Test Bank For Earth Science 14th Edition By Tarbuck And Lutgens

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Test Bank For Earth Science 14th Edition By Tarbuck And Lutgens

Description

WITH ANSWERS
Earth Science 14th Edition By Tarbuck And Lutgens
Test Bank

 

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

Earth Science, 14e (Tarbuck/Lutgens)

Chapter 1   Introduction to Earth Science

 

1) What are the basic differences between the disciplines of physical and historical geology?

  1. A) Physical geology is the study of fossils and sequences of rock strata; historical geology is the study of how rocks and minerals were used in the past.
  2. B) Historical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and geologic events, utilizing the geologic time scale as a reference; physical geology includes the study of how rocks form and of how erosion shapes the land surface.
  3. C) Physical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and deposition in relation to plate movements in the geologic past; historical geology charts how and where the plates were moving in the past.
  4. D) none of the abovephysical geology and historical geology are essentially the same.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

2) The study of Earths atmosphere is known as ________.

  1. A) astronomy
  2. B) oceanography
  3. C) meteorology
  4. D) cosmology

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

3) Which science is not used within the Earth sciences?

  1. A) Chemistry
  2. B) Physics
  3. C) Biology
  4. D) Mathematics
  5. E) None of the above; Earth Science makes use of all of these sciences.

Answer:  E

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

 

4) Oceanography is the study of the oceans and geology is the study of the earth, so what is meteorology?

  1. A) the study of meteors
  2. B) the study of the Suns impact on the upper atmosphere
  3. C) the study of the atmosphere
  4. D) the study of how to be a TV newscaster

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

5) Sedimentary rocks with marine fossils are exposed at the top of Mt. Everest.  Which scientists would make most use of this observation in their study?

  1. A) Meteorologists, because they could use the fossils as a guide to ancient climates
  2. B) Geologists, because their elevation is related to physical geology and fossils are related to Earth history
  3. C) Oceanographers, because the fossils can tell us about periods when the earth was covered with water to the height of Mt. Everest
  4. D) Astronomers, because they can study how life came from outer space to Earth

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

6) Hurricanes and tornados are natural disasters.  What branch of the Earth sciences studies the origin of these phenomena?

  1. A) Meteorology
  2. B) Geology
  3. C) Oceanography
  4. D) Astronomy

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

7) Hurricanes are natural disasters.  Which branch of the Earth sciences studies the impact of this phenomenon on coastal environments?

  1. A) Meteorology
  2. B) Geology
  3. C) Oceanography
  4. D) Astronomy

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

8) Tsunamis and earthquakes have killed millions of people during human history.  What branch of the Earth sciences is the main group that studies these phenomena?

  1. A) Meteorology
  2. B) Geology
  3. C) Oceanography
  4. D) Astronomy

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

9) If you want to buy a house in an area and you are worried there may be an earthquake hazard, who would be the best person to ask for advice on this hazard?

  1. A) a civil engineer
  2. B) a geologist
  3. C) a physicist
  4. D) an astrologer

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

10) The earth is estimated to be approximately 4.6 billion years old.  Life appeared early in the history of Earth, but metazoans (multicelled organisms) did not appear until about 600 million years ago.  If the history of Earth were compressed into a single year, when would metazoans appear?

  1. A) late September
  2. B) late November
  3. C) mid-December
  4. D) late January

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

11) Which of the following would not typically be considered an Earth Science study?

  1. A) studies of volcanic eruptions
  2. B) studies of impact craters on the moon
  3. C) studies of acid mine waters and the bacteria that live in those waters
  4. D) chemical refining of petroleum

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension; Application/Analysis

 

 

12) Climate change is a well-known human problem and remains controversial despite widespread scientific agreement on the issue.  Although most scientists are familiar with the issues, if you were a congressman and wanted an informed analysis of the problem, which of the following would be most likely to give you the most complete analysis?

  1. A) an astronomer
  2. B) a meteorologist with knowledge of oceanography
  3. C) a geologist with knowledge of astronomy
  4. D) a physicist

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

13) A ________ is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.

  1. A) hypothesis
  2. B) generalization
  3. C) law
  4. D) theory

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

14) The primary goal of Earth Science is ________.

