Test Bank For Career Information Career Counseling And Career Development 11Th Edition by Duane Brown

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Test Bank For Career Information Career Counseling And Career Development 11Th Edition by Duane Brown

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WITH ANSWERS

 

Career Information Career Counseling And Career Development 11Th Edition by Duane Brown

 

Chapter 1

Introduction to Career Development in the Global Economy and Its Role in Social Justice

 

 

Objectives

 

Students should be able to:

 

  1. Articulate an understanding of the impact of the global economy on work in the U. S.

 

  1. Explain how people view work as a part of their lives and the lives of others.

 

  1. Form a personal view of their own career development.

 

  1. Show familiarity with the basic terminology used in career development.

 

  1. Demonstrate the role career development programs can play in the drive for social justice in the U. S.

 

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of the historical roots of career development.

 

 

Key Terms/Concepts

 

Career coaching                                   NCDA/NVGA

Career counseling                                Position

Career development                           Career development programs

Technological change                         Career information

Work                                                      Historical roots

Career/Job/Occupation                      Work ethic

Job satisfaction                                    Work force

Job sharing                                            Work place

Flattened world economy                  Social Justice

Unemployment  and Its Consequences

Work ethic                                            Frank Parsons

O*NET                                                  Vocation vs. job vas career

Off-shoring

 

Suggested Exercises/Activities

 

  1. Interview two or three school principals on each school level to determine efforts made in each school to assist students in career development.

 

  1. Interview two or three teachers at each school level to determine what aids their classroom and their school provides for career development.

 

  1. Interview two or three school counselors to identify their viewpoint and activities in career development.

 

  1. Visit the career counseling and placement service on your campus and discuss the services provided. Ask if they have seen increased interest in working abroad.

 

  1. Interview two or three workers in different occupations about their jobs. Ask what they like and dislike, what led to their accepting the job, and what they would do if they could start over.

 

  1. Interview several workers for information about how their job relates to early career plans, education, and family background.

 

  1. Articulate the frustrations and psychological issues related to unemployment.

 

Class Discussion Questions

 

  1. What was work like at these historic points:
  2. Ancient civilizations Greece/Rome/Egypt
  3. Middle Ages (500 1500 A.D.)
  4. Pre-industrial revolution (1700s)
  5. The 1930s in the United States
  6. Post World War II
  7. The 1990s until current time
  8. Has work changed? How? For better or worse

 

  1. Discuss changes occurring in the work place as a result of the following:
  2. Electric power
  3. Internal combustion engine
  4. Air-conditioning
  5. Computers
  6. Robotics
  7. The Internet

 

  1. What changes have occurred in womens work roles since 1960? Why do women earn less in the modern workplace?

 

  1. Give at least four reasons why people work today.

 

  1. Give examples of stereotypes of work roles based on gender, age, ethnicity, sexual orientation.

 

  1. Contrast your career development process with that of your parents and grandparents for the same age span.

 

 


Examination Questions for Chapter 1

 

True/False

 

  1. Volatile political and diplomatic relations among major world powers usually have little or no impact on the work force in the countries involved.

 

  1. Experts agree on most of the terms used in to describe occupations and the career development process.

 

  1. Increased use of robots and computers is expected to decrease competitiveness in the work force.

 

  1. Historic periods such as the Protestant Reformation and the Industrial Revolution have had great influence on social structure, but only slight impact on the world of work.

 

  1. New technological developments will continue to reduce employment in the manufacturing sector.

 

  1. Population growth, food scarcity, and modernization in third world countries have great impact on employment in the United States.

 

  1. Most people started in their present job either through family influence or job availability.

 

  1. Positions are usually professional or clerical while jobs are usually skilled or semi-skilled.

 

  1. About one-third of all young workers do not have the skills to perform semiskilled, entry-level jobs.

 

  1. The concept of a global economy is more myth than reality.

 

  1. Generally speaking, minorities express greater interest in getting more occupational information than do white, European Americans.

 

  1. Career development in this country began primarily as an effort to reform education.

 

  1. If one had to pick a city as the cradle of career development it would be San Francisco.

 

  1. Career development practitioners concern about minorities career development began with the civil rights

movement in mid-twentieth century

 

  1. Career school counselors who encounter illegal or undocumented students hands are tied because they have no right to be in schools and should be reported,

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. The term career development refers to:
  2. Training for a career.
  3. An aspect of total development specifically involving career choice, planning, and knowledge
  4. Advancement that one makes after starting to work.
  5. The development of increased understanding of ones own abilities and values.

