Test Bank For Dental Hygiene Theory And Practice 4th edition By Michele Leonardi Darby

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Test Bank For Dental Hygiene Theory And Practice 4th edition By Michele Leonardi Darby

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WITH ANSWERS

 

Dental Hygiene Theory And Practice 4th edition By Michele Leonardi Darby

 

Chapter 01: The Dental Hygiene Profession

Darby & Walsh: Dental Hygiene: Theory and Practice, 4th Edition

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. What is the discipline of dental hygiene?
a. The study of teeth and their supporting structures
b. Brushing and flossing ones teeth and rinsing with an antimicrobial mouth rinse twice a day, morning and night
c. The study of preventive oral healthcare, including the management of behavior to prevent oral disease and promote health
d. The study of those procedures that dental hygienists provide to clients

 

 

ANS:  C

The study of teeth and their supporting structures. This answer is wrong because the discipline of dental hygiene covers much more information than the study of teeth and supporting structures. Dental hygiene focuses on the preventive measures that the teeth and supporting structures must receive, in addition to other oral healthcare steps that must be taken to promote ones health.

Brushing and flossing ones teeth and rinsing with an antimicrobial mouth rinse twice a day, morning and night. This answer is wrong because this statement describes only one procedure within the discipline of dental hygiene. Dental hygiene is a much larger and general field of study than this simple preventive action.

The study of preventive oral healthcare including the management of behavior to prevent oral disease and promote health. This answer is correct because this is the direct definition of dental hygiene. The definition can be broken down into smaller, specified divisions to further develop the discipline of dental hygiene.

The study of those procedures that dental hygienists provide to clients. This answer is wrong because dental hygienists play many interrelated roles, such as clinician, educator, administrator or manager, advocate, and researcher. Although each of these roles is created to assist in dental hygiene, the discipline is not centered on the actions and procedures of the dental hygienist.

 

REF:   What is Dental Hygiene? | 1

 

  1. Who is the professional dental hygienist?
a. A licensed preventive oral health professional who has graduated from a Commission on Dental Accreditation, accredited, entry level dental hygiene program
b. A licensed person who has learned on the job via a preceptorship program, such as the Alabama Dental Hygienists Program
c. A dentist who has graduated from a Commission on Dental Accreditation, accredited, dental school program
d. A person who has graduated from a Commission on Dental Accreditation, accredited, dental assisting program

 

 

ANS:  A

A licensed preventive oral health professional who has graduated from a Commission on Dental Accreditation, accredited, entry level dental hygiene program. This answer is correct because to be eligible as a professional dental hygienist, the person must have graduated from an accredited dental hygiene program.

A licensed person who has learned on the job via a preceptorship program, such as the Alabama Dental Hygienists Program. This answer is wrong because a dental hygienist cannot learn on the job to become a professional. Rather, they must pass written examinations and graduate from an accredited dental hygiene program.

A dentist who has graduated from a Commission on Dental Accreditation, accredited, dental school program. This answer is wrong because a dentist has a higher degree than a dental hygienist and therefore, generally, works above a dental hygienist. It is not necessary for a dental hygienist to receive an education from a dental school.

A person who has graduated from a Commission on Dental Accreditation, accredited, dental assisting program. This answer is wrong because a person graduating from an accredited dental assisting program would only be licensed as a dental assistant.

 

REF:   Who Is the Dental Hygienist? | 1

 

  1. All of these services are provided by the majority of dental hygienists in the clinical setting except one. Which one is the exception?
a. Perform periodontal maintenance care.
b. Implement interventions to direct a person back to oral wellness.
c. Provide fluoride varnish treatment.
d. Place and remove restorations.

 

 

ANS:  D

Perform periodontal maintenance care. This is a service provided in the clinical setting. The clinical setting allows for application of preventive and therapeutic agents related to periodontal disease. For example: subgingival sustained-release delivery systems containing chlorhexidine.

Implement interventions to direct a person back to oral wellness. This is a service provided in the clinical setting. The main goal of a dental hygienist is to prevent oral disease and promote health. Therefore, if the state of an individuals oral health changes, the dental hygienist (within the scope of the clinical setting) can provide some degree of intervention to direct the individual back to oral wellness.

Provide fluoride varnish treatment. This is a service provided in the clinical setting. The clinical setting allows for application of preventive and therapeutic agents related to dental caries. Fluoride varnish treatments prolong fluoride exposure on the tooth surface for safe and effective caries control.

Place and remove restorations. This service is not provided by the majority of dental hygienists in the clinical setting. Only a few dental hygienists have the certification to place restorations, while many others do not. Also, the removal of restorations is not a given action of a dental hygienist in the clinical setting.