  1. A) to develop things that will benefit mankind
  2. B) to identify the patterns in nature and use that information to predict the future
  3. C) to locate resources
  4. D) to protect the environment

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

15) All of the following are possible steps of scientific investigation except for ________.

  1. A) the collection of scientific facts through observation and measurement
  2. B) assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation or observation
  3. C) the development of one or more working hypotheses or models to explain facts
  4. D) development of observations and experiments to test the hypotheses

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

 

16) Which of the following is not necessary for a hypothesis to be accepted by the scientific community?

  1. A) It must be testable.
  2. B) It must predict something other than the observations it was based on.
  3. C) There must be alternative hypotheses proposed.
  4. D) It must be based on observations or facts.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

17) The ________ explains how our solar system probably formed from a giant cloud of gases and dispersed solid particles.

  1. A) protogalactic theory
  2. B) nebular theory
  3. C) extrastellar solar hypothesis
  4. D) planetary compression theory

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

18) Which of the following is not a planet?

  1. A) Europa
  2. B) Venus
  3. C) Saturn
  4. D) Neptune

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

19) In the television series Cosmos the astronomer Carl Sagan used to say, We are all made of star stuff.  What did he mean by that?

  1. A) All of the chemical elements were formed during the big bang when the universe began, so we are like the stars.
  2. B) We all have to potential to be stars.
  3. C) All of the chemical elements in our solar system were forged in an ancient star that went supernova.
  4. D) The earth has incorporated large amounts of chemical material from the solar wind, so our bodies carry this material.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

 

20) In the proto-solar system nebula, gravity pulled matter together to form larger bodies. As they collided, what happened to these bodies?

  1. A) Oblique collisions caused individual bodies to spin.
  2. B) The objects broke apart to form asteroids, much like a neutron colliding with a heavy atom produces fission.
  3. C) The objects temporarily broke apart and then reformed into large objects, cooling rapidly during the breakup period.
  4. D) Immense heat was released within the colliding bodies as gravitational potential energy was converted to heat.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

21) Light elements like hydrogen and helium form a large percentage of the outer planets and Sun is made up primarily of hydrogen.  Why are these elements nearly absent from the inner planets?

  1. A) The Sun captured all of the hydrogen during its formation.
  2. B) These light elements are blown away from the inner planets by the solar wind.
  3. C) It is a mystery that has never been solved by science.
  4. D) Hydrogen and helium have all been bound up by chemical reactions on the inner planets and are held in rock.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

22) Comets are made up primarily of ________.

  1. A) iron-nickel alloys
  2. B) silicate minerals, like rocks on Earth
  3. C) frozen hydrogen
  4. D) frozen water, carbon dioxide, and methane

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

23) The Oort cloud is ________.

  1. A) an unusual type of cloud formed when meteorites strike the earth
  2. B) another name for the inner solar system, just before the Sun became hot enough for nuclear fusion
  3. C) the outer solar system where planetesimals, rocky debris and comets orbit outside beyond the outer planets but cross into the inner solar system at times
  4. D) the asteroid belt

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

24) The ________ refers to the sum total of all life on Earth.

  1. A) hydrosphere
  2. B) atmosphere
  3. C) biosphere
  4. D) geosphere

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earths Spheres

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

25) The ________ refers to the water-dominated parts of the earth.

  1. A) hydrosphere
  2. B) atmosphere
  3. C) biosphere
  4. D) geosphere

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earths Spheres

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

26) The largest of Earths spheres is the ________.

  1. A) hydrosphere
  2. B) atmosphere
  3. C) geosphere
  4. D) biosphere

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earths Spheres

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

27) Soil belongs to the ________.

  1. A) hydrosphere
  2. B) atmosphere
  3. C) geosphere
  4. D) biosphere
  5. E) All of the above

Answer:  E

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earths Spheres

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

28) The exchange of energy between the surface of the earth, the atmosphere, and space causes ________.

  1. A) topography
  2. B) temperature
  3. C) weather
  4. D) glaciers

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earths Spheres

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

29) In correct order from the center outward, Earth includes which units?