 

  1. The use of job and vocations as synonyms may depend upon the
  2. Type of job
  3. The professional background of the person who is using the terms
  4. The income of the worker
  5. How long the job has been in existence

 

  1. Using ones work as an opportunity for self-expression seems to be more important for which major occupational group?
  2. Unskilled.
  3. Skilled.
  4. Professional
  5. Sales and kindred.

 

  1. A group of tasks performed by one person in one business is the definition for:
  2. Position
  3. Job.
  4. Occupation.
  5. Vocation.

 

  1. George Merrill, Jesse Davis and Anna Reed had one thing in common. It was:
  2. They founded the National Vocational Guidance Association
  3. They initiated career development programs at the turn of the 20th century
  4. They developed some of the tests used in the 1930s in career guidance programs
  5. They successfully lobbied Congress for passage of the Merrill Act, which supported vocational education.

 

  1. The first formal theory of career development was published by:
  2. Super
  3. Holland
  4. Bordin and Associates
  5. Ginzberg and Associates

 

  1. The poverty rate for minorities is generally greater than that of white workers. Which of the following situations reflect recent research by the U. S. Department of Labor?
  2. Hispanic have about the same level of poverty as whites.
  3. Hispanic and African American poverty rates are approximately equal
  4. The poverty rate among Asian Americans is about is about the same as that for Native Americans
  5. Hispanics have the highest poverty rate of any group

 

  1. By emphasizing social justice career development professionals are
  2. Adopting a new goal
  3. Renewing a goal first articulated in the 1960s
  4. In keeping with the founders of the career development movement
  5. Departing from the main theme of career development

 

  1. In relative terms, womens earnings when compared to mens
  2. Have stayed about the same for the past 25 years
  3. Have lost ground, that is, women make relatively less today
  4. Have gained ground, that is, they make relatively more today
  5. Cannot be calculated because of differences in occupations entered.

 

  1. The concept of career education is
  2. Gaining in popularity because it emphasizes the relationship between career and academic performance
  3. Rapidly being displaced by the term career guidance
  4. Rapidly being displaced by the term career development programming
  5. Is favored by vocational educators

 

  1. The impact of the global economy on the workforce in the U. S.
  2. Has had its greatest impact on unskilled worker to date
  3. Will impact skilled and professional workers in the near future
  4. Will slow in the long term as U. S. businesses reorient themselves
  5. a & b above

 

  1. Friedman identifies several forces and events that led to the linking of the major economies. The single factor that seemed most influential in the process according to Friedman was.
  2. The Internet
  3. Labor costs
  4. The breakup of the Soviet Union
  5. Immigrations

 

  1. In the authors view one factor overlooked by Friedman in his discussion of the development of the global economy was
  2. The influence of unions
  3. The relative value of currency around the world
  4. Worker productivity
  5. The profit motive

 

  1. Countries that seem best equipped to take advantage of the global economy
  2. Have a well-developed infrastructure
  3. Have an attractive tax structure that encourages new businesses
  4. Have socialist governments
  5. Have an abundant supply of cheap labor

 

  1. The cost of labor is a major factor in the business decisions to businesses from this country to another country (offshore). If labor costs were the only consideration U. S. businesses would most likely move their businesses to which of the following countries
  2. Germany
  3. Canada
  4. Australia
  5. Spain

 

  1. The first comprehensive source of information about careers was
  2. O*NET
  3. The Dictionary of Careers in the U. S.

           c         The Dictionary of Occupational Titles

  1. The Career Advisors Handbook

 

  1. The ethnic group in America with the highest average family income is
  2. Asian American

b        Hispanic

  1. Caucasian
  2. African America

 

Answer key for Chapter 1

 

True/False

  1. F
  2. F
  3. F
  4. F
  5. T
  6. T
  7. T
  8. F
  9. T
  10. F
  11. F
  12. F
  13. F
  14. F
  15. F
  16. F

 

Multiple Choice

  1. B
  2. B
  3. C
  4. A
  5. B
  6. D
  7. B
  8. C
  9. C
  10. C
  11. D
  12. C
  13. D
  14. D
  15. D
  16. C
  17. D

 

 

Short Essay Questions: The answers to essay questions should be determined by the instructor and should be based both on the input from the instructor and the text. The questions and answers that follow are offered as models only. Questions only are offered for the following 19 chapters.

