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Contemporary Nursing Issues Trends And Management 4th Edition By Jacob
Cherry: Contemporary Nursing, 4th Edition
Chapter 1: The Evolution of Professional Nursing
|A.||becoming the first African-American public health nurse.|
|B.||establishing the Henry Street Settlement.|
|C.||founding the American Red Cross.|
|D.||publicizing the inadequacies of hospital-based nursing schools.|
(C) is correct because the American Red Cross, founded by Clara Barton in 1882, assisted in efforts to continue public health nursing. (A) is incorrect because Jessie Sleet Scales was the first African-American public health nurse. (B) is incorrect because Lillian Wald, a pioneer in public health nursing, is best known for the development and establishment of the Henry Street Settlement. (D) is incorrect because The Goldmark Report criticized the inadequacies of hospital-based nursing schools and recommended enhanced educational standards.
DIF: Knowledge REF: Page 16
|A.||Social Security Act|
|D.||U.S. Civil Service Act|
(B) is correct because the purpose of the Hill-Burton Act was to provide funding to construct hospitals and to assist states in planning for other health care facilities in accordance with the needs of communities. (A) is incorrect because the main purposes of the 1935 Social Security Act were to provide (1) a national insurance system for the elderly; (2) monies to states for maternal and child welfare services; (3) vocational rehabilitation services for the physically and mentally challenged; (4) medical care for crippled children and blind people; (5) a plan to boost public health services; and (6) a federal/state unemployment system. (C) is incorrect because the Sheppard-Towner Act provided federal aid for maternal and child health care. (D) is incorrect because the U.S. Civil Service Act is landmark U.S. legislation establishing the tradition and mechanism of permanent federal employment based on merit rather than on political party affiliation (the spoils system).
DIF: Knowledge REF: Page 18
(D) is correct because Lillian Wald was a pioneer in public health nursing who is best known for the development and establishment of the Henry Street Settlement. (A) is incorrect because Mary Breckenridge of Kentucky established the Frontier Nursing Service in 1925. (B) is incorrect because Mary Seacole was a black nurse who provided care during the Crimean War. (C) is incorrect because Clara Barton founded the American Red Cross in 1882.
DIF: Knowledge REF: Page 15
(A) is correct because Lillian Wald developed the first nursing service for occupational health. (B) is incorrect because Florence Nightingale is best known for contributions made during the Crimean War, efforts to improve sanitation and public health, use of statistics to provide support for health outcomes, and organization of nurse training. (C) is incorrect because Clara Barton founded the American Red Cross. (D) is incorrect because Mary Seacole was a black nurse who served during the Crimean War.
DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 14
|A.||Florence Nightingales acceptance of African-American nurses into the first nursing school|
|B.||The contributions of African-American nurses at the Pennsylvania Hospital, the first hospital in America|
|C.||Mary Seacoles efforts to care for soldiers during the Crimean War|
|D.||The wives of wealthy African-American nobles who carried food and medicine from house to house during the Middle Ages|
(C) is correct because although Nightingales school refused Seacole, she was able to make a difference in the Crimean War and later was recognized for her efforts. (A) is incorrect because Florence Nightingales efforts during the Crimean War were valuable and recognized, but she would not allow Seacole to join her in her efforts. (B) is incorrect because Pennsylvania Hospital was the first hospital in America and was founded in 1751, but Seacoles efforts in the Crimean War did not occur until 100 years later. (D) is incorrect because the wives of noblemen who carried food and medicine were not uniquely African-Americans.
DIF: Application REF: Page 12
|A.||increasing the number of private care hospitals and decreasing the role of public health services.|
|B.||employing a large number of civilians to provide care to returning soldiers through the Red Cross.|
|C.||introducing specialists in nursing such as nurse anesthetists.|
|D.||increasing the number of community health nurses.|
(C) is correct because World War I offered nurses a chance to enter into new fields of specialization, as is seen in the example of nurse anesthetists who became part of surgical teams at the front lines. (A) is incorrect because advancements in public health were being made and the primary site for medical care was moved from the home to the hospital. (B) is incorrect because the Red Cross provided care to communities in which access was limited and eventually moved to urban areas. (D) is incorrect because many nurses were needed in the war effort, which caused the growth in community health nursing to halt.
