Test Bank For Elemental Geosystems 8Th Ed By Christopherson

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Test Bank For Elemental Geosystems 8Th Ed By Christopherson




Elemental Geosystems 8Th Ed By Christopherson  Test Bank







MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.


1) A physical geographer would likely NOT study 1)
  1. the effects of the removal of dams on the Elwha River in Washington.
    1. the impact of Hurricane Sandys landfall along the U.S. East Coast.
  2. the 9.0 magnitude earthquake in Japan in 2011.
  3. The diffusion of various religions from the so-called Middle East.


2) Geography is described as 2)
  A) a spatial science. B) an Earth science.
  C) a human science. D) a physical science.
3) The word spatial refers to 3)
  1. eras of time.
    1. things that are unique and special.
  2. items that relate specifically to society.
  3. the nature and character of physical space and the distribution of phenomena within it.


4) Which is NOT true of geographers? 4)
  1. They are Earth systems scientists.
    1. They use spatial analysis.
  2. They are concerned with spatial and temporal relationships.
  3. They are primarily concerned with place names.


5) Geography 5)
  1. does not use systems analysis.
    1. does not consider process in explaining systems.
  2. is not a science.
  3. is derived from geo and graphein; literally, to write Earth.


6) Geography literally means   6)
  A) map making. B) to write (about) Earth.  
  C) the study of rocks. D) place memorization.  
7) The main methodology governing geographic inquiry   7)
  A) involves spatial analysis. B) uses chronological organization.  
  C) is field work. D) is behavioral analysis.  
8) Which of the following best describes the field of physical geography? 8)
  1. Understanding soil development.
    1. The spatial analysis of all the physical elements, processes, and systems that make up the environment.


  1. The study of weather.
  2. Mapping of rock types.









9) Relative to the five fundamental themes of geography, communication and diffusion refer to 9)
  A) location.    
  B) place.    
  C) regions.    
  D) human-Earth relationships.    
  E) movement.    
10) Which of the following most accurately characterizes the goal of geography? 10)
  A) Memorization of the names of places on world and regional maps.  
  B) Memorization of the imports and exports of a country.  
  C) The production of maps.    
  D) Understanding distributions and movements across Earth.  
11) Which of the following terms characterizes the discipline of geography? 11)
  A) Unscientific B) Integrative  
  C) Eclectic D) Both eclectic and integrative  
12) Which of the following comprise the fundamental duality in the field of geography? 12)
  A) Political versus environmental B) Economic versus political  
  C) Physical versus human/cultural D) Physical versus economic  
13) Relative to the five fundamental themes of geography, resource management and sustainable 13)
  growth refer to    
  1. human-Earth relationships.


14) Relative to the five fundamental themes of geography, latitude and longitude refer to 14)
A) location.  
B) place.  
C) human-Earth relationships.  
D) movement.  
E) regions.  
15) Relative to the five fundamental themes of geography, areas that display uniform characteristics 15)
refer to  
A) location.  
B) place.  
C) human-Earth relationships.  
D) movement.  
E) regions.  
16) Relative to the five fundamental themes of geography, characteristics of a site refers to 16)
A) location.  
B) place.  
  1. C) human-Earth relationships.
  2. D) movement.
  3. E) regions.






17) Relative to the five fundamental themes of geography, the Cienega de Santa Clara, an ecotourism 17)
  destination on the Colorado River delta, is best described within which of the five themes?  
  A) location        
  B) place        
  C) human-Earth relationships      
  D) movement        
  E) regions        
18) Shale gas extraction using hydraulic fracturing falls within which of the five themes? 18)
  A) location        
  B) place        
  C) human-Earth relationships      
  D) movement        
  E) regions        
19) Which of the following is the most strongly supported by extensive hypothesis testing? 19)
  A) Educated guess B) Speculation C) Theory D) Dogma  
20) Which of the following is NOT true of scientific theories?   20)
  1. They are broad in scope because they unify known facts about the world.
    1. They are based on natural laws (such as those pertaining to gravity, relativity, atomic theory, etc.).


  1. They are based on hypothesis testing.
  2. They are absolute truths and can never be proven wrong.


21) The key idea behind the scientific method is 21)
  1. unbridled speculation about the world.
    1. the use of intuition in testing theories.
  2. the testing of ideas through controlled observations and experiments.
  3. an appeal to supernatural explanations when natural explanations have not yet been found for a phenomenon.