  1. A) core, inner mantle, outer mantle, crust
  2. B) inner core, outer core, mantle, crust
  3. C) inner core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere
  4. D) core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

30) The composition of the earths inner core is thought to be ________.

  1. A) basalt
  2. B) granite
  3. C) peridotite
  4. D) solid iron-nickel alloy

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

31) The asthenosphere is actually a part of the ________ of the earth.

  1. A) outer core
  2. B) crust
  3. C) inner core
  4. D) mantle

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

32) The ________ is thought to be a liquid, metallic region in the earths interior.

  1. A) inner core
  2. B) lithosphere
  3. C) mantle
  4. D) outer core

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

33) The ________ is the thinnest layer of the earth.

  1. A) crust
  2. B) outer core
  3. C) mantle
  4. D) inner core

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

34) The ________ forms the relatively cool, brittle tectonic plates.

  1. A) asthenosphere
  2. B) lithosphere
  3. C) astrosphere
  4. D) eosphere

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

35) Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earths lithospheric plates?

  1. A) gravitational attractive forces of the Sun and Moon
  2. B) electrical and magnetic fields localized in the inner core
  3. C) heat transfer between the earths interior and the surface of the earth
  4. D) swirling movements of the molten iron particles in the outer core

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

36) Convergent plate boundaries are ________.

  1. A) sites where cold, downgoing convective cells, the plates, descent into the mantle
  2. B) sites where heat from the earths interior is vented to the surface as volcanos
  3. C) areas where two plates slide laterally past one another, generating earthquakes, like the San Andrea fault
  4. D) sites of supervolcanos like Yellowstone

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

37) Oceanic crust is generated at ________.

  1. A) hot spots on the sea floor, like Iceland
  2. B) spreading ridges
  3. C) convergent plate margins
  4. D) transform plate margins

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

38) Continental shields and platforms represent ________.

  1. A) sites where continents collide, analogous to warriors clashing shields
  2. B) names given to Paleozoic mountain belts
  3. C) sedimentary basins with inland seas shaped like a shield, like Hudsons bay
  4. D) areas in the interior of continents that have not experienced mountain building for billions of years

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere; Fig. 1.21

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

39) Which of the following layers in the earth has the highest density?

  1. A) Lithosphere
  2. B) Asthenosphere
  3. C) Lower mantle
  4. D) Outer Core

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

40) The Andes Mountains in South America are formed by ________.

  1. A) subduction
  2. B) sea floor spreading
  3. C) back-arc contraction
  4. D) continental collision

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

41) The Himalayan Mountains and adjacent Tibet are a mountain system formed by ________.

  1. A) subduction
  2. B) sea floor spreading
  3. C) back-arc contraction
  4. D) continental collision

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

42) Which of the following is a reasonable approximation of the rate that plates move?

  1. A) the rate of growth of human hair or fingernails
  2. B) the speed a turtle walks
  3. C) the speed of a mountain glacier
  4. D) the speed of deep ocean currents

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

43) What two chemical elements are most abundant in the deep interior of the earth?

  1. A) iron and magnesium
  2. B) magnesium and oxygen
  3. C) hydrogen and helium
  4. D) silicon and oxygen

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

44) A major cause of the differences in elevation between ocean basins and continents is ________.

  1. A) viscosity
  2. B) temperature
  3. C) density
  4. D) mass

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

45) Ocean floor averages about ________ km depth below sea level.

  1. A) 2
  2. B) 4
  3. C) 6
  4. D) 8

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

46) Ocean crust is denser than continental crust because ocean crust is ________.

  1. A) composed primarily of basalt
  2. B) composed primarily of granite
  3. C) thicker than continental crust
  4. D) thinner than continental crust

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

47) Flat, stable areas of continental crust tend to be located ________.

  1. A) along coastlines
  2. B) near desert regions
  3. C) in the interior of continents
  4. D) in areas that receive large amounts of rainfall

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

48) Major mountain belts on the earth are ________.

  1. A) older than smaller mountain belts because they have had enough time to grow large
  2. B) located around the Pacific Ocean
  3. C) over 10 km high
  4. D) made of granite because it is low density and allows for maximum growth

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

49) Shield areas in continental interiors are characterized by ________.

