30

Page Ref:        25-26

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. double-blind control.

% correct  90     a= 3  b= 3  c= 90  d= 3.      r = .46

 

 

2.1-31.  A researcher is testing whether caffeine makes people more talkative. Some of his study participants are given regular coffee to drink and some are given warm milk. His assistant then interviews the participants and counts the number of words each speaks during the interview. What seems to be missing from the design?

 

  1. a hypothesis
  2. a placebo control

Correct: A placebo control would include participants who drank decaffeinated coffee without knowledge that it had no caffeine. Measure of the number of words spoken by this group would help the researchers understand how much difference the caffeine really makes. This control provides a baseline of response with which the other groups responses can be compared.

  1. a dependent variable
  2. an independent variable

Incorrect: The independent variable in this case is the amount of caffeine given to each participant.

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-31

Page Ref:        26

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. a placebo control

 

 

2.1-32.  Research designs often include a control condition

 

  1. to increase the number of participants in the experiment.
  2. to serve as a baseline against which the experimental effect is evaluated.

Correct: Because control participants do not experience the experimental manipulations, they provide a baseline to assess the effects of those manipulations.

  1. to function as a backup to the experimental condition if something goes wrong.
  2. so that if some participants refuse to continue, they can be replaced by members of the control group.

Incorrect: While attrition is a problem for some research, control groups are not put in place to account for this problem.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-32

Page Ref:        26

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. to serve as a baseline against which the experimental effect is evaluated.

 

 

2.1-33.  One study described in your book examined the effects of ginkgo biloba as an answer to ones memory problems.  The study highlighted the importance of utilizing which one of the following controls?

 

  1. single-blind control
  2. double-blind control
  3. placebo control
  4. counter-balancing control

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-33

Page Ref:        26

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. placebo control

 

 

2.1-34.  In a between-subjects design, participants in the ________ condition are NOT exposed to the experimental treatment.

 

  1. control
  2. experimental
  3. within-subjects
  4. randomly-assigned

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-34

Page Ref:        26

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. control

 

 

2.1-35.  When planning a study, you determine that of the one hundred participants, fifty will have to be randomly assigned to the experimental condition and the other fifty to the control condition. The type of experimental design you are using is known as a ________ design.

 

  1. placebo control
  2. single-subject
  3. within-subjects

Incorrect: In this study there is no indication that participants are being used as their own control groups, so this is not a within-subjects design.

  1. between-subjects

Correct: In this type of study, different groups of participants are assigned by chance procedures (randomly assigned) to an experimental condition in which they are exposed to the experimental treatment or to a control condition in which they are not exposed to the treatment.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-35

Page Ref:        26

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. between-subjects

 

 

2.1-36.  To save time, you assign the first fifty people who sign up to participate in your study to the experimental condition and the next fifty to the control condition. The interpretations you could draw from the study will be severely limited because

 

  1. you needed to carry out a within-subjects design.
  2. you failed to use random assignment to conditions.

Correct: Random assignment helps ensure that variables other than the independent variable are distributed evenly across groups; it helps eliminate confounding variables.

  1. you did not have enough participants to conduct your study.
  2. you need to include another control condition to draw accurate conclusions.

Incorrect: It is not necessarily required that there be more than one control group in a given study. This is not the main problem with this project.

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-36

Page Ref:        26

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. you failed to use random assignment to conditions.

 

 

2.1-37.  Random assignment of participants to the experimental and control groups increases the likelihood that

 

  1. the two groups will be similar.

Correct: It helps eliminate confounding variables related to individual differences among the research participants. Each group is likely to be similar because each participant has the same chance of being assigned to either group. For instance, using random assignment makes it unlikely that the groups will be divided so that one has all males and the other has all females; the groups are likely to be a mixture of males and females.

  1. the two groups will be different.

Incorrect: In fact, a lack of random assignment to groups would cause the different participant groups to be fundamentally different, and this would pose a large problem for the research.

  1. the independent variable will not have a strong effect.
  2. if outcome differences are found, we can be confident they were caused by preexisting differences.

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-37

Page Ref:        26

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. the two groups will be similar.

% correct 34      a= 34  b= 26  c= 6  d= 34      r = .34

 

 

2.1-38.  Sample is to population as

 

  1. part is to whole.