 

REF:   Clinician | 3

 

  1. Which of the following is a key behavior within the dental hygiene process of care?
a. Observation
b. Diagnosis
c. Communication skills
d. Client care

 

 

ANS:  B

Observation. This answer is wrong because dental hygienists must go further than simply observing the client. The hygienist must assess the client by thoroughly collecting data.

Diagnosis. This answer is correct because identifying the diagnosis is the focal point for establishing goals in the dental hygiene care plan. The clients dental hygiene needs are determined so that specific interventions can be implemented.

Communication skills. This answer is wrong because the communication skills are not a key behavior and are not necessary to complete the dental hygiene process.

Client care. This answer is wrong because client care is not one of the steps in dental hygiene care. However, proper client care is the goal being achieved through the key behaviors.

 

REF:   What Is the Dental Hygiene Process of Care? | 1

 

  1. Which of the following is not an environmental factor that the dental hygienist takes into account in the Human Needs Model?
a. Age
b. Attitudes
c. Lifestyles
d. Weight

 

 

ANS:  D

Age. This answer is an environmental factor that must be taken into account because age plays a large role in the development of an individuals oral health.

Attitudes. This answer is an environmental factor that must be taken into account because it can have an effect on the dental hygiene process.

Lifestyles. This answer is an environmental factor that must be taken into account because an individuals oral health can be affected by lifestyle choices.

Weight. This answer is not an environmental factor that must be taken into account because an individuals weight does not affect their oral health. The diet choices that go along with a persons particular weight may affect oral health, but the overall weight of an individual does not.

 

REF:   What Is the Dental Hygiene Process of Care? | 1

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the seven roles of a dental hygienist?
a. Clinician
b. Public Health
c. Interpreter
d. Researcher

 

 

ANS:  C

The seven roles of a dental hygienist are clinician, public health, researcher, educator,

administrator, and entrepreneur.

 

REF:   Chapter One, Table 1-1 Seven Roles of the Dental Hygienist | 4

 

  1. What is a paradigm?
a. A widely accepted worldview of a discipline that shapes the knowledge of its practitioners, educators, administrators, and researchers
b. Decision-making skills that are used worldwide
c. A school of thought within a discipline
d. A widely accepted worldview of a discipline that shapes the direction and methods of its practitioners, educators, administrators, and researchers

 

 

ANS:  D

A widely accepted worldview of a discipline that shapes the knowledge of its practitioners, educators, administrators, and researchers. This answer is incorrect because a paradigm does not shape the knowledge but shapes the direction and methods of practitioners, etc.

Decision-making skills that are used worldwide. This answer is incorrect because a paradigm does not focus on decision-making skills that are accepted worldwide.

A school of thought within a discipline. This answer is incorrect because it is the definition of a conceptual model.

A widely accepted worldview of a discipline that shapes the direction and methods of its practitioners, educators, administrators, and researchers. This answer is correct because practitioners, educators, administrators, and researchers all accept this paradigm or worldview of discipline in major concepts selected for study and statements about major statements that define them in a global matter.

 

REF:   Dental Hygienes Paradigm | 5

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the four major concepts of paradigm for the dental hygiene discipline?
a. Client
b. Health and oral health
c. Environment
d. Nutrition

 

 

ANS:  D

Client. This answer is a major concept of paradigm because the client is the recipient of dental hygiene care.

Health and oral health. This answer is a major concept of paradigm because the discipline of dental hygiene exists to promote oral health, which influences overall health.

Environment. This answer is a major concept of paradigm because factors other than dental hygiene actions affect the clients attainment of optimal oral health.

Nutrition. This answer is not a major concept of paradigm because nutrition does not identify the phenomena central to the discipline of dental hygiene in an abstract global manner.

 

REF:   BOX 1-3: Four Major Concepts of the Dental Hygiene Paradigm | 6

 

  1. The importance of a conceptual model is to provide philosophic and practical perspectives about dental hygienes paradigm concepts. Dental hygienes paradigm is operationalized via the Human Needs Conceptual Model.
a. Both statements are true.
b. The first statement is true, and the second statement is false.
c. The first statement is false, and the second statement is true.
d. Both statements are false.

 

 

ANS:  A

Both statements are true. Conceptual models do provide philosophic and practical perspectives about dental hygienes paradigm concepts; however, the models can explain dental hygiene from different perspectives as well. Also, the Human Needs Conceptual Model defines the paradigm concepts.

The first statement is true; the second statement is false. Both statements are true.

The first statement is false; the second statement is true. Both statements are true.

Both statements are false. Both statements are true.