  1. A) linear chains of mountains less than 100 million years old
  2. B) flat areas that include rocks older than 1 billion years old
  3. C) flat river valleys that cut through older mountain ranges
  4. D) ancient coastal regions that have become abandoned and eroded

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

50) Which of the following is not considered to be part of a typical ocean basin?

  1. A) a linear chain of volcanoes
  2. B) large expanses of flat plains
  3. C) granitic intrusions
  4. D) deep canyons

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

51) Deep ocean trenches typically are not located adjacent to ________.

  1. A) transform plate boundaries
  2. B) volcanic island arc chains
  3. C) young continental mountains
  4. D) abyssal plains

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

52) Long oceanic mountain chains typically are characterized by ________.

  1. A) highly deformed sedimentary rocks
  2. B) granitic plutons and batholiths
  3. C) layers of igneous rocks
  4. D) rocks older than 1 billion years old

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

53) Active mountain belts are most likely to be found ________.

  1. A) along the margins of continents
  2. B) in the interior regions of continents
  3. C) scattered throughout continents
  4. D) along only the eastern margins of continents

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

54) The continental shelf is located ________.

  1. A) between the continental slope and continental rise
  2. B) between the continental rise and the abyssal plains
  3. C) seaward of the continental slope
  4. D) landward of the continental slope

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

55) The most prominent features on the ocean floor are the ________.

  1. A) deep-ocean trenches
  2. B) oceanic ridges
  3. C) seamounts
  4. D) lava plateaus

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

56) A(n) ________ system is one in which energy moves freely in and out, but no matter enters or leaves the system.

  1. A) closed
  2. B) open
  3. C) feedback
  4. D) equilibrated

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

57) Mechanisms that enhance or drive change are known as ________.

  1. A) negative feedback mechanisms
  2. B) positive feedback mechanisms
  3. C) closed feedback mechanisms
  4. D) open feedback mechanisms

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

58) What is the source of the energy that powers the Earth system?

  1. A) the Sun
  2. B) heat from Earths interior
  3. C) both A and B
  4. D) none of the above

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

59) Which of the following is not a system?

  1. A) the biosphere
  2. B) soil, plants, rock, soil organisms, and animals
  3. C) the study of minerals
  4. D) the Pacific Ocean and the west coast of North America

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

60) A mineralogist studies minerals and their origins. A mineralogist studying the Earth system would ________.

  1. A) do the same thing, studying minerals and their origins, as any other mineralogist
  2. B) study how minerals form rocks
  3. C) study how minerals influence organisms living on them, how they react with water to produce soil forming minerals, or study how wind transports minerals as dust and influences climate
  4. D) Minerals can never be used to study the Earth system.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

 

61) hypothesis       theory           fact               observation

Answer:  fact

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

62) protosun       Oort cloud          planetesimals         meteorites

Answer:  Oort cloud

Diff: 2

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

63) hydrosphere       biosphere         atmosphere         solid earth

Answer:  biosphere

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earths Spheres

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

 

64) crust            mantle            lithosphere             core

Answer:  lithosphere

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

65) mountain belt         shield         continental interior         stable platform

Answer:  mountain belt

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

66) abyssal plain        seamount         oceanic ridge         continental crust

Answer:  continental crust

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

67) The vast majority of Earth scientists are involved in either extraction of mineral resources or energy.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

68) Earth Science is the only science that doesnt use mathematics beyond simple arithmetic.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

69) Environmental science always involves a large component of Earth Science.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

70) Science is based on the assumption that nature behaves in a consistent and predictable manner.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

71) Scientists only use measurements that are known to be reliable and accurate.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

72) A scientific theory is a tentative or untested explanation that is proposed to explain scientific observations.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

73) A scientific theory is the first step in developing an idea.  It is not very well tested.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

74) Not all scientific hypotheses require real world observations. Some are tested through computer modeling or some other non-direct observations.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

75) The Big Bang is an example of theory.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 and 1.3: Nature of Scientific Inquiry and Early Evolution of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

76) The formation of the solar system from a huge cloud of gases and dispersed particles is known as the solar galactic hypothesis.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