Correct: Only a small part of the whole of any identified population can be brought into the laboratory or otherwise included in collection of data.

  1. large is to small.
  2. valid is to invalid.
  3. representative is to not representative.

Incorrect: A sample must be representative of the population from which it is drawn, but the second half of this answer is inaccurate.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-38

Page Ref:        26

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. part is to whole.

 

 

2.1-39.  Since we normally cannot have access to the full population of interest, researchers are faced with taking a representative sample of the population. Which of the following is NOT true of a representative sample?

 

  1. One can only generalize from the sample to the population it adequately represents.
  2. The representative sample has to closely match the overall characteristics of the population of interest.

Incorrect: This is, in fact, the definition of a representative sample, and thus it is a true statement.

  1. A representative sample must include members of different racial groups, even when the target population is of one race.

Correct: A representative sample closely matches the characteristics of the group being studied.

  1. A representative sample is a way by which one can generalize to the population of interest without having access to the full population.

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-39

Page Ref:        26

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. A representative sample must include members of different racial groups, even when the target population is of one race.

 

 

2.1-40.  A psychologist has collected data on the physical agility of young adults and now wishes to collect similar responses from elderly people. On the basis of sampling theory, he should attempt to recruit research participants from

 

  1. his elderly friends.
  2. elderly people who are athletic.
  3. only people that he does not know.

Incorrect: While it may be better for the researcher to have no acquaintance with any of the research participants, there is no rule that requires this to be the case.

  1. a representative sample of elderly people.

Correct: A representative sample matches as closely as possible the characteristics of the whole of the population being studied.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-40

Page Ref:        26

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. a representative sample of elderly people.

 

 

2.1-41.  A classmate has missed class again and is copying your notes. Unfortunately, she cant figure out which research design uses each participant as his or her own control. Which should you tell her?

 

  1. double-blind
  2. within-subjects

Correct: This research design allows researchers to study the behavior of each participant in the study before getting the treatment and after.

  1. between-subjects

Incorrect: Between-subjects designs use separate groups of participants for experimental and control groups.

  1. randomly assigned

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-41

Page Ref:        26

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. within-subjects

 

 

2.1-42.  Imagine that you have volunteered to participate in an experiment. First, you are asked to rate how angry a person appears in a photograph. Then you are asked to think of angry thoughts and to rate the same photograph again. Because you are serving as your own control, psychologists would refer to this as a ________ design.

 

  1. control
  2. no-subjects
  3. within-subjects

Correct: Each individual participants reaction before thinking angry thoughts can be compared with his/her behaviors after thinking angry thoughts. Strong conclusions can then be drawn about the effect of angry thoughts on perception of anger.

  1. between-subjects

Incorrect: Because the participants are compared to themselves at different times, this is a within-subjects design.

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-42

Page Ref:        26

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. within-subjects

 

 

2.1-43.  Which of the following illustrates the use of a within-subjects design?

  1. The artistic abilities of males are compared to the artistic abilities of females.

Incorrect: In this example, separate people are compared to each other. Therefore it is a between-subjects design.

  1. Children at three different age levels are given a test of their motor coordination.
  2. Participants are given a spelling test, asked to meditate for ten minutes, and then given another spelling test.

Correct: The effects of meditation on the spelling test can be calculated for each individual by comparing how each individual did prior to meditation and after meditation.

  1. One group of participants is given a compliment before solving problems and a second group is criticized before solving problems.

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-43

Page Ref:        26

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. Participants are given a spelling test, asked to meditate for ten minutes, and then given another spelling test.

% correct 56      a= 0  b= 23  c= 56  d=   21    r = .39

 

 

2.1-44.  Which of the following is true of the within-subjects experimental design?

  1. It is a type of between-subjects design.
  2. There are no comparison conditions in this design.
  3. There are two experimental groups and one control group.
  4. Each participant serves in all conditions of the experiment.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-44

Page Ref:        26

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. Each participant serves in all conditions of the experiment.

 

 

2.1-45.  A teacher is trying to see whether smiling at her students will increase the number of questions they ask. In the first and third week of the study, the number of questions students ask is recorded. In the second week, the teacher smiles a lot at her students, and the number of questions is also recorded. What type of research design is being used?