22) The scientific method is described by which of the following? 22)
  1. A single, definitive method for doing science.
    1. Irreproducible results accepted as theory.
  2. The development of hypotheses for testing and prediction.
  3. The acceptance of supernatural explanations for phenomenon until science proves otherwise.


23) ________ is mass that assumes a physical shape and occupies space.   23)
  A) Entropy B) A system C) Energy D) Matter  
24) The capacity to change the motion of, or to do work on, matter is the definition of 24)










25) Which of the following is an example of a closed system?   25)
  A) An automobile   B) A river drainage basin    
  C) A forest   D) Earth (in terms of matter)  
26) In terms of matter and resources, Earth is essentially a(n) ________ system; In terms of energy, 26)
  Earth is a(n) ________ system.      
  A) closed; open B) open; closed C) closed; closed D) open; open  
27) Which of the following is INCORRECT?     27)
  1. Earth represents an open system in terms of energy.
    1. Earth represents a vast integrated system.
  2. New resources and matter are being added to Earths systems all the time.
  3. Earth represents a closed system in terms of matter.


28) Systems encountered in nature at Earths surface, such as a forest, are 28)
  1. open systems in terms of matter.
    1. closed systems in terms of energy.
  2. open systems in terms of energy.
  3. both open systems in terms of energy and open systems in terms of matter.
    1. both closed systems in terms of energy and open systems in terms of matter.


29) With respect to air, water, and material resources, which of the following is TRUE? 29)
  1. A forest is an open system.
    1. A forest is a closed system.
  2. A forest is an open system in terms of air, but closed in terms of material resources.
  3. A forest is an open system in terms of water, but closed in terms of energy resources.


30) What type of feedback maintains stability in a system; i.e., what type of feedback keeps a system 30)
  functioning properly?      
  A) Positive B) Neutral C) Negative  
31) If feedback information encourages a change in a system, what type of feedback has occurred? 31)
  1. Neutral
    1. Positive
  2. Negative
  3. Not enough information is given to indicate what type of feedback has occurred.


32) Which of the following is CORRECTLY matched? 32)
  1. Steady state equilibrium small fluctuations about an average condition
    1. Tipping point same as steady state equilibrium
  2. Threshold balance of inputs and outputs
  3. Dynamic equilibrium large fluctuations that changes abruptly over time


33) Which of the following best describes the condition of steady-state equilibrium? 33)
  1. System inputs always exactly balance outputs so the system never changes.
    1. System inputs produce large, random fluctuations in output, forcing the system into a new state of equilibrium.


  1. System inputs and outputs fluctuate around a stable average so the system does not move far from its average condition.


  1. Systems slowly adjust to long-term changes in input and output.






34) As arctic temperatures rise, summer sea ice and glacial melt accelerates; lighter color surfaces are 34)
  thereby replaced with darker-colored surfaces leading to more absorption and surface heating.  
  This is an example of a(n) ________ feedback.      
  A) dynamic B) positive C) negative D) reverse  
35) If increased levels of carbon dioxide lead to further increases in temperature by promoting the 35)
  release of even more carbon dioxide from the oceans, this means that ________ feedback has  
  occurred and that the planet is ________.      
  A) positive; out of equilibrium B) negative; out of equilibrium  
  C) negative; in equilibrium D) positive; in equilibrium  
36) The carbon dioxide absorbed by plants is an example of an ________ to a forest and an ________ 36)
  from the atmosphere.        
  A) input; input B) output; input C) output; output D) input; output  
37) A large flood in a river may cause abrupt shifts leading to the carving of a new channel. The point 37)
  at which this change occurs is a(n) ________.      
  A) input   B) type of dynamic equilibrium condition  
  C) type of metastable equilibrium D) threshold    
38) If global temperatures increased and caused more water vapor to enter the air and more snow to 38)
  fall in cooler latitudes, then the initial increase in snowfall would be a ________ feedback, whereas  
  a sustained increase in the temperatures could lead to the loss of snow cover even at those  
  latitudes and cause a ________ feedback.      
  A) positive; positive   B) negative; negative    
  C) positive; negative   D) negative; positive    
39) Which of the following is TRUE of models?     39)
  1. They are simplified, idealized representations of the real world.
    1. They are never used in physical geography because of their inherent limitations.
  2. They perfectly replicate the real world, but at a different scale.
  3. They complicate our understanding of Earth system science.