DIF: Application REF: Page 15
|A.||increase research that focused on minority groups.|
|B.||provide medical care for chemically impaired persons.|
|C.||ensure health care for older adults through a national insurance system.|
|D.||decrease the publics financial burden by limiting services offered by local health departments.|
(C) is correct because the Social Security Act of 1935 set the precedent for the passage of the Medicare and Medicaid acts that followed in 1965 to provide health insurance for the elderly, but it also provided maternal and child welfare services, along with rehabilitation for the mentally and physically challenged, medical care for blind individuals and crippled children, and unemployment benefits. (A) is incorrect because increasing research for minorities was not one of the purposes of the Social Security Act of 1935. (B) is incorrect because the care of persons with substance abuse problems was not one of the first purposes addressed by the Social Security Act. (D) is incorrect because the Social Security Act provided a means by which women and children could receive care, thus increasing the numbers of public health nurses and services offered.
DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 19
|A.||led to many hospital closings, along with a decrease in acute care hospitalbased nursing care.|
|B.||provided medical insurance to those younger adults or children who were not eligible for private insurance because of catastrophic illnesses such as cancer.|
|C.||provided preventive care for women, infants, and children.|
|D.||ensured that individuals with end-stage renal disease had health care insurance.|
(D) is correct because the Medicare program provides hospital insurance, Part A, and medical insurance, Part B, to all people age 65 and older who are eligible to receive Social Security benefits; people with total, permanent disabilities; and people with end-stage renal disease. (A) is incorrect because Medicare provides insurance for many who previously have not sought health care, resulting in an increase, not a decrease, in hospital care. (B) is incorrect because medical insurance for young adults and children who were not eligible for private insurance is part of Medicaid. (C) is incorrect because Medicaid was the medical insurance for those families, primarily women and children, with an income at or below the federal poverty level.
DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 19
|A.||the 1990s influenced nursing in that a reduction occurred in preventable diseases caused by unsafe/unhealthy lifestyles.|
|B.||tuberculosis was the primary concern for nursing in the 1980s, whereas the AIDS epidemic emerged and was its focus during the 1990s.|
|C.||a decrease in ambulatory services in the 1980s prompted an increase in public health nurses in the 1990s.|
|D.||the demand for advanced practice nurses increased in the 1980s and the 1990s as a result of the economy and concern about the health of the nation.|
(D) is correct because the numbers of advanced nurse practitioners increased as evidence of their cost-effectiveness as providers of primary and preventive health care became established. (A) is incorrect because in the 1990s, many diseases associated with preventable causes led to mortality in the United States. (B) is incorrect because the AIDS epidemic appeared in the 1980s and tuberculosis became more of a concern in the 1990s. (C) is incorrect because the 1980s saw an increase in technology that allowed more outpatient procedures, increased use of ambulatory services, and increased demand for community health nurses.in the 1990s.
DIF: Application REF: Page 23
|A.||Nursing has existed to meet the needs of populations, individuals, and aggregates by providing care that is influenced by the needs and beliefs of society in different historical contexts.|
|B.||When men became interested in nursing, this provided the impetus to change nursing into a respected profession based on scientific fact rather than superstition.|
|C.||Nursing has historically accepted individuals from all social and ethnic backgrounds.|
|D.||The United States has led the way throughout history to advance nursing and health care by providing the first hospital and medical school.|
(A) is correct because nursing has existed since biblical times to address needs ranging from contagious diseases in early times to health prevention in the present time, with care based on health beliefs of the time. (B) is incorrect because in the beginning, men were recognized as health healers, but women changed nursing from a mystical phenomenon to a respected profession. (C) is incorrect because nursing, has had periods where criminals and prostitutes practiced and discrimination was evidenced by Nightingales refusal of Seacole. (D) is incorrect because the first hospital and the first medical school in North America were founded in Mexicothe Hospital of the Immaculate Conception in Mexico City and the University of Mexico Medical School.
DIF: Application REF: Pages 10-25
|A.||Prehistoric times and the Middle Ages|
|B.||Civil War period and World War I|
|C.||Renaissance and Reformation periods and the Colonial American period|
|D.||Crimean War and Civil War periods|
(A) is correct because during prehistoric times, tribes used herbs to rid themselves of the curse of disease, and in the Middle Ages, women used herbs. (B) is incorrect because during the Civil War, health care was similar to that provided in Colonial times, when epidemics were rampant, and World War I saw an increase in the advancement of nursing specialties and public health nursing. (C) is incorrect because during the Renaissance and Reformation periods, major advancements were made in pharmacology, chemistry, and medical knowledge, including anatomy, physiology, and surgery, and the Colonial American period focused on transmissible diseases. (D) is incorrect because the Crimean War era found nursing care that was focused on sanitation and environmental improvements, and with the Civil War, the nursing focus reverted to communicable diseases.