 

REF:   Conceptual Models | 6

 

  1. What occurs when individuals with differing strengths and areas of expertise work together as equal partners to achieve better outcomes than each would achieve working alone?
a. Implementation
b. Collaboration
c. Determination
d. Concentration

 

 

ANS:  B

Implementation. This answer is incorrect because by definition implementation is the act of putting something into effect. Implementing something can be done individually.

Collaboration. This answer is correct and is demonstrated in the Collaborative Practice Model, which assumes that dentists and dental hygienists work together as colleagues.

Determination. This answer is incorrect because determination does not require partners of differing strengths. Determination can be achieved individually by staying focused on the task at hand.

Concentration. This answer is incorrect because concentration is just maintaining a strong focus on the task at hand. Collaboration can be done more efficiently if the partners are concentrated but is not required.

 

REF:   Collaborative Practice Model | 6

 

  1. What is the collaborative practice conceptual model?
a. Dentist and dental hygienist work together as colleagues, each offering professional expertise for the goal of providing optimum oral healthcare to the public
b. Model describing the best methods of dentist and dental hygienist to work as a team
c. Model showing how collaboration produces better work
d. Dental hygienists and other healthcare professionals work together as colleagues, each offering professional expertise for the goal of providing optimum oral healthcare to the public

 

 

ANS:  A

Dentist and dental hygienists work together as colleagues, each offering professional expertise for the goal of providing optimum oral healthcare to the public.

Model describing the best methods of dentist and dental hygienist to work as a team. This answer is incorrect because the focus and main goal of the model is to provide optimum oral healthcare to the public, not to learn to work as a team.

Model showing how collaboration produces better work. This answer is incorrect because the model focuses on providing optimum oral healthcare to the public. Collaboration between a dentist and dental hygienist is just an assisting factor to reach optimum oral healthcare.

Dental hygienists and other healthcare professionals work together as colleagues, each offering professional expertise for the goal of providing optimum oral healthcare to the public. This answer is incorrect because the collaboration must be between a dentist and a dental hygienist. This plays a key role in establishing a co-therapist relationship within the Collaborative Practice Conceptual Model.

 

REF:   Collaborative Practice Model | 6-7

 

  1. Which is not one of the five interrelated roles of a professional dental hygienist?
a. Educator
b. Manager
c. Researcher
d. Clients

 

 

ANS:  D

Educator. This is one of the five interrelated roles of a professional dental hygienist. An educator explains concepts regarding oral health and disease, and their relationship to general health; demonstrates oral self-care procedures; determines client understanding; motivates behavior change; reinforces learning or desired behavior; and evaluates the clients progress in learning.

Manager. This is one of the five interrelated roles of a professional dental hygienist. A managers position is to guide and direct the work of others. They do this by planning, making decisions, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling.

Researcher. This is one of the five interrelated roles of a professional dental hygienist. A researcher tests the assumptions of clinical practice.

Clients. This is not one of the five interrelated roles of a professional dental hygienist. The client is the individual receiving oral healthcare from the dental hygienist.

 

REF:   Roles | 2-5

 

  1. According to the Occupational Model, the dental hygienist:
a. uses a process of care to assess needs, diagnose dental hygiene problems, and plan, implement, evaluate, and document dental hygiene care.
b. works together with the dentist, each offering professional expertise for the goal of providing optimum oral healthcare to the public.
c. is a dental auxiliary who implements treatment plans and carries out isolated duties as directed by the supervising dentist.
d. explains dental hygiene from different perspectives.

 

 

ANS:  C

The Occupational Model5 presents the concept of dental hygiene actions as technically based. According to this model the dental hygienist is a dental auxiliary who implements treatment plans and carries out isolated duties as directed by the supervising dentist.

 

REF:   Chapter One, Conceptual Models | 6

 

  1. Which of the following is not a setting for a dental hygiene researcher?
a. Clinical practice
b. Research institutions
c. Hospitals
d. Oral healthcare industry
e. Public school programs

 

 

ANS:  C

Clinical practice. This is a setting for a dental hygiene researcher because researchers are testing assumptions from clinical practices. Researchers may go to the clinical practice to assess the area of study.

Research institutions. This is a setting for a dental hygiene researcher because this is a place where research is the prime goal and source of employment. Researchers gather together here and are able to collaborate with one another if necessary.

Hospitals. This is not a setting for a dental hygiene researcher because a hospital is not primarily focused on oral healthcare, rather it is focused on the overall health of an individual. A researcher would not have the information or materials needed to do their studies.

Oral healthcare industry. This is a setting for a dental hygiene researcher because the oral healthcare industry is the field that they are studying or researching. By working within the oral healthcare industry, the researchers can make evidence-based decisions.