40) According to the text, the three inorganic Earth realms are the 40)
  1. A) stratosphere, magnetosphere, and troposphere.
  2. B) hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere.
  3. C) atmosphere, geoid, and homosphere.
  4. D) thermosphere, lithosphere, heterosphere.


41) Which of the following statements regarding the development of models by scientists is NOT true?     41)

  1. Adjusting the variables in a model simulates different conditions and allows predictions of possible system operations.


  1. Most scientists believe that any system can eventually be modeled with 100 percent accuracy. Thus, models can be perfect representations of reality.


  1. A model is a simplification designed to help us understand complex processes.
  2. A model is only as good as the assumptions and accuracy of information upon which it is based.










42) Living systems are considered 42)
  A) inorganic. B) abiotic.
  C) part of the lithosphere. D) biotic.
43) Which of the following is TRUE of the biosphere? 43)
  1. It is not connected to the overlapping inorganic spheres.
    1. It extends from the floor of the oceans to 8 km (5 mi.) into the atmosphere.
  2. It is never referred to as the ecosphere.
  3. It is static, never to rarely changing.


44) Which of the following is TRUE of the biosphere? 44)
  1. Life processes generally are shaped to the abiotic spheres.
    1. It is more a hypothetical concept than an actual sphere in physical geography terms.
  2. It only occurs in the hydrosphere.
  3. It is the least important of the four spheres.


45) The realization that Earth was a sphere 45)
  1. had to wait until the modern era (1800s).
    1. did not occur in Europe until the first voyages of Columbus.
  2. was first made by Pythagoras, 580-500 B.C.
  3. was made by Isaac Newton.


46) Which of the following statements about Earth is CORRECT? 46)
  1. Earth is perfectly spherical.
    1. It is elongated.
  2. The equatorial diameter is 42 km (26 mi.) greater than the polar diameter.
  3. Earth is the second largest planet in the solar system.


47) The oblateness of Earth occurs at the   47)
  A) subtropics. B) equator.  
  C) prime meridian. D) poles.  
48) The diameter of Earth is largest when measured around the 48)
  A) subtropics. B) prime meridian.  
  C) equator. D) poles.  
49) Isaac Newton reasoned that Earth was NOT perfectly spherical because of 49)
  1. gravitational force created by Earths more rapid rotation at the equator.
    1. gravitational force created by Earths more rapid rotation at the poles.
  2. centrifugal force created by Earths more rapid rotation at the equator.
  3. centrifugal force created by Earths more rapid rotation at the poles.


50) The science that specifically attempts to determine Earths shape and size by surveys and 50)

mathematical means is called

  1. A) geodesy.
  2. B) astronomy.
  3. C) geology.
  4. D) cartography.
  5. E) geography.







51) Who made a significant, early contribution to cartography by adding a grid and orienting the map 51) with north at the top? He also divided the circumference of Earth into 360 , with each degree comprising 60 minutes, and each minute comprising 60 seconds.


  1. Magellan in the sixteenth century A.D.
    1. Pythagoras in the sixth century B.C.
  2. Sir Isaac Newton in the seventeenth century A.D.
  3. Ptolemy in the second century A.D.


52) A parallel of latitude 52)
  1. is a line which passes through both poles.
    1. measures longitude.
  2. is used to measure distances east and west of the equator.
  3. is used to measure distances north or south of the equator.
    1. is called a meridian.


53) An angular distance measured north or south of the equator is termed 53)
  A) latitude. B) Greenwich distance.  
  C) zenith. D) longitude.  
54) An angular distance measured east or west of a prime meridian is termed 54)
  A) longitude. B) latitude.  
  C) Greenwich distance. D) zenith.  
55) How far north you live from the equator is measured as your ________, whereas an imaginary line 55)
  marking all those places at that same distance north of the equator is called a ________.  
  1. meridian; longitude
    1. parallel; latitude
  2. latitude; parallel
  3. longitude; meridian
    1. location; place


56) Which of the following is TRUE regarding the 0 prime meridian? 56)
  1. International agreement regarding the location of the prime meridian was not resolved until the 1980s when a treaty was completed.


  1. Earths prime meridian passes through the old Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England, as set by an 1884 treaty.