DIF: Application REF: Page 7
|A.||the prehistoric period.|
|B.||early civilization in Egypt.|
|D.||the Middle Ages.|
(A) is correct because during prehistoric times, illness was thought to be caused by evil spirits that providers attempted to scare away through rituals and dances. (B) is incorrect because the Egyptians were very advanced at an early time in the use of suturing and preventive measures such as public health. (C) is incorrect because although major advancements were made during the Renaissance in pharmacology, chemistry, and medical knowledge, this was the dark period for nursing because those who entered the profession were most often unsavory. (D) is incorrect because during the Middle Ages, health care providers who were women used herbs; however, men used purging and surgeries that were performed by unskilled individuals.
DIF: Application REF: Page 7
|A.||requires certification as an advanced practice nurse.|
|B.||provides care at the bedside while collaborating with other members of the health care team.|
|C.||focuses on clinical practice rather than fulfilling the role of administrator or educator.|
|D.||is an advanced practice nurse whose practice is limited to the acute care setting.|
|E.||has a clinically focused doctoral degree in nursing, which provides prescriptive authority.|
ANS: B, C
(B) is correct because the clinical nurse leader (CNL) manages care at the bedside or point of care through an interdisciplinary approach. (C) is correct because the CNL is a provider of care and does not assume the role of manager. (A) is incorrect because the CNL is not an advanced practice nurse but rather a generalist. (D) is incorrect because the CNL is a generalist and is not an advanced practice nurse. (E) is incorrect because the CNL is educated at the masters level and does not have prescriptive authority.
DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 2
|A.||Nurses who served during war were given rank as officers.|
|B.||No nurses were formally trained.|
|C.||Public health nursing and occupational nursing were begun.|
|D.||The nurse anesthetist was introduced.|
B, C, D, A
(B) It was not until 1860 that Nightingale established the first nursing school in England. Nurses were not formally trained until Nightingales time. (C) During the 1900s, prior to World War I, Lillian Wald instituted public health nursing and occupational nursing. (D) In 1914, with the beginning of World War I, the nurse anesthetist joined the surgical team. (A) Nurses were seen as a valuable part of the military and attained the ranks of officers in the Army and the Navy for their participation in World War II.
DIF: Application REF: Pages 13-18
A pharmocopoeia that classified more than 700 drugs was written by the Egyptians to assist in the care and management of disease.
DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 7
Cherry: Contemporary Nursing, 4th Edition
Chapter 3: The Influence of Contemporary Trends and Issues on Nursing Education
|A.||core practice competencies.|
(D) is correct. Performance-based assessment is the evaluation of abilities based on an objective demonstration of specific required competencies. This may include performance in actual or simulated situations. (A) is incorrect because core practice competencies consist of the abilities and skills currently required for program completion and nursing practice. (B) is incorrect because continuing competence is required in many states for relicensure and recertification. (C) is incorrect because distant learning occurs when courses are delivered through some electronic format such as a Web-based course. The course may be presented a great distance from the student, who is never required to attend a class at a physical location.
DIF: Knowledge REF: Page 52
|A.||increased technology in the field of critical care.|
|B.||the influence of research in the field of genetics.|
|C.||escalating communication and informatics technologies.|
|D.||international programs designed to standardize health care.|
(C) is correct because with ever-expanding developments in electronic information technology, the volume of information is growing exponentially on a global level. Informatics has become a major part of education and practice that facilitates communication. (A) is incorrect because critical care is not the only area in which technology is increasing, and this has no direct impact as a major trend influencing nursing education. (B) is incorrect because research in the field of genetics is a component of ethics and is a bioethical concern that has not been identified as an influence on nursing education. (D) is incorrect because international programs designed to standardize health care have not been identified as a trend in nursing education.