 

  1. within-subjects

Correct: Each student is used as his or her own control; each participates in the baseline phase, when questions are asked without smiling. In the test phase, the teacher smiles a lot at all the children as she asks questions. Calculation is made of each childs responses prior to the test phase and during the test phase.

  1. correlational
  2. placebo control
  3. between-subjects

Incorrect: In this example participants responses are compared to their own responses at a different time. This is a within-subjects design.

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-45

Page Ref:        26

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. within-subjects

 

 

2.1-46.  As an assignment for your Experimental Psychology class you have been asked to conduct a study that will yield a causal relationship between the independent and dependent variables.  To complete this assignment, you must use the ________ method.

 

  1. experimental

Correct: The experimental method calculates the cause-and-effect relationship between the independent variable (the cause) and the dependent variable (the effect).

  1. observational
  2. correlational

Incorrect: In correlational research, cause-and-effect conclusions cannot be obtained.

  1. correlational or experimental

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-46

Page Ref:        27

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. experimental

% correct  50     a=  50 b= 4  c= 19  d= 27      r = .29

 

 

2.1-47.  A researcher is interested in the relationship between brain damage and the ability of humans to plan their behavior. This research is an example of a(n) ________ design.

 

  1. placebo control
  2. experimental

Incorrect: In experimental research, the goal is cause-and-effect conclusions. In this example, a simple relationship between two variables is being sought. Therefore it is a correlational design.

  1. correlational

Correct: When questions involve variables that cannot be manipulated by the experimenter, a correlational design is used. These designs help researchers determine to what extent two variables, traits, or attributes are related.

  1. within-subjects

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-47

Page Ref:        27

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. correlational

 

 

2.1-48.  Imagine that your instructor asks you to determine whether there is a relationship between musical ability and mathematical ability. The type of design best suited to this task would be a(n)

 

  1. between-subjects experiment.
  2. case study.

Incorrect: There is nothing in this study that suggests that a single incident of some unusual case is being used for extensive data gathering, so it is not a case study.

  1. correlational study.

Correct: Psychologists use correlational methods to compute the correlation coefficient when they want to determine the degree to which two attributes such as this are related to one another.

  1. naturalistic observation.

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-48

Page Ref:        27

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. correlational study.

% correct 74      a= 13  b= 3  c= 74  d= 10      r = .38

 

 

2.1-49.  Which correlation coefficient must be a mistake?

 

  1. 0.0
  2. -0.7
  3. +1.0
  4. +1.4

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-49

Page Ref:        27

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. +1.4

 

 

2.1-50.  Given the following correlation coefficients, select the weakest correlation.

 

  1. +0.10
  2. -0.06
  3. -0.10
  4. -0.60

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-50

Page Ref:        27

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. -0.06

% correct 56     a= 6  b= 56  c= 2  d= 37      r = .24

 

 

2.1-51.  You would expect the correlation between height and weight to be

 

  1. zero.
  2. positive.

Correct: A positive correlation means that as one variable increases, the other also increases. It also means that as one variable decreases, the other decreases. In this case, we would expect that as people get taller, they also weigh more.

  1. negative.

Incorrect: Because these variables would be expected to move in the same direction, it is a positive correlation.

  1. a perfect negative correlation.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-51

Page Ref:        27

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. positive.

 

 

2.1-52.  You read in a health magazine that the more people drink and smoke, the greater the number of emotional problems they have. This relationship illustrates

 

  1. cause and effect.
  2. a zero correlation.
  3. a positive correlation.

Correct: A positive correlation is demonstrated when whatever is being studied varies in the same direction; the variables both increase or decrease.  In this case, both variables increase.

  1. a negative correlation.

Incorrect: Because these variables would be expected to move in the same direction, it is a positive correlation.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-52

Page Ref:        27

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. a positive correlation.

% correct 32      a= 29   b= 3  c= 32  d= 32      r = .49

 

 

2.1-53.  After you present your excuse for missing class, your instructor tells you that she has found that the more classes students miss, the lower their test grades tend to be. This relationship illustrates a(n)

 

  1. expectancy effect.
  2. positive correlation.