  1. The key to measuring angular distances east and west of the prime meridian was the development of accurate compasses.


  1. The prime meridian passes through Paris, France.


57) The basis for defining the length of a day is the fact that 57)
  1. Earth rotates east to west.
    1. Earth does not rotate; rather, it revolves.
  2. Earth rotates on its axis in 24 hours; i.e., it rotates 15 of longitude per hour.
  3. Earth moves through 365.25 days a year in its orbit about the Sun.













58) As Figure 1.15 shows, the International Dateline follows generally the 58)




























  1. A) principal meridian. B) prime (0) meridian.
  2. C) 180 meridian. D) daylight savings line.


59) Latitude is                                                                                                                                                                               59)

  1. the angular distance measured east or west of a prime meridian.
    1. the angular distance measured north or south of the equator.
  2. the basis for establishing meridians.
  3. portrayed on a globe as lines that cross the equator at right angles.


60) Longitude is 60)
  1. the basis for establishing parallels.
    1. an angular distance measured east or west of a prime meridian.
  2. determined by Sun altitude above the horizon.
  3. an angular distance measured north or south of the equator.


61) If you were standing at 20 north latitude you would be within which latitudinal geographic zone?     61)

  1. Subarctic
    1. Equatorial
  2. Midlatitude
  3. Tropical
    1. Subtropical


62) If you were standing at 60 north latitude you would be within which latitudinal geographic zone?     62)

  1. Antarctic
    1. Subarctic
  2. Midlatitude
  3. Subtropical
    1. Subantarctic






63) A line connecting all points along the same longitudinal angle is called a 63)
  A) prime latitudinal angle. B) meridian.  
  C) parallel. D) great circle.  
64) Which of the following is NOT true of meridians?   64)
  1. They are used to measure east-west angular distances along parallels.
    1. They are lines that run in an east-west direction.
  2. All meridians are the same length.
  3. They cross parallels at right angles.


65) Which of the following is TRUE of the prime meridian? 65)
  1. It is used to determine latitude using lines that run east and west.
    1. It is that place on Earth where the days officially change.
  2. It was not established until 1884 and is centered on an observatory near London.
  3. It was first used in the 1500s at the time of initial circumnavigation voyages.


66) Which of the following is TRUE of the 1884 international treaty establishing the prime meridian 66)
  1. No consensus was met at the 1884 treaty, putting off the decision until a 1907 treaty was passed.


  1. The United States designated the Washington meridian for land maps and marine maps.
  1. The Greenwich meridian was established as the prime meridian by the treaty.
  2. Each country selected its own prime meridian for their marine maps.


67) A great circle is 67)
  1. a correct magnetic compass direction on a flat map.
    1. any parallel of latitude.
  2. a circle of circumference whose center coincides with the center of Earth.
  3. the longest distance between two places on the surface of Earth.


68) Earths equator is an example of 68)
  A) a prime meridian. B) a small circle.
  C) a great circle. D) a line of equal longitude.
69) The letters A.M. stand for 69)
  1. ante meridiem.
    1. after meridian.
  2. after morning.
  3. after midnight.
    1. ante majolica.


70) The letters P.M. stand for                                                                                                                                                   70)

  1. A) previous morning. B) possible meridian.
  2. C) post meridiem. D) prior majolica.














71) Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is 71)
  1. established 24 standard meridians around the globe at equal intervals from the prime meridian.


  1. replaced Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) and became the legal reference for official time in all countries.


  1. the same as Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
  2. two-hours ahead of Zulu time, indicating the single moment when all locations on the planet are on the same calendar day.


72) UTC refers to 72)
  A) Universal Time Conference. B) Universal Time Circles.
  C) Coordinated Universal Time. D) the International Date Line.
73) UTC is based on 73)
  1. average time calculations from atomic clocks collected worldwide
    1. very precise pendulum motion in Greenwich, U.K.
  2. the pulse rate of pulsar stars.
  3. Big Ben


74) If City A is located 35 west of City B, the time at City A is ________ that at City B. 74)
  A) earlier than B) earlier during daylights saving only than  
  C) the same as D) later than  
75) The difference in Sun time between two places located 30 in longitude apart from one another is 75)
  1. 30 seconds.
    1. 30 minutes.
  2. one hour.
  3. two hours.
    1. three hours.