DIF: Application REF: Page 46
|A.||users of electronic resources spend a disproportionate amount of time looking for pertinent content.|
|B.||additional time is available to study and revise curricula because special skills are not needed to access information via the Internet.|
|C.||immediate results and outcomes are expected from both students and faculty, thus enhancing time management.|
|D.||skills that require problem solving and reflective abilities are developed.|
(A) is correct because students can easily become distracted by pursuit of the intriguing web of links they encounter while they search Web sites to complete assignments or find pertinent content. (B) is incorrect because students must learn to become computer literate and competent. Success in nursing courses and practice depends on these skills. (C) is incorrect because with unlimited information available to them, students may actually take more time to navigate Web-based resources than is needed for review of traditional print-based resources. (D) is incorrect because learning from the Internet helps students develop skills in analytic thinking, decision making, and reflective judgment.
DIF: Synthesis REF: Page 47
(A) is correct because outcomes and criteria establish real expectations for clinical practice and have a powerful influence on nursing education and practice at all levels. Outcomes are used in all areas of nursing in the nursing process. (B) is incorrect because objectives refer to knowledge that the student is expected to attain. (C) is incorrect because goals are patient focused. (D) is incorrect because subjective appraisals are not used in real-world practice.
DIF: Knowledge REF: Page 48
|A.||the growing percentage of adults aged 50 to 65 years.|
|B.||increasing numbers of obese children and adults.|
|C.||changes by which families are becoming more nuclear.|
|D.||social programs that are essentially eliminating poverty.|
(B) is correct because the United States is experiencing an epidemic of obesity with major consequences for health and the health care system. (A) is incorrect because the percentage of adults aged 50 to 65 years is not increasing. The number of very elderly is increasing. (C) is incorrect because even the definition of family has changed radically, as evidenced by single individuals living with other single individuals, single-parent households, and same-sex couples (with and without children). (D) is incorrect because the number of families who remain uninsured, jobless, homeless, and surviving in poverty is increasing.
DIF: Knowledge REF: Page 54
|A.||Columbia Teachers College.|
|D.||the New York Regents Program.|
(B) is correct because in 1924, Yale University offered the first separate Department of Nursing, whose graduates earned a baccalaureate degree. (A) is incorrect because Columbia Teachers College was the first to offer a Doctor of Education degree. (C) is incorrect because Harvard University does not offer a baccalaureate program in nursing. (D) is incorrect because the New York Regents Program is a distance mobility program.
DIF: Knowledge REF: Page 62
|B.||Career ladder (2 + 2)|
(C) is correct because an external degree does not require attendance and provides no course classes; it enrolls thousands and is accessible regardless of geographic location. (A) is incorrect because articulation is the format of a program, or refers to what the student must do to complete the program. (B) is incorrect because the 2 + 2 option is for LPN or RN students to continue their education to RN or BSN, respectively. (D) is incorrect because a second degree is a degree that is pursued after the first degree has been obtained.
DIF: Knowledge REF: Page 65
|A.||Care coordination, direct care for complex patients, and outcomes evaluation|
|B.||Chemistry, biostatistics, and computer programming|
|C.||Illness care, hospice, and ethics|
|D.||Psychomotor skills, obstetrics, and epidemiology|
(A) is the correct answer because caring for complexities in practice, coordinating care, and focusing on outcomes evaluation are the tasks that reflect the direction in which nursing is heading. (B) is incorrect because as supplemental courses to nursing, these are essential, but they do not represent an area of emphasis for professional nursing. (C) is incorrect because illness care, hospice, and ethics are currently components in programs that are preparing students for professional nursing. (D) is incorrect because psychomotor skills, obstetrics, and epidemiology are limited in scope.
DIF: Application REF: Pages 45-46
|A.||certification in medical-surgical nursing.|
|B.||the National Certification Licensure Examination (NCLEX).|
|C.||instructor-constructed examinations that are comprehensive in nature.|
|D.||the ability of the student to answer questions related to the care provided to a patient during the senior nursing courses.|
(B) is correct because NCLEX is the National Licensure examination that is based on the minimal level of safety required for a nurse to enter practice. (A) is incorrect because certification in medical-surgical nursing is attained through a specialty examination for AACN certification that can be taken only by registered nurses. (C) is incorrect because instructor-constructed examinations are based on instructors knowledge and experience and are not used for entry into practice. (D) is incorrect because it describes a nonstandardized means of determining initial proficiency.