Incorrect: Because these variables would be expected to move in the opposite direction, it is a negative correlation.

  1. negative correlation.

Correct:  A negative correlation is demonstrated when the sets of scores go in opposite directions.  In this case, as absences increase, scores decrease.

  1. correlation coefficient.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-53

Page Ref:        27

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. negative correlation

 

 

2.1-54.  It is quite likely that the correlation between shoe size and intelligence in human adults would be

 

  1. near zero.

Correct: When a weak relationship exists between variables, or no relationship at all, a zero or close to zero correlation exists.

  1. strongly negative.
  2. strongly positive.
  3. impossible to determine.

Incorrect: A lack of relationship between two variables is not impossible to determine. It would be revealed as a correlation at or near zero.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-54

Page Ref:        27

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. near zero.

 

 

2.1-55.  A researcher computes a correlation coefficient and determines that it is zero. This finding indicates that

 

  1. a perfect correlation exists.
  2. there is no relationship between the variables.
  3. the researcher has made an error in the computation.
  4. as one variable increases, the other variable decreases.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   2.1-55

Page Ref:        27

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. there is no relationship between the variables.

 

 

2.1-56.  In company A, the relationship between motivation and worker productivity is +.60, while in company B, the relationship between motivation and worker productivity is -.90. Based upon this knowledge, which of the following observations is true?

 

  1. The capacity to accurately predict worker productivity from worker motivation is greater in company A.
  2. The capacity to accurately predict worker productivity from worker motivation is greater in company B.

Correct: Despite indications that in company B the relationship between motivation and productivity is a negative correlation, the correlation is stronger because -.90 is closer to -1.0 than +.60 is to +1.0.

  1. The capacity to accurately predict worker productivity from worker motivation will be the same in both companies.

Incorrect: Because there are two different correlational magnitudes, the predictive ability would not be the same in both cases.

  1. One cannot predict worker productivity from workers motivation using correlational data.

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-56

Page Ref:        27

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. The capacity to accurately predict worker productivity from worker motivation is greater in company B.

 

 

2.1-57.  One of the most important functions of correlational methods is that their use allows researchers to

 

  1. be certain about the causes of behavior.

Incorrect: In correlational research, there is no ability to draw conclusions about cause-and-effect relationships.

  1. draw conclusions based on exceptionally weak data.
  2. observe humans behavior as it takes place in the natural environment.
  3. make predictions about one variable based on information from another variable.

Correct: The correlation coefficient allows researchers to see how strongly one variable is related to another and whether that relationship is positive or negative.  Based on this information, predictions about one variable can be made from information about the other variable.  For instance, if height and weight are strongly positively correlated, researchers can predict that as height increases, weight will also increase.

 

Difficulty:       3

Question ID:   2.1-57

Page Ref:        27

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. make predictions about one variable based on information from another variable.

% correct 75      a= 13  b= 8  c= 4  d= 75      r = .26

 

 

2.1-58. In the research study described by your authors, which of the following factors was shown to be associated with an increase in sleep-related problems in children?

 

  1. one extra hour of nighttime media usage by children
  2. regularly watching violent media after dinner time
  3. watching media with a siblings present but no parents in the room
  4. watching adult news broadcasts instead of childrens programming

 

Difficulty:       1

Question ID:   2.1-58

Page Ref:        27

Topic:  The Process of Research

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. one extra hour of nighttime media usage by children

 

 

2.1-59.  A seafood distributor hires a researcher to determine whether eating oysters makes one more passionate. The researcher collects data that show that the people who eat the most oysters have the most active love lives. What can be concluded from this research?

 

  1. Eating oysters makes one passionate.

Incorrect: This answer indicates a determined cause-and-effect relationship, which cannot happen when conducting a correlational study. One would need to conduct an experiment to draw this conclusion.

  1. Being passionate causes a craving for oysters.
  2. People with active love lives consume more oysters.

Correct: The correlation indicates only that the number of oysters consumed is greater for those who have active love lives. It does not ensure that one variable causes the other. (It does not show that eating more oysters causes a more active love life or that having a more active love life causes one to eat more oysters!). Correlation does not show cause and effect.

  1. Nothing can be concluded from this study about the relationship between eating

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