77) According to the nebular theory, all of the bodies in the universe evolved from a rotating cloud of gases and dust about five billion years ago.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.3 Early Evolution of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

78) There are places on the deepest parts of the ocean where no light penetrates that support colonies of life.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earths Spheres

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

79) Oceans cover slightly less than half of the earths surface.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earths Spheres

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

80) The lithosphere and asthenosphere are layers of Earth defined by their composition.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earths Spheres

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

81) We can tell a lot about the internal processes in the earth by looking at the exterior of the earth.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earths Spheres

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

82) The earth is sometimes called The Blue Planet because the atmosphere appears blue in sunlight.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earths Spheres

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

83) Internally, the earth consists of spherical shells with different compositions and densities.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

84) The asthenosphere is the liquid layer in the upper mantle that the plates move on.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

85) Lithospheric plates are the tops of convection cells and subduction zones are the downgoing part of the convection cell.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

86) The earths core is entirely molten iron and convection of this molten mass generates the earths magnetic field.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

87) Subduction zones are downgoing convection cells in the earth but only carry oceanic material into the mantle.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

88) During the history of the earth there have been periods when all the continents were together in a supercontinent.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

89) Internally, the earth consists of spherical shells with different compositions and densities.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

90) The asthenosphere is a relatively cool and rigid shell that overlies the lithosphere.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

91) Continents are, on average, about 2 km higher than sea level.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

92) The waterline where the ocean meets the land is the boundary between oceanic crust and continental crust.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

93) Shields and stable platforms are typically found in the interior regions of a continent.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

94) Humans are not a part of the Earth System.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

95) In an open system both energy and matter flow into and out of the system.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

96) List the two broad, traditional subject areas of geologic study.

Answer:  physical geology and historical geology

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.1 What Is Earth Science

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

97) When a hypothesis has survived extensive scrutiny and when competing ones have been eliminated, a hypothesis may be elevated to the status of a(n) ________.

Answer:  scientific theory

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

98) The thin, outer layer of Earth, from 7 to 40 km in thickness, is called the ________.

Answer:  crust

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.4 Earths Spheres

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

99) The ________ is the relatively rigid zone above the asthenosphere that includes the crust and upper mantle.

Answer:  lithosphere

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

100) The ________ is the solid, rocky shell between the crust and outer core.

Answer:  mantle

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

101) The convective flow of liquid, metallic iron in the ________ is thought to generate Earths magnetic field.

Answer:  outer core

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

102) Moving from the shoreline towards the deep-ocean basin, the continental margin includes the ________.

Answer:  continental shelf, continental slope, continental rise

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

103) The ________ is the most prominent feature on the ocean floor.

Answer:  oceanic or mid-ocean ridge

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.6 The Face of Earth

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

104) In natural systems, mechanisms that drive or enhance change are called ________.

Answer:  positive feedback mechanisms

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.7 Earth as a System

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 


Critical Thinking and Discussion.  Use complete sentences, correct spelling, and the information presented in Chapter 1 to answer the questions below.

 

105) Earths physical environment is traditionally divided in the hydrosphere, atmosphere, and the solid Earth.  Remembering the scientific method, why do you think that scientists tend to categorize and classify various features, phenomena, and characteristics of the natural world into groups or subdivisions?  Also, are there potential pitfalls or problems if we only consider the natural world as individual groups or categories rather than as a whole?

Answer:  Categorizing and classifying is a way of cataloging the differences and similarities between things.  We put items that are mostly similar into the same broad groups and separate items that are mostly different.  From this system, we can begin to study why things are similar and what is the significance of the differences and that helps us to get to the basic processes that are of scientific interest.  The pitfalls or problems are that we may not recognize similarities in objects that have been classified as different and vice versa.  Also, we are likely to miss the interactions between different groups and the processes that cause those interactions when we focus on classifying things.

Diff: 3

Topic:  1.4 Earths Spheres

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis; Synthesis/Evaluation

106) What is the relationship of the dense oceanic crust that is produced at a divergent plate boundary to the convergence or collision of an oceanic plate and a continental plate, such as the western margin of South America in the diagram below?

 

Answer:  The dense oceanic crust sinks underneath the more buoyant continental crust at this type of convergent plate boundary.