DIF: Knowledge REF: Page 63
|A.||Only devoted qualified nurses are continuing to provide bedside nursing because of the complexity of care required, resulting in excellent preceptorships for students.|
|B.||The number of applicants to nursing programs has risen but enrollment is limited because of a decrease in the number of available scholarships and grants.|
|C.||With an increase in the number of nurses who are entering graduate school to escape bedside nursing, students can soon enjoy a lower faculty/student ratio.|
|D.||Students may be assigned to preceptors who have not yet developed expertise in the field of interest.|
(D) is correct because qualified preceptors are few in number. (A) is incorrect because there is a shortage of nurses qualified at the bedside who are available to serve as preceptors for students. (B) is incorrect because nursing enrollments are limited because of a shortage of faculty. (C) is incorrect because nurses are not entering graduate school to escape bedside nursing, but to pursue advanced practice degrees.
DIF: Analysis REF: Page 57
|A.||American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN).|
|B.||American Nurses Association (ANA).|
|C.||National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN).|
|D.||National League for Nursing (NLN).|
(C) is the correct answer because the NCSBN coordinates licensure activities on a national level and creates and administers the licensure examination (NCLEX). (A) is incorrect because AACN is an organization of deans and directors of baccalaureate and higher degree nursing programs that establishes standards for programs and is concerned with legislative issues that pertain to professional nursing education. (B) is incorrect because ANA is the major national nursing organization concerned with broad scope practice issues, standard of practice, scope of practice, ethics, legal issues, and employment; it consists of a federation of state nurse associations. (D) is incorrect because the NLN is a national organization of nurse educators that has a long-standing commitment to four types of basic programs: LPN, diploma, ADN, and BSN.
DIF: Knowledge REF: Page 66
|A.||American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN)|
|B.||American Nurses Association (ANA)|
|C.||National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN)|
|D.||National League for Nursing (NLN)|
(A) is correct because the AACN publishes the Journal of Professional Nursing, The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education, and other, related documents pertaining to the BSN and higher degree education. (B) is incorrect because the ANA is the major national organization that is concerned with a broad scope of practice issues. (C) is incorrect because the NCSBN is the organization of all state boards of nursing that coordinates licensure activities at the national level. (D) is incorrect because the NLN is the national organization of nurse educators that has a long-standing commitment to four types of basic programs: LPN, diploma, ADN, and BSN.
DIF: Knowledge REF: Page 66
|A.||diploma programs focus on family and community with an emphasis on health promotion.|
|B.||most practicing RNs graduated from diploma programs because this was the first type of RN program.|
|C.||baccalaureate programs focus on technical and hands-on nursing skills in diverse community settings.|
|D.||masters programs such as that for the clinical nurse leader provide entry into practice with a focus on interdisciplinary and bedside nursing care for complex patient populations.|
(D) is correct because a clinical nurse leader oversees the care coordination of groups of patients and actively provides direct patient care in complex situations, evaluates patient outcomes, and has the decision-making authority to change care plans when necessary. (A) is incorrect because diploma programs do not focus on community with an emphasis on health promotion, although baccalaureate programs do have this focus. (B) is incorrect because most of todays practicing RNs graduated from ADN programs. (C) is incorrect because BSN programs focus on the care of patients, with greater emphasis on the family and community and on health promotion and illness prevention.
DIF: Application REF: Page 64
|A.||those steps that result in life or death of a patient.|
|B.||required criteria that must be incorporated into the assessment for the desired outcome.|
|C.||fundamental strategies unique to complex dynamic care environments.|
|D.||objective data that can be used to determine the likelihood that the patient will recover.|
(B) is correct because critical elements include the application of mandatory principles that must be used according to established practice standards. (A) is incorrect because critical elements work to achieve desired outcomes for the patient. (C) is incorrect because critical elements are not strategies. (D) is incorrect because critical elements are based on the application of mandatory principles, not on objective data, to determine the likelihood that the patient will recover.