Public school programs. This is a setting for a dental hygiene researcher because this is a place where the researcher can transmit current concepts of health promotion and disease prevention to individuals and groups, and evaluate the educational outcomes.

 

REF:   Researcher | 3

 

  1. The three responsibilities of the dental hygiene clinician are:
a. preventive, therapeutic, educational.
b. manager, educator, researcher.
c. planner, organization of appointments, billing.
d. communicator, planner, researcher.

 

 

ANS:  A

Preventive, therapeutic, educational. This answer is correct because a dental hygiene clinician is expected to fulfill these areas. Preventive methods are created to promote health and prevent oral disease. Therapeutic methods are created to arrest or control oral disease. Educational methods are created to reinforce learning, evaluate understanding, demonstrate self-care techniques, determine ability to perform desired behavior, and explain oral disease and health concepts.

Manager, educator, researcher. This answer is incorrect because these are not responsibilities; instead they are roles that can be played by dental hygienists based on the degree of education.

Planner, organization of appointments, billing. This answer is incorrect because these are the responsibilities of an administrator or manager.

Communicator, planner, researcher. This answer is incorrect because these are the responsibilities of a researcher.

 

REF:   BOX 1-2: Responsibilities of the Dental Hygiene Clinician | 3

 

  1. What is an administrator or manager not doing when referring to dental hygiene?
a. Planning
b. Staffing
c. Financial work
d. Directing

 

 

ANS:  C

Planning. This is done by an administrator to acknowledge priorities and decide on appropriate continuing care intervals and self-care measures.

Staffing. This is done by an administrator to create a knowledgeable and stable staff, and to determine the line of authority and responsibilities of each co-worker.

Financial work. This is not done by an administrator because financial work does not relate to the job of an administrator, which is to guide and direct the work of others.

Directing. This is done by an administrator while managing a professional educational program and possibly serving as a dean for various schools.

 

REF:   Administrator | 5

 

  1. When considering the key roles of a dental hygienist, what does the client advocate most refer to?
a. A dental hygienist who is working with the state legislature to change the dental practice act
b. Dental hygienists role in protecting and supporting clients rights and well-being
c. A person whose official position is to guide and direct the work of others
d. A dental hygiene educator who is employed as a full-time faculty member

 

 

ANS:  B

A dental hygienist who is working with the state legislature to change the dental practice act. This answer is incorrect because it does not directly relate to the client.

Dental hygienists role in protecting and supporting clients rights and well-being. This is correct because the definition directly links to the clients best interests.

A person whose official position is to guide and direct the work of others. This is incorrect because this is the key role of an administrator or manager.

A dental hygiene educator who is employed as a full-time faculty member. This is incorrect because this is a role of an educator.

 

REF:   What Is the Dental Hygiene Process of Care? | 1-2

 

  1. A dental hygienist keeps up-to-date with the rapidly changing art and science of dental hygiene by doing all of the following, except one. Which one is the exception?
a. Discussing updated techniques with other dental hygienists
b. Making evidence-based decisions
c. Using multiple research skills
d. Practicing at least part-time as a dental hygienist

 

 

ANS:  A

Discussing updated techniques with other dental hygienists. This is not done to stay up-to-date with the art and science of dental hygiene. Although discussing with other dental hygienists will draw conversation to new changes, further research and analyzing must be done to fully understand the rapid changes in the art and science of dental hygiene.

Making evidence-based decisions. This is done to stay up-to-date with the art and science of dental hygiene. By looking in-depth at scientific evidence, client preferences or values, clinical client circumstances, and experiences and judgment, dental hygienists can draw conclusions and remain up-to-date in the discipline of dental hygiene.

Using multiple research skills. This is done to stay up-to-date with the art and science of dental hygiene. Multiple research skills should be used to find relevant evidence and critical appraisal skills to rapidly evaluate and sort out what is valid and useful.

Practicing at least part-time as a dental hygienist. This is done to stay up-to-date with the art and science of dental hygiene. By staying involved in the discipline of dental hygiene, more and more information can be learned. There are many different roles that a professional can play as a dental hygienist; any of these roles will keep a dental hygienist up-to-date with the rapid changes.

 

REF:   Researcher | 3

 

  1. What is accreditation?
a. The process of explaining the concepts of oral health and their relationship to general health
b. The process of guiding and directing of the work of others so that they can become certified
c. The process of researching a specific topic and analyzing it
d. A formal, voluntary nongovernmental process that establishes a minimum set of national standards that promotes and ensures quality in education

 

 

ANS:  D

The process of explaining the concepts of oral health and their relationship to general health. This answer is incorrect because this statement is explaining the role of an educator.