Diff: 1

Topic:  1.5 A Closer Look at the Geosphere

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Earth Science, 14e (Tarbuck/Lutgens)

Chapter 3   Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth

 

1) Why does magma rise toward the Earths surface?

  1. A) because it is hot
  2. B) because it is a liquid
  3. C) because it is less dense than the material around it
  4. D) because it is immiscible and cannot combine with the material around it

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1 Earth as a System: The Rock Cycle

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

2) What is required for an igneous rock to weather?

  1. A) It must move downslope under the influence of gravity.
  2. B) It must be exposed at the surface of the Earth.
  3. C) It must be uplifted from where it was emplaced.
  4. D) It must be deposited by water or ice.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1 Earth as a System: The Rock Cycle

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

3) What is the most common place for sediment to be deposited?

  1. A) rivers
  2. B) beaches
  3. C) mountains
  4. D) oceans

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1 Earth as a System: The Rock Cycle

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

4) What is the difference between magma and lava?

  1. A) Magma is formed deep in the Earth and lava forms near the surface of the Earth.
  2. B) It is just a name change, and lava is what magma is called if it reaches the surface of the Earth.
  3. C) Magma makes igneous rocks and lava forms volcanoes.
  4. D) Magma is less dense than lava.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: Formed by Fire

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

5) Which of the following places is well known for its intrusive igneous rocks that were exposed by erosion?

  1. A) Mount St. Helens Volcano
  2. B) Hawaii
  3. C) Yosemite National Park
  4. D) Yellowstone National Park

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: Formed by Fire

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

6) Why do crystals in a magma stop growing during cooling?

  1. A) They run out of space.
  2. B) They run out of heat.
  3. C) They become too dense to grow.
  4. D) The pressure from rocks above becomes too great and the magma stops growing crystals.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: Formed by Fire

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

7) If magma or lava cools quickly, the resulting igneous rock will have ________.

  1. A) more silicate minerals
  2. B) more variations in mineral types
  3. C) very small crystals
  4. D) very large crystals

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: Formed by Fire

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

8) Which of the following is not a dark silicate mineral?

  1. A) biotite
  2. B) amphibole
  3. C) quartz
  4. D) pyroxene

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: Formed by Fire

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

9) Igneous rocks with an andesitic composition ________.

  1. A) are denser than basaltic compositional rocks
  2. B) make up most of the sea floor
  3. C) are denser than granitic compositional rocks
  4. D) are found primarily in continental interiors

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: Formed by Fire

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

10) Which of the following is not true of peridotite?

  1. A) It is rarely found at the Earths surface.
  2. B) It is denser than basaltic rocks.
  3. C) It is composed almost entirely of olivine and pyroxene.
  4. D) It is the main constituent of the Earths crust.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: Formed by Fire

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

11) Rocks that contain high amounts of silica typically also contain ________.

  1. A) iron, magnesium, potassium
  2. B) aluminum, magnesium, and potassium
  3. C) aluminum, sodium, and potassium
  4. D) calcium, magnesium, and potassium

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: Formed by Fire

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

12) Intrusive igneous rocks are often characterized as coarse-grained because ________.

  1. A) the pressures at depth cause them to have a rough texture
  2. B) the slow cooling at depth allows large crystals to grow
  3. C) the uplift process that exposes the rock fractures them and makes them rough
  4. D) small holes from escaping gases leave them rough and course

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: Formed by Fire

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

13) A porphyritic texture where large crystals are embedded in a matrix of small crystal may form when ________.

  1. A) climate change causes crystals to cool at different rates
  2. B) crystals of different compositions cool at different rates
  3. C) crystals of different compositions grow to different sizes
  4. D) a magma that has partially crystallized slowly moves to a different location where it then cools rapidly.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: Formed by Fire

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

14) Obsidian exhibits a ________ texture.

  1. A) fine-grained
  2. B) glassy
  3. C) coarse-grained
  4. D) porphyritic

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: Formed by Fire

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

15) Which igneous texture is characterized by two distinctively different crystal sizes?

  1. A) fine-grained
  2. B) glassy
  3. C) coarse-grained
  4. D) porphyritic

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: Formed by Fire

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

16) Granite and gabbro ________.