DIF: Application REF: Page 53
|A.||is applying evidence-based practice to the clinical setting.|
|B.||is using critical thinking to change procedures performed in the care of foot ulcers.|
|C.||is minimally educated at the masters level and is interested in providing cost-effective care (soap is less expensive than povidone-iodine).|
|D.||lacks clinical competence in health assessment and in application of theory to the clinical setting.|
|E.||is using information to problem-solve and ensure safe, competent care.|
ANS: A, B, E
(A), (B), and (E) are correct because critical thinking is an essential part of applying evidence-based practice, that is, using research findings to guide actual practice. (C) is incorrect because evidence-based research, not cost, should be used to guide actual practice. (D) is incorrect because the nurse is demonstrating clinical competence by using assessment skills and by noting the effects of povidone-iodine and applying evidence-based practice to change procedures performed in the care of foot ulcers.
DIF: Synthesis REF: Page 53
The earliest training programs for nurses were hospital based and were designed to meet the needs of the particular institution; these were referred to as diploma programs.
DIF: Knowledge REF: Page 61
Cherry: Contemporary Nursing, 4th Edition
Chapter 11: Complementary and Alternative Healing
(B) is correct because applying heat to the acupoints is termed moxibustion. (A) is incorrect because distinct metabolic body types called doshas include vata, pitta, and kapha; signs of illness occur when the delicate balance of the doshas is disturbed. (C) is incorrect because yoga is a type of mind/body intervention of complementary alternative medicine. (D) is incorrect because kapha is the metabolic body type that is characterized by a relaxed, graceful tendency toward procrastination, affection, forgiveness, compassion, long and deep sleep, coolness, pale and oily skin, slow eating, a tendency toward high cholesterol, obesity, allergies, and sinusitis.
DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 238
(D) is correct because biofeedback is a type of mind/body intervention that is based on techniques in which the client is taught to alter specific bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and muscle tension. The client uses various relaxation and imagery exercises to produce desired responses. (A) is incorrect because Ayurveda consists of a group of noninvasive approaches that are used to achieve balance; these include yoga, massage, diet, purification regimens, breathing exercises, meditation, and herbs. (B) is incorrect because dosha is a distinct body type in which illness occurs with any imbalance. (C) is incorrect because with homeopathy, the care provider provides small quantities of remedies that produce symptoms similar to those of the illness being treated.
DIF: Application REF: Page 244
(A) is correct because the chiropractor corrects misalignments of the spine, called subluxations, by putting pressure on the nerves that are causing pain. (B) is incorrect because a sprain refers to a tear in a ligament. (C) is incorrect because a fracture is the separation of a bone or body part into two or more parts. (D) is incorrect because epicondylitis is inflammation of the elbow joints leading to tennis elbow.
DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 241
|A.||Most insurance companies will pay for chiropractic treatment.|
|B.||Because chiropractors are not licensed in any state, all services must be paid for by the patient.|
|C.||Chiropractic medicine is a new CAM therapy that has not yet been recognized by insurance companies.|
|D.||Chiropractic medicine is more than 100 years old, but because it is preventive in nature, it is not covered by most insurance.|
(A) is correct because chiropractic medicine is performed by a licensed professional with reimbursement privileges and is an accepted complementary alternative therapy. (B) is incorrect because chiropractors are licensed in the state in which they practice. (C) is incorrect because chiropractic medicine has been practiced for longer than 100 years. (D) is incorrect because chiropractic medicine is covered by most insurance companies.
DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 239
(D) is correct because atropine is derived from the Atropa belladonna plant, which primarily affects the parasympathetic nervous system. (A) is incorrect because the drug digitalis (Lanoxin) is derived from the Digitalis purpurea plant; it increases contractility of the heart, making it a popular choice for patients in heart failure. (B) is incorrect because the drug ipecac is derived from the plant Cephaelis ipecacuanha, which is used to induce vomiting in some cases of poisoning. (C) is incorrect because the drug reserpine is derived from the plant known as Rauwolfia serpentina and was used in the past to treat patients with depression; currently, it is used in the treatment of those with hypertension.
DIF: Knowledge REF: Page 241
(A) is correct because the Alexander technique teaches improved balance, posture, and coordination through gentle hands-on guidance and verbal instruction. (B) is incorrect because the Feldenkrais method teaches movement reeducation through gentle manipulations intended to heighten awareness of the body; it is based on the belief that each person has an individualized optimal style of movement. (C) is incorrect because healing touch is a multilevel energy healing program that incorporates aspects of therapeutic touch with other healing measures. (D) is incorrect because reiki uses the hands or gestures to channel ki energy from an intangible spirit to bring about healing.