The process of guiding and directing of the work of others so that they can become certified. This answer is incorrect because guiding and directing the work of others is a role played by an administrator.

The process of researching a specific topic and analyzing it. This answer is incorrect because this process is performed by a dental hygienist researcher.

A formal, voluntary nongovernmental process that establishes a minimum set of national standards that promotes and ensures quality in education. This answer is correct because accreditation is given to institutions or programs to ensure that the education being taught is proper and accurate.

 

REF:   Accreditation | 8

 

  1. What professional organization promotes the profession of dental hygiene globally?
a. ADHA
b. NDHA
c. CDHA
d. IFDH

 

 

ANS:  D

ADHA. This answer is incorrect because the professional organization is limited to the United States.

NDHA. This answer is incorrect because the professional organization specifically focuses on minority professionals.

CDHA. This answer is incorrect because the professional organization is limited to Canada.

IFDH. This answer is correct because the professional organization includes several countries and focuses on worldwide issues of dental hygiene.

 

REF:   International Federation of Dental Hygienists | 9-10

 

  1. What is the one most important reason why state dental practice laws were established?
a. To regulate the practice of dental hygiene and dentistry
b. To regulate the amount of education one must have to practice dentistry
c. To ensure the best overall service to the general public
d. To protect the health and welfare of the public

 

 

ANS:  A

To regulate the practice of dental hygiene and dentistry. This answer is correct because regulating the practice will ensure all criteria are met and education is fulfilled properly. The practice will be able to run smoothly in each state, ensuring beneficial service to the public.

To regulate the amount of education one must have to practice dentistry. This answer is incorrect because the amount of education one must have to practice dentistry is similar for all states so that relocating can be more easily accomplished.

To ensure the best overall service to the general public. This answer is incorrect because it is not the most important reason. If the practice of dental hygiene and dentistry is regulated, the best overall service will be given to the general public.

To protect the health and welfare of the public. This answer is incorrect because it is not the most important reason. If the practice of dental hygiene and dentistry is regulated, the health and welfare of the public will be protected.

 

REF:   Practice Acts and Licensure | 8

 

  1. Which one of these is most descriptive of licensure?
a. The process of becoming a dentist or dental hygienist
b. The process of graduating from an accredited dental hygiene program and then practicing dental hygiene
c. The process by which a government agency certifies that individuals are minimally qualified to practice within its jurisdiction
d. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  C

The process of becoming a dentist or dental hygienist. This answer is incorrect because the description of licensure is very broad and undetailed.

The process of graduating from an accredited dental hygiene program and then practicing dental hygiene. This answer is incorrect because licensure does not require oneself to immediately begin practicing dental hygiene. This statement is also not the most descriptive.

The process by which a government agency certifies that individuals are minimally qualified to practice within its jurisdiction. This answer is correct because the description is full and gives a complete idea of licensure.

All of the above. This answer is incorrect because each statement is not equally descriptive so they cannot all be the most descriptive of licensure.

 

REF:   Practice Acts and Licensure | 8

 

  1. The Canadian Dental Hygienists Association (CDHA) Boards actions are directed toward attaining:
a. Direct access to dental hygiene care
b. Recognition by the Canadian public
c. Supportive public policy and a strong national voice
d. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  D

The CDHA Boards actions are directed toward attaining specific measurable outcomes, including the following: direct access to dental hygiene care, recognition by the Canadian public, supportive public policy and a strong national voice, interprofessional practice, professional identity and professional standards, knowledge and research, business success and workplace well-being, and leadership development.

 

REF:   Chapter One, Professional Dental Hygiene Organizations | 9

 

  1. The dental hygienist must be _____ in the jurisdiction in which they practice.
a. licensed
b. certified
c. accredited
d. educated

 

 

ANS:  A

Licensed. This answer is correct because licensing examinations are created in each jurisdiction and must be passed by dental hygienists to receive a license to practice.

Certified. This answer is incorrect because certifications are usually voluntary. Licenses are required to become a professional while certifications usually are not.

Accredited. This answer is incorrect because accreditation can only be given to an institution or program, not an individual such as a dental hygienist.

Educated. This answer is incorrect because dental hygienists must pass certain written examinations to practice in the jurisdiction. A simple education does not meet the standard.

 

REF:   Practice Acts and Licensure | 8

Chapter 03: Evidence-Based Decision Making

Darby & Walsh: Dental Hygiene: Theory and Practice, 4th Edition

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following components define evidence-based practice?
a. Clinical judgment and expertise
b. Client values/preferences
c. Scientific research
d. Both a and c
e. Options a, b, and c

 

 

ANS:  E

Clinical judgment and expertise, client values/preferences, and scientific research are all components of an evidence-based practice.