  1. A) have a similar mineral composition
  2. B) have a similar texture
  3. C) are similar in both texture and mineral composition
  4. D) are not similar in either texture or mineral composition

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: Formed by Fire

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

 

17) Rhyolite is the fine-grained equivalent of this igneous rock.

  1. A) basalt
  2. B) andesite
  3. C) granite
  4. D) diorite

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: Formed by Fire

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

18) Which one of the following is an igneous rock?

  1. A) limestone
  2. B) rhyolite
  3. C) slate
  4. D) shale

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: Formed by Fire

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

19) Select from the list below the coarse-grained rock which is composed mainly of quartz and potassium feldspar.

  1. A) basalt
  2. B) andesite
  3. C) granite
  4. D) diorite

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: Formed by Fire

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

20) The texture of an igneous rock ________.

  1. A) is controlled by the composition of magma
  2. B) determines the color of the rock
  3. C) is caused by leaching
  4. D) records the rocks cooling history

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: Formed by Fire

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

21) Igneous rock is formed ________.

  1. A) by the weathering of preexisting rocks
  2. B) by changes in mineral composition
  3. C) at great depth within Earth
  4. D) by crystallization of magma

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: Formed by Fire

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

22) The first step in turning a rock into a sediment is ________.

  1. A) gravity and erosional agents (wind, water, etc.) remove material from the parent rock
  2. B) rock is broken into small pieces during the transportation phase
  3. C) weathering alters the rock
  4. D) compaction

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

23) Most sediment is formed by ________.

  1. A) settling out of a fluid
  2. B) the downhill movement of material during mass wasting
  3. C) the rapid distribution of material in a mountain stream
  4. D) rocks that erode from the bottoms of glaciers

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

24) Which of the following is an economically important sedimentary rock?

  1. A) marble
  2. B) coal
  3. C) pumice
  4. D) calcite

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

25) Which of the following pairs are likely products of weathering granite?

  1. A) sandstone and calcite
  2. B) feldspar and mica
  3. C) clay and quartz
  4. D) olivine and pyroxene

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

26) Which of the following is not a product of the chemical weathering of potassium feldspar?

  1. A) silica
  2. B) potassium ions
  3. C) iron oxide
  4. D) clay

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

27) Detrital sedimentary rocks are typically classified on the basis of their ________.

  1. A) lithology
  2. B) texture
  3. C) provenance
  4. D) particle size

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

28) Breccia, a rock with angular particles, is likely to have traveled ________.

  1. A) in a mountain stream
  2. B) only a short distance
  3. C) a long distance
  4. D) in a glacier

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

29) When sand lithifies, the resulting rock is commonly called ________.

  1. A) sandstone
  2. B) shale
  3. C) conglomerate
  4. D) breccia

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

30) The most common sedimentary rock is ________.

  1. A) sandstone
  2. B) shale
  3. C) conglomerate
  4. D) breccia

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

31) Silts and clays are commonly deposited in lakes, lagoons, swamps and marine environments because ________.

  1. A) those settings are more acidic
  2. B) those settings are more basic
  3. C) those settings have relatively still water
  4. D) those settings have highly varied activities and multiple inlets for water

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

32) Chemical sedimentary rocks form from materials ________.

  1. A) carried in solution
  2. B) too fine to see without a microscope
  3. C) that form weak bonds with oxygen
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

33) Limestone is formed primarily through ________.

  1. A) direct precipitation from seawater
  2. B) chemical interactions between ocean bottom sediments and ions in sea water
  3. C) biochemical sediments secreted by marine organisms
  4. D) evaporation of calcite rich seawater

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

34) Chalk forms from ________.

  1. A) the hard parts of microscopic organisms that accumulate on the sea floor
  2. B) magnesium rich fluids that chemically alter limestone bearing reefs
  3. C) direct precipitation from seawater
  4. D) evaporation of magnesium rich waters

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

35) Which one of the following is not related to chemical weathering?

  1. A) decomposition
  2. B) frost wedging
  3. C) hydrolysis
  4. D) oxidation

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

36) Chemical weathering would be most effective ________.