 

  1. Briefly identify and define three factors that are likely to have a major influence on work in the U. S. in the 21st
  2. Technology computers, robots, the world-wide web, etc.
  3. Minorities coming into the workplace, particularly immigrants, legal and illegal
  4. Global competition from low wage countries
  5. Monetary policy
  6. Quality of the infrastructure

 

  1. What is the long-term impacts of the Internet on working Americans?

It will become easier to offshore jobs that involve information. Communication will be easier and lower skilled jobs will be the most affected although professions will be impacted when costs for services become disproportionately high.

 

  1. Differentiate among career counseling, career coaching, and career intervention.

Career intervention is the broadest term and subsumes individual, small group, large group and organizational career development instruments.

Career coaching is, usually a one on one intervention and is often initiated by managers to improve individual employees functioning, but some employees identify and employ career coaches.

Career counseling occurs both individually and in groups and may deal both with personal issues nnd specific career problem. Career counseling I more likely to be regulated by codes of ethics and legislation at the state level.

 

 

Long Essay Questions

 

  1. Why do people work?

For most people work pays the bills by which I mean the bills for housing, transportation leisure activities, education, etc. Work is an important to ones identity development and may be an important contributor to self-esteem. Just as importantly work is the basis of lifestyle options. Where one lives (geography) and the types of leisure activities one chooses are largely determined by the nature of ones occupations. Family activities and friendships are also influenced by work. Finally ones social status is also tied to the nature of ones employment.

 

Suggested Additional Assignments

 

Blustein, D. L. (2006). The psychology of working. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

 

Search BLS and Bureau of Census reports on unemployment, poverty, and the working poor

 

Do a Google search on employment, discrimination, and women. Also look at wage information for men and women.

 

 

Chapter 2

        Ethical and Legal Guidelines and the Competencies Needed for Career Development Practice

 

 

Learning Objectives

 

Students should be able to:

 

  1. Identify ethical principles that govern career development practitioners work

 

  1. Outline the requirements for the Master Career Counselor, Master Career Development Professional, and Career Development Facilitator credentials

 

  1. Identify the major competencies needed by career development professionals.

 

 

Key Terms/Concepts

 

Ethical principles                                 Legal standards

MCC                                                      Regulation of career counseling

MCDP                                                    Career coaching process

CDF

GCDF

NCDA Career Counseling Competencies

APA and ACA Codes of Ethics

 

 

Suggested Activities

 

  1. Invite a member of the state licensure board for counselors and psychologists to speak to the class about the ethical issues that confront these licensing boards.

 

 

Class Discussion Questions

 

  1. Why are codes of ethics needed? Who benefits?

 

  1. Advocacy has been included in the 2005 code of ethics? Is this needed? Why? Give several examples of times when career counselors in various settings might need to become advocates?

 

  1. How could a career counselor do harm to his/her clients?

 

4        What aspects of career counseling practice might, if not properly done, result in a liability suit?

 

 


Examination Questions for Chapter 2

 

True/False

 

  1. The Master Career Development Professional was developed by the National Career Development Association as a special membership category for people who have many of the same types of skills and a similar educational credentials as the Master Career Counselor, but are not as actively involved in career counseling

 

  1. The Global Career Development Facilitator is a special category of Master Career Counselors

 

  1. Professional organizations tend to issue ethical guidelines to cover new areas of practice not included in their current code of ethics

 

  1. Because of the of relatively low level of concerns dealt with by Career Development Facilitators the issue of doing harm to their clients is essentially a non-issue

 

  1. The newest code of ethics of the American Counseling Association makes no mention of the need for client advocacy.

 

  1. The competencies needed by Master Career Counselors is essentially the same as those required for the Career Development Facilitator, but MCCs must study these areas in depth.