 

REF:   What is Evidence-Based Decision-Making? | 34

 

  1. The purpose of evidence-based decision-making (EBDM) is to:
a. emphasize new research findings.
b. close the gap between research and practice.
c. defer to clients wishes.
d. use expert opinions.
e. do none of the above.

 

 

ANS:  B

The purpose of EBDM is to close the gap between research and practice. Emphasizing new research findings, deferring to clients wishes, and use of expert opinions are not part of the stated purpose of EBDM.

 

REF:   Competencies | 34

 

  1. Being a good consumer of research literature means you:
a. understand what you are reading.
b. can identify the level of evidence.
c. know how much confidence you can put into the findings.
d. Both a and c are correct.
e. Options a, b, and c are correct.

 

 

ANS:  E

Being a good consumer of research literature means you understand what you are reading, can identify the level of evidence, and know how much confidence you can put into the findings.

 

REF:   Competencies | 34

 

  1. Which of the following distinguishes EBDM from traditional decision making?
a. Client preferences or values
b. Clinical circumstances
c. Clinicians experience and judgment
d. Scientific evidence
e. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  D

The use of scientific evidence distinguishes EBDM from traditional decision making. Client preferences or values, clinical circumstances, and the clinicians experience and judgment are part of both traditional decision-making and EBDM.

 

REF:   Competencies | 34

 

  1. Which of the following can generate questions in practice?
a. Client care issues
b. Client clinical condition
c. Clinical problems
d. Clinicians interest
e. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  E

Client care issues, the clients clinical condition, clinical problems, and the clinicians interest can all generate questions in practice.

 

REF:   Principals of Evidence-Based Decision-Making | 34

 

  1. Which of the following is a true statement?
a. Evidence alone does not tell practitioners what to do.
b. All evidence is equal on the hierarchy.
c. The number of studies increase as you move up the hierarchy.
d. The clinical relevance of studies decreases as you move up the hierarchy.
e. None of the above are true statements.

 

 

ANS:  A

Evidence alone does not tell practitioners what to do is a true statement. All of the other statements are incorrect.

 

REF:   Principals of Evidence-Based Decision-Making | 34

 

  1. Primary research includes all of the following except:
a. experimental studies.
b. observational studies.
c. systematic reviews.
d. case control studies.
e. cohort studies.

 

 

ANS:  C

Primary research includes experimental studies, observational studies, case control studies, and cohort studies, but it does not include systematic reviews.

 

REF:   Evidence Sources and Levels of Evidence | 34-35

 

  1. Characteristics of experimental studies include:
a. testing cause and effect.
b. describing already existing conditions.
c. testing potentially harmful substances.
d. both b and c.
e. options a, b, and c.

 

 

ANS:  A

Characteristics of an experimental study include testing cause and effect. Describing already existing conditions and testing potentially harmful substances are characteristics of observational research.

 

REF:   Evidence Sources and Levels of Evidence | 34-35

 

  1. Characteristics of secondary research include the following except:
a. filtered, preappraised research.
b. meta-analyses.
c. systematic reviews.
d. case reports.
e. research on already conducted research.

 

 

ANS:  D

Secondary research includes filtered, preappraised research, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and research on already conducted research. Case reports are characteristic of primary research.

 

REF:   Evidence Sources and Levels of Evidence | 35

 

  1. Characteristics of nonexperimental research include:
a. making observations between exposures and diseases.
b. ability to conduct studies prospectively.
c. ability to conduct studies retrospectively.
d. both a and c.
e. options a, b, and c.

 

 

ANS:  E

Characteristics of nonexperimental research include making observations between exposures and diseases, the ability to conduct studies prospectively, and the ability to conduct studies retrospectively.

 

REF:   Figure 3-2: Hierarchy of Research Designs and Levels of Scientific Evidence | 35

 

  1. Which of the following are considered Level 1 evidence?
a. RCTs, systematic reviews, case reports
b. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, cohort studies
c. RCTs, systematic reviews, meta-analyses
d. RCTs, cohort studies, case control studies
e. Case series, case control studies, RCTs

 

 

ANS:  C

RCTs, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses are considered Level 1 evidence. The remaining choices are mixtures of the levels of evidence.

 

REF:   Figure 3-2: Hierarchy of Research Designs and Levels of Scientific Evidence | 35

 

  1. The AHA Guidelines on Prevention of Infective Endocarditis changed most recently because of:
a. more people dying from dental procedures.
b. quality of evidence.
c. dental professionals not following the guidelines.
d. client compliance.
e. a change in medications available.