  1. A) in a warm, dry climate
  2. B) in a cold, dry climate
  3. C) in a warm, humid climate
  4. D) equally in any kind of climate

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

37) Travertine, a form of limestone commonly found in caves, forms ________.

  1. A) when water in a cave is heated
  2. B) when water in a cave is cooled
  3. C) when carbon dioxide in the water escapes into the air
  4. D) when carbon dioxide from the air contacts the moisture in the cave

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

38) Death Valley is a site where ________ sedimentary rocks are common.

  1. A) detrital
  2. B) evaporite
  3. C) biochemical
  4. D) clastic

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

39) An important condition for the formation of coal is ________.

  1. A) abundant plant and animal life in a region
  2. B) decomposition of organic matter with abundant oxygen
  3. C) incomplete decomposition of organic matter due to a lack of oxygen
  4. D) acid rich waters that reduce the organic matter to pure carbon

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

40) Sedimentary rocks comprise approximately ________ percent of Earths outermost 10 miles.

  1. A) 5
  2. B) 15
  3. C) 30
  4. D) 50

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

41) Which rock type is associated with a high-energy environment (such as a very turbulent stream)?

  1. A) conglomerate
  2. B) shale
  3. C) chert
  4. D) none of these

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

42) Detrital sediments would predominate in all of the following environments except ________.

  1. A) swamp
  2. B) salt flat
  3. C) river floodplain
  4. D) delta

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

43) Compaction would probably be most significant as a lithification process for ________.

  1. A) shale
  2. B) sandstone
  3. C) conglomerate
  4. D) breccia

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

44) The most abundant chemical sedimentary rock is ________.

  1. A) limestone
  2. B) dolomite
  3. C) chert
  4. D) rock salt

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

45) Which of the following best describes bedded gypsum and rock salt?

  1. A) detrital sedimentary rocks
  2. B) varieties of dolostone
  3. C) varieties of coal and peat
  4. D) evaporates; chemical, sedimentary rocks

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

46) Coal beds originate in ________.

  1. A) shallow lakes in a dry, desert region
  2. B) channels of fast-moving streams
  3. C) deep, marine basins below wave action
  4. D) freshwater coastal swamps and bogs

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

47) The common source of pressure during compaction of sediments is ________.

  1. A) the weight of the sediments deposited above the compacting sediments
  2. B) the pressure of the sediments pushing the compacting sediments out of the way during deposition
  3. C) the weight of the compacting sediments causing internal pressure
  4. D) the weight of water above the sediments after they are deposited

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

48) For a geologist, the most important characteristic of a sedimentary rock is its ________.

  1. A) texture
  2. B) composition
  3. C) layering
  4. D) lithology

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

49) Metamorphism occurs when a rock ________.

  1. A) experiences conditions that include high temperatures
  2. B) experiences conditions that include high pressures
  3. C) experiences conditions that are significantly different from those that formed the rock
  4. D) experiences conditions that are similar to those that formed the rock

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

50) The low grade metamorphism of shale produces ________.

  1. A) marble
  2. B) schist
  3. C) gneiss
  4. D) slate

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

51) Mountain building causes metamorphism because ________.

  1. A) mountains are heavy and they compress the rocks under them.
  2. B) mountains are heavy and they push shallow, cool rocks to depths where they get heated
  3. C) mountains form by the gradual buildup of material that comes from other areas and this can produce an uneven pressure on rocks
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

52) The most important agent(s) of metamorphism, according to your text, is (are) ________.

  1. A) chemically active fluids
  2. B) heat
  3. C) differential stress
  4. D) confining pressure

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

53) The major role of thermal energy (heat) in metamorphism is ________.

  1. A) reducing the strength of rocks so that stress can be an effective agent of change
  2. B) increasing the processes of dissolution and flow of different minerals
  3. C) driving chemical reactions that lead to recrystallization
  4. D) providing energy for the physical changes that occur during metamorphism

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

54) In an area where the temperature increase with depth averages 20C per kilometer, the temperature at a depth of 5 kilometers would be ________.

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    Once the order is placed, the order will be delivered to your email less than 24 hours, mostly within 4 hours. 

    If you have questions, you can contact us here