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Which of the following is not a prerequisite to becoming a Master Career Counselor?
  2. A masters degree in career counseling or closely related field
  3. Three years of experience in career counselor
  4. NCDA membership
  5. Certification as a National Certified Counselor

 

  1. The Career Development Facilitator credential was developed as
  2. A means of recognizing people who qualify to be a Master Career Counselor but are working in administration
  3. Have completed a post-masters course of study
  4. Have 5 years of supervised on-the-job experience
  5. Have completed a prescribed course of study to become a paraprofessional

 

  1. Online career counseling may not allow which of the following?
  2. The use of personality inventories
  3. The use of sophisticated occupational information
  4. In depth exploration of the career related problem
  5. None of the above

 

  1. With regard to the ethical issues involved in Internet-based career counseling, it is probably most accurate to say
  2. The ethical issues are about the same as those in typical career counseling.
  3. The ethical concerns are less because the privacy of the client can be protected more easily
  4. The ethical issues involving Internet based career counseling are greater due to communication problems that may arise
  5. We have too little information to draw conclusions about potential ethical issues involving Internet career counseling.

 

  1. The statement that best describes the extent to which clients who seek career counseling are protected from unethical practice is
  2. They are well protected because all 50 states have licensing laws for psychologists and counselors who provide career counseling
  3. Clients who see psychologists in public institutions such as colleges are probably better protected than those who see counselees because of differences in the licensing laws for the two groups
  4. They are well protected because of codes of ethics and licensing laws
  5. None of the above reflect the current situation

 

  1. The code of ethics most likely to be followed by career practitioners in private practice was developed by
  2. ACA and APA
  3. NCDA
  4. ASCA
  5. NBCC

 

  1. Sub-sections of state level licensing laws for counselors and psychologist
  2. Identify career counselors as a specialty but do not regulate them
  3. Identify career counseling within the broad context of practice
  4. Regulate career counseling as a specialty
  5. Generally fail to regulate career counseling per s

 

  1. Career counseling via the Internet is a relatively new idea. As a result
  2. Few guidelines for practicing web-counseling are available.
  3. Practice guidelines are available but ethical guidelines are not available
  4. Practice guidelines have emerged from research in this area
  5. None of the above

 

  1. The situation that best describes the status of licensing laws for counselors is that ________ states have enacted these laws.
  2. 30
  3. 40
  4. 49
  5. 50

 

  1. The author identifies conflicts in cultural values as potentially doing harm to the client. Assuming that the counselor is a white person with traditional Eurocentric values, what conflicts might they encounter with a Hispanic client?
  2. Meeting on time
  3. Importance of self-direction
  4. Disclosure of pertinent material
  5. a & b above

 

  1. Which of the following should not appear in advertisements offering career counseling services.
  2. Licenses and certifications
  3. Degrees unrelated to the practice of career counseling
  4. Years of experience
  5. Consultations with business and industry.

 

  1. The ultimate aim of advocacy as it pertains to career counseling is
  2. Problem solving
  3. Making a statement about social justice
  4. Representing the client
  5. Empowering the client

 

  1. FERPA is a federal law that sets forth rules and regulations regarding
  2. Group test scores
  3. Verbal communication
  4. The maintenance of records
  5. All of the above

 

  1. If you were asked to offer advice to a counselor who wished to avoid a successful liability suite it should be
  2. Stay within the limits of your skills
  3. Follow your code of ethics
  4. Be aware of the laws that regulate your practice
  5. All of the above

 

  1. In the simplest terms possible privileged communication laws are
  2. Guarantees to our clients that their information will be protected from disclosure
  3. Guarantees to career counselors that they cannot be forced to disclose confidential information
  4. protection for counselors so longs as they follow the law.
  5. The same a ethical guidelines about confidentiality

 

  1. In todays litigious society ethical and legal principles are most likely to conflict on the matter of
  2. Sexual misconduct
  3. Confidentiality
  4. The general area of relationships to clients
  5. The duty to warn parents and authorities of potential harm to others.

 

Answer Key for Chapter 2

 

True/False

  1. T
  2. F
  3. T
  4. F
  5. F
  6. F

 

Multiple Choice

  1. D
  2. D
  3. D
  4. C
  5. B
  6. A
  7. D
  8. D
  9. D
  10. D
  11. B
  12. D
  13. C
  14. A
  15. A
  16. C

 

 

Short Answer Essay Questions

 

  1. Outline the major ethical principles that should govern the work of career develop practitioners.

 

  1. Tell why career coaches as described in Chapter 4 are often viewed as unprofessional by career counselors.

 

  1. Identify and describe the different types of licensing laws

 

  1. Identify times when career counselors might no follow their codes of ethics.

 