 

 

ANS:  B

The AHA Guidelines on Prevention of Infective Endocarditis changed most recently because of the quality of evidence. The remaining statements were not stated reasons for the change.

 

REF:   Evidence Sources and Levels of Evidence | 36

 

  1. Which of the following organizations is solely dedicated to producing systematic reviews?
a. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry
b. American Academy of Periodontology
c. American Dental Association
d. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
e. Cochrane Collaboration

 

 

ANS:  E

The sole purpose of the Cochrane Collaboration is to produce systematic reviews. Systematic reviews are not the sole purpose of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, American Academy of Periodontology, American Dental Association, or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

 

REF:   Evidence Sources and Levels of Evidence | 36

 

  1. EBDM is now possible due primarily to which factor(s)?
a. Scientific databases
b. Computer access
c. Information explosion
d. Both a and b
e. Both a and c

 

 

ANS:  D

EBDM is now possible due primarily to scientific databases and computer access. The explosion of information is a reason why EBDM is needed, but not a factor in making it possible.

 

REF:   EBDM Process and Skills: A Practical Application | 37

 

  1. The first step in the EBDM process is:
a. finding the best evidence.
b. applying the results to client care.
c. asking a good clinical question.
d. evaluating the results.
e. critically appraising the evidence.

 

 

ANS:  C

The first step in the EBDM process is asking a good clinical question. Finding the best evidence is the second step; applying the results to client care is the fourth step; evaluating the results is the fifth step; critically appraising the evidence is the third step.

 

REF:   Step 1. Asking Good Questions: The PICO Process | 37

 

  1. The second step in the EBDM process is:
a. finding the best evidence.
b. applying the results to client care.
c. asking a good clinical question.
d. evaluating the results.
e. critically appraising the evidence.

 

 

ANS:  A

The second step in the EBDM process is finding the best evidence. Applying the results to client care is the fourth step; asking a good clinical question is the first step; evaluating the results is the fifth step; critically appraising the evidence is the third step.

 

REF:   Step 2. Conduct an Efficient Computerized Search | 37

 

  1. Select the PICO component that is either missing or incomplete from this question: For a client with attachment and bone loss due to periodontal disease, will antimicrobial therapy (minocycline HCI) with scaling and root planning, as compared to antimicrobial therapy alone, be more effective?
a. P (present and complete: client with attachment and bone loss due to periodontal disease)
b. I (present and complete: antimicrobial therapy [minocycline HCI] with scaling and root planning)
c. C (present and complete: antimicrobial therapy alone)
d. O (incomplete, more effective in doing what should be specified [e.g., more effective in stopping the progression of attachment loss])
e. No component is missing/incomplete

 

 

ANS:  D

The O component of the PICO is incomplete: More effective in doing what should be specified (e.g., more effective in stopping the progression of attachment loss). The remaining components of the PICO are complete.

 

REF:   Step 1. Asking Good Questions: The PICO Process | 37

 

  1. Which two PICO components provide the primary searching terms?
a. Problem and outcome (primary focus is on the intervention treatment and comparison treatment)
b. Intervention and comparison
c. Intervention and outcome (partially correct; intervention needs to be compared with the comparison treatment to determine which might be more effective and appropriate)
d. Comparison and outcome (partially correct; comparison needs to be compared with the intervention treatment to determine which might be more effective and appropriate)
e. None of the above

 

 

ANS:  B

Intervention and comparison are the two PICO components that provide the primary searching terms. The other choices are incorrect.

 

REF:   Step 2. Conduct an Efficient Computerized Search | 38

 

  1. Which of the following describes a clinical practice guideline?
a. Secondary evidence
b. Incorporates scientific evidence from SRs and MAs
c. A panel of experts makes specific recommendations
d. Intended to translate the research into practical applications
e. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  E

Secondary evidence, incorporates scientific evidence from SRs and MAs, a panel of experts makes specific recommendations, and intended to translate the research into practical applications all describe clinical practice guidelines.

 

REF:   Evidence Sources and Levels of Evidence | 36

 

  1. Which of the key critical analysis questions should be answered first so that your time is used most efficiently?
a. What are the results?
b. Are the results of the study valid?
c. Will the results help in caring for my client?
d. Why was the study conducted?
e. Was statistical significance found in analyzing the data?

 

 

ANS:  B

Whether or not the results of the study are valid should be determined first. If the study is not valid (i.e., if the methods and manner in which the study was conducted are not correct), then the results do not matter. There may be a good reason for conducting the study; however, if the methods and manner in which the study was conducted are not valid, then the purpose will not be met. If the study is not valid (i.e., if the methods and manner in which the study was conducted are not correct), then the data obtained may be biased and inappropriate to analyze. Also, statistical significance does not imply clinical relevance.