DIF: Application REF: Page 245
(A) is correct because reflexology produces pain relief through pressure applied to pressure points on the hands and feet that correspond to various parts of the body. (B) is incorrect because the Feldenkrais method is a type of chiropractic medicine in which massage is used to teach movement reeducation through gentle manipulations intended to heighten awareness of the body; it is based on the belief that each person has an individualized optimal style of movement. (C) is incorrect because Reiki uses energy therapy to direct universal life energy to specific sites. (D) is incorrect because Rolfing is the use of manual manipulation and stretching of fascial tissues of the body to establish balance and symmetry that cannot be attained by deep massage.
DIF: Application REF: Page 245
(C) is correct because the drug reserpine is derived from the plant known as Rauwolfia serpentina; it was used to treat depression in the past but currently is used in the treatment of hypertension. (A) is incorrect because atropine is derived from the Atropa belladonna plant, which primarily affects the parasympathetic nervous system. (B) is incorrect because the drug digitalis (Lanoxin) is derived from the Digitalis purpurea plant; it increases contractility of the heart, making it a popular choice for patients in heart failure. (D) is incorrect because the drug ipecac is derived from the plant Cephaelis ipecacuanha, which is used to induce vomiting in some cases of poisoning.
DIF: Comprehension REF: Page 241
|A.||Thromboembolism due to increased clotting|
|B.||Seizures due to interaction with anticonvulsants|
|C.||Hypertension due to sodium retention|
|D.||Photosensitivity due to increased melanin production|
(B) is correct because this herb reduces the efficacy of anticonvulsants, which may lead to increased seizure activity. (A) is incorrect because this herb decreases coagulation of blood by prolonging bleed time. (C) is incorrect because Ginkgo biloba has no known effect on sodium regulation. (D) is incorrect because photosensitivity is due to decreased melanin production, which offers protection.
DIF: Analysis REF: Page 242
|A.||Large doses of calcium caused cerebral plaques to form, thereby disguising atrophy of the brain.|
|B.||Excess doses of folic acid masked a vitamin B12 deficiency that led to dementia.|
|C.||Hypnotherapy focused on current pleasant thoughts, eliminating clues to the past.|
|D.||The electrical current from magnetic fields interfered with normal brain waves, resulting in confusion and inability to concentrate.|
(B) is correct because individuals with Alzheimers often have low levels of vitamin B12; thus, large doses of folic acid may have masked the dementia. (A) is incorrect because calcium results in kidney stones and malabsorption of other essential minerals but would not disguise atrophy of the brain. (C) is incorrect because dementia is not associated with unpleasant thoughts of the past; instead, life review and reminiscence may stimulate cognitive function and a sense of well-being. (D) is incorrect because magnet therapy is thought to relieve pain by creating a slight electrical current that stimulates the nervous system; it is also thought to speed wound healing by dilating vessels and increasing circulation to an area and is even purported to boost the immune system.
DIF: Application REF: Page 241
|A.||Imagery involves the dependent mental construction of a picture, whereas hypnosis requires the patient to recall and verbally describe difficult times in his or her life.|
|B.||Hypnosis requires a trained psychologist, but imagery can be performed by any health care practitioner.|
|C.||Imagery produces a temporary sense of well-being compared with hypnosis, which evokes a permanent positive effect.|
|D.||Although both therapies focus on specific problems and guide the patient into relaxation, imagery requires the patient to formulate the impression, and the hypnotist constructs the image for the patient.|
(D) is correct because both imagery and relaxation are used to reduce anxiety and stress; however, imagery begins with a goal that is to be achieved and a picture that is formulated by the person under treatment, rather than beginning with the hypnotist, who conjures up a desirable image. (A) is incorrect because imagery is self-constructed, and hypnosis can recall both positive and negative images/memories. (B) is incorrect because both can be learned from audiotapes and books. (C) is incorrect because neither imagery nor hypnosis can be guaranteed to produce long-term effects.
DIF: Application REF: Page 244
(A) is correct because the effect of magnets on fetal growth has not been determined. (B) is incorrect because aromatherapy is safe throughout pregnancy, unless the patient is allergic to particular scents. (C) Imagery is incorrect because it is not contraindicated and can actually be used to reduce stress and discomfort associated with pregnancy. (D) is incorrect because therapeutic touch requires only light or no physical contact.
DIF: Comprehension &nbs
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