  1. What are the conditions under which a successful liability suit might be lodges against a career counselor?

 

 

Long Answer Essay Questions

 

  1. Identify the similarities and differences between the MCC and the MCDP

 

  1. Identify the major competencies needed by MCCs.

 

 

Suggested Additional Assignments

 

American Counseling Association (2005) American Counseling Association code of ethics and standards of practice. Alexandria, VA: Author

 

Visit the NCDA website (NCDA.org) and study the requirements for the MCC and MCCDP

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Chapter 3

Person-Environment Congruence (PEC) Theories: Frank Parson, Theory of Work Adjustment, John Holland, a Values-Based Approach, and their Applications

 

 

Learning Objectives

 

Students should be able to:

 

  1. Understand and explain the theories discussed in this chapter and their applications.

 

  1. Be able to critique theories of career choice and development using the criteria outlined in the chapter

 

  1. Differentiate among various trait and factor theories (e.g. TWA and Hollands Theory)

 

  1. Apply theories discussed in the chapter to various ethnic groups.

 

  1. Use at least two theories to explain career-related behavior of a variety of individuals.

 

 

Key Terms/Concepts

 

 

Criteria for evaluating theories                         Self-actualization

Person-oriented occupation                               Career development theory and racism

Physiological need                                               Cognized needs

Characteristic interpersonal environment

Psychological needs                                            ASVAB

Interests vs values                                               Realistic/investigative/artistic/

Congruence/consistency                                    Social/enterprising/conventional

RIASEC

Environmental press                                           Sex role socialization

Growth/exploration/establishment/                 Social learning theory

Assimilation                                                          Trait and factor theory

Hollands hexagon                                              TWA (theory of work adjustment)

Identity

Cultural values                                                     Work values

Logical positivism                                               TWA

 

 

Suggested Exercises/Activities

 

  1. Select three or four mature adults that you know well and who work in a variety of occupations, develop a career history for each and match each one against a major theory. If possible, select adults from different cultural backgrounds.
  2. Match several of the major theories against your own career development experiences and plans.
  3. Select several schoolmates with whom you have maintained contact, match their career development against several major theories.
  4. Consider the constructs of logical positivism Can human behavior be studied and the results generalized? Do you believe in cause and effect relationships? Why or why not?

 

Class Discussion Questions

 

  1. Describe individuals you know who represent stereotypes of Hollands basic types.

 

  1. Are separate theories of career development needed for women? Various minority groups? Why or why not?

 

  1. Compare your own career development to the points in Browns or Hollands theory? Which makes the most sense from your perspective?

 

  1. Contrast the impact of culture, family, and neighborhood on career choices of the following groups:
  2. Average middle class, American family.
  3. Urban single parent, low income family.
  4. Recent Asian American immigrant family.
  5. Wealthy suburban professional family.
  6. African American youth (middle class)
  7. Native American woman (rural)
  8. Recent Mexican American immigrant (undocumented)

 

  1. List your most important values.  In what roles are they being satisfied?

 

  1. What are your work values? How do you know?

 

  1. John Holland has said some positive things about TWA. Why do you believe TWA has not been utilized widely? (Although the values scale on O*NET is based on TWA).

 


 

Examination Questions for Chapter 3

 

True/False

 

  1. Parsons proposed his tripartite model of career choice in 1909.

 

 

  1. Personal characteristics such as abilities, attitudes, interests, limitations, and skills are classified as traits in trait and factor theory.

 

  1. The Theory of Work Adjustment and Hollands theory are trait-and-factor theories

 

  1. The two most important aspects of work adjustment are personal satisfaction and compatibility of work role and other life roles according to the Theory of Work Adjustment.

 

  1. One unique aspect of Browns values-based theory is that he suggests that job satisfaction may be primarily due to feedback from others.

 

  1. In Browns theory values are defined as cognized interests.

 

  1. Cultural values influence the career decision-making process according to Brown.

 

  1. Hollands theory is, at least in terms of inventories sold, the most popular of the existing theories.

 

  1. Congruence in Hollands theory is analogous to correspondence in TWA.

 

  1. The basic premise of trait and factor theories that have been presented since 1909 have changed.

 

  1. A good theory can be determined by the extent to which it identifies cause and effect relationships.

 

  1. The best theories contained carefully defined constructs.

 

  1. It appears that the interest in developing theories for indifferent groups is on the wane.

 

14      Blustein has criticized traditional career theory because it does not contain a social justice component. Assuming that he is correct one way to correct this oversight is to add advocacy as a part of the application component of the theory.