 

REF:   Step 3. Critically Appraise the Evidence for Its Validity and Usefulness (Clinical Applicability) | 40

 

  1. Critical analysis requires that you understand:
a. research design and level of evidence.
b. statistical and clinical significance.
c. formulating a PICO question.
d. both a and b.
e. both b and c.

 

 

ANS:  D

Critical analysis requires that you understand research design and level of evidence and statistical and clinical significance. The PICO question directs the search.

 

REF:   Step 3. Critically Appraise the Evidence for Its Validity and Usefulness (Clinical Applicability) | 40

 

  1. Which of the PubMed clinical queries options finds citations such as systematic reviews, meta-analyses, reviews of clinical trials, and consensus development conferences?
a. Clinical study categories: Therapy and Narrow scope
b. Clinical study categories: Therapy and Broad scope
c. Systemic reviews
d. Medical genetics searches
e. Both a and b

 

 

ANS:  C

Systematic reviews find citations such as systematic reviews, meta-analyses, reviews of clinical trials, and consensus development conferences.

 

REF:   Step 2. Conduct an Efficient Computerized Search | 38

 

  1. Benefits of using PubMed include:
a. the clinical queries feature.
b. using evidence-based filters to retrieve articles.
c. searching electronically across hundreds of journals at the same time.
d. finding relevant clinical evidence when its needed.
e. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:  E

The benefits of using PubMed include the clinical queries feature, using evidence-based filters to retrieve articles, searching electronically across hundreds of journals at the same time, and finding relevant clinical evidence when its needed.

 

REF:   Step 2. Conduct an Efficient Computerized Search | 37-38

 

MATCHING

 

Put the levels of evidence order of their ability to demonstrate causality and limit bias, with answer 1 as the highest level and 5 as the lowest level.

a. Case control study
b. Cohort study
c. Systematic review
d. Randomized controlled trial
e. Case report

 

 

  1. 1

 

  1. 2

 

  1. 3

 

  1. 4

 

  1. 5

 

  1. ANS:  C

REF:   Figure 3-2: Hierarchy of Research Designs and Levels of Scientific Evidence | 35

 

  1. ANS:  D

REF:   Figure 3-2: Hierarchy of Research Designs and Levels of Scientific Evidence | 35

 

  1. ANS:  B

REF:   Figure 3-2: Hierarchy of Research Designs and Levels of Scientific Evidence | 35

 

  1. ANS:  A

REF:   Figure 3-2: Hierarchy of Research Designs and Levels of Scientific Evidence | 35

 

  1. ANS:  E

REF:   Figure 3-2: Hierarchy of Research Designs and Levels of Scientific Evidence | 35

 

Match the PICO component with its definition.

a. P
b. I
c. C
d. O

 

 

  1. What you plan to do

 

  1. Main concern or chief complaint

 

  1. Measurable result

 

  1. Alternative

 

  1. ANS:  B                    REF:   Step 1. Asking Good Questions: The PICO Process | 37

 

  1. ANS:  A                    REF:   Step 1. Asking Good Questions: The PICO Process | 37

 

  1. ANS:  C                    REF:   Step 1. Asking Good Questions: The PICO Process | 37

 

  1. ANS:  D                    REF:   Step 1. Asking Good Questions: The PICO Process | 37Chapter 11: Ergonomics

    Darby & Walsh: Dental Hygiene: Theory and Practice, 4th Edition

     

    MULTIPLE CHOICE

     

    1. Sharp instruments are essential to the elimination of fatigue and stress on the clinicians hand, wrist, arm, and shoulders, which cause repetitive stress injuries (RSIs). Dull instruments that deviate from their original design cause the clinician to apply additional force, resulting in increased lateral pressure, excess stroke repetitions, and a tightened grasp.
    a. Both statements are true.
    b. Both statements are false.
    c. The first statement is true, and the second statement is false.
    d. The first statement is false, and the second statement is true.

     

     

    ANS:  A

    Sharp instruments minimize the amount of lateral pressure used by the clinician, the tightness of the grasp, and the number of working strokes needed. Dull instruments that deviate from their original design will ultimately promote unsound ergonomic motions by the clinician during treatment.

     

    REF:   Hand Instrument Cutting Edge Sharpness | 148

     

    1. One environmental factor to consider to reduce the occurrence of repetitive stress injuries is the temperature of the workplace; this is because a cold room temperature is related to less-relaxed, less-flexible muscles and tendons.

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