  1. In Hollands theory, identity has to do with clarity or self-understanding of interests and goals.

 

  1. If you wanted to pick a symbol that depicted Hollands realistic type a computer would be good choice,

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Using a hexagon to show interrelationships among components of the personality is associated with:
  2. Ginzberg
  3. Holland
  4. Lofquist
  5. Gottfredson

 

  1. Which of the following would not be viewed as a constraint on the occupational decision making process by Brown?
  2. Holding am individualism social value
  3. The gender of the decision maker
  4. Membership in a group with a history of discrimination
  5. Holding a collateral social value

 

  1. In working with a disadvantaged African American counselee, the counselor:
  2. Can gain some useful clues from available career development theories
  3. Can apply available theories without any qualification.
  4. Should disregard any inferences that can be drawn from available theories.
  5. Should wait until proof has been obtained that occupations for the disadvantaged can be predicted.

 

  1. A personality is attracted to a compatible work environment is associated with:
  2. Holland
  3. Hoppock.
  4. Roe
  5. Super

 

  1. Which of the following statements is a central proposition of the theory of work adjustment?
  2. Optimal career choice occurs when the needs of the person are reinforced by the job
  3. Success on the job can be predicted if information about the skills, aptitudes, and personality structure of the person are known
  4. The skills required by the job are posed by the individual in the job
  5. The values of the person and the supervisor match

 

  1. The construct of congruence is used to describe the relation between __________________ in Hollands theory.
  2. Personality types on the hexagon
  3. Scores on the Self-Directed Search, an instrument that measures Holland types.
  4. Interests and skills
  5. Relationship of an individuals personality to the characteristics of the people who work on a job

 

  1. The process by which individuals develop the values of their native culture is
  2. Cultural assimilation
  3. Enculturation
  4. Acculturation
  5. Cultural self-creation

 

  1. In TWA two primary factors seem to be factors in work adjustment. These are:
  2. Celerity and rhythm
  3. Pace and endurance
  4. Satisfaction and satisfactoriness
  5. Values and needs

 

  1. Based on Hollands theories which of the following are most likely to be turned off by educational activities?
  2. Social and Conventional
  3. Investigative and Social
  4. Realistic and Enterprising
  5. Enterprising and Artistic

 

  1. The cultural value that is most likely to influence decision-making style is
  2. Activity (e.g., doing, being, being-in-becoming)
  3. Time (past-future, future, present, circular)
  4. Person/Nature Relationship (people should dominate, nature dominates)
  5. Social relationships (collateral, individualism, lineal)

 

  1. In Hollands theory, it is assumed that how many of the clients six letter code (RIASEC) influence career decision making?
  2. One; the strongest

b        The first three including ties

  1. The first three
  2. All six

 

  1. Work environments may influence personality change. The person environment relationship that is most likely to produce change in personality is

a        Realistic person, Investigative work environment

  1. Person with low consistency in personality type; highly consistent work environment   
  2. Artistic person; social environment
  3. The premise of the question is wrong; work environments do not produce personality change

 

  1. The Ability Profiler, an instrument incorporated into O*NET measures (according to the developer)
  2. Needs
  3. Values
  4. Interests
  5. Abilities

 

  1. Some authorities have equated interests, needs, and values. Which of the following theorist is most likely to agree with this supposition.
  2. Brown

b        Lofquist

  1. Holland
  2. Hartung

 

  1. Gender is considered as a constraining factor on occupation choice by Brown because
  2. Women are more likely to choose from a restricted range of occupations for a variety of reasons
  3. Rampant discrimination in certain segments of the workplace
  4. Research shows a genetic link between gender and interests
  5. Women delay choosing an occupation because of developmental factors

 

  1. Although many theories of career development have been proposed for subgroups such as women and minorities in the U. S., none has been widely adopted. The most likely reason for this is
  2. They belong to a common culture that highly influences career choice
  3. The occupational structure forces people into a common set of choices and patterns; thus special theories have little practical application.
  4. Women have rejected the idea that they chose occupations differently than men.
  5. There are more similarities than difference in the factors that influence occupational choice

 

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