76) If a clock on a ship indicates that it is 2:00 P.M. in its home port, while another clock on the ship 76)
indicates that it is 12:00 noon at the ships present location, what is the difference in longitude  
between the ships position and its home port?  
A) The ship is 30 west of its home port.  
B) The ship is 2 west of its home port.  
C) The ship is 45 west of its home port.  
D) The ship is 30 east of its home port.  
E) The ship is 2 east of its home port.  
77) If you began a trip at 60 west, 20 north and traveled 120 farther west and 50 south, your new 77)
position would be  
  1. A) 30 north, 120 west.
  2. B) the International Dateline at 30 south latitude.
  3. C) the International Dateline at 70 north latitude.
  4. D) the Greenwich meridian at 70 north latitude.
  5. E) the Greenwich meridian at 30 south latitude.












78) If it is 10:00 PM on July 3rd at 30 west, what date and time is it at 15 east? 78)
A) July 3rd; 9 P.M.  
B) July 3rd; 11 P.M.  
C) July 3rd; 6 P.M.  
D) July 4th; 2 A.M.  
E) July 4th; 1 A.M.  


79) Travelers flying west from Los Angeles (118 W) to Tokyo (139 E) will cross the ________ and, as a 79) result, they will ________ when crossing this meridian.


  1. International Dateline; lose a day (Example: Saturday becomes Sunday.)
    1. International Dateline; gain a day (Example: Sunday becomes Saturday.)
  2. prime meridian; lose a day (Example: Saturday becomes Sunday.)
  3. prime meridian; gain a day (Example: Sunday becomes Saturday.)


80) Standard time zones 80)
  1. are only used in the developed countries.
    1. have yet to be generally established.
  2. are spaced at 5 intervals of longitude in North America.
  3. are 15 wide because Earth rotates through that distance in one hour.


81) If it is 10:00 A.M. in Miami, Florida (Eastern time zone), what time is it in Los Angeles, California, 81)
  located 3 time zones to the west in the Pacific Time zone?    
  A) 1 P.M. B) 2 P.M. C) 8 A.M. D) 7 A.M.  
82) The practice of setting time ahead or behind during the year, out of coordination with the Sun, is 82)
  A) Coordinated Universal Time. B) Greenwich Mean Time.  
  C) Standard time.   D) Daylight Saving Time.    
83) The part of geography that embodies map making is known as   83)
  A) geodesy. B) theodesy. C) cartography. D) calligraphy.  
84) A scale of 1 inch = 8 miles is an example of a     84)
  A) written scale.   B) relative scale.    
  C) graphic scale.   D) representative fraction.  
85) A scale of 1:24,000 is regarded as     85)
  1. a small scale compared to a scale of 1:20,900,000.
    1. a large scale.
  2. a scale appropriate for a world globe.
  3. an intermediate scale.


86) A scale of 1:900,000 is ________a scale of 1:24,000.   86)
  A) twice as much as B) equal to  
  C) larger than D) smaller than  
87) If you wanted a map with a lot of detail of a small area you would want a 87)
  A) an intermediate scale. B) a small scale map.  
  C) a world globe. D) a large scale map.  







88) A map scale of 1:63,360 is equivalent to 88)
  1. one inch on the map equals 2,000 feet on the ground.
    1. one inch on the map equals 24,000 inches on the ground.
  2. one inch on a map equals 5 miles on the ground.
  3. one inch on a map equals 1 mile on the ground.


89) A scale given as one centimeter to one kilometer is an example of a   89)
  A) representative fraction.   B) graphic scale.    
  C) relative scale.   D) written scale.    
90) Which type of map scale would be appropriate to use if the map were to be enlarged by 90)
  A) Relative   B) Written    
  C) Representative fraction D) Graphic    
91) The larger the scale of a map, the ________ the area covered by the map and the ________ detail it 91)
  A) larger; more B) larger; less C) smaller; less D) smaller; more  
92) The larger the denominator in a representative fraction, the ________ the scale of the map. 92)
  A) smaller   B) larger    
93) The amount of detail on large scale maps is generally ________ than on than on small scale maps. 93)
  1. less
    1. greater
  2. It is impossible to compare the relative detail of the same features on maps of different scales.


94) The transformation of a spherical global to a 2D surface is a   94)
  A) globe. B) diagram. C) map projection. D) cone.  
95) Which of the following describes the property of equal area on a map?   95)
  A) Equivalence B) Conformality C) Equidistance D) Proximity  
96) Which map project preserves the property of true shape?   96)
  A) Equivalent B) Equidistant C) Conformal D) Proximal  
97) Which of the following possesses all of Earths properties of area, shape, direction, proximity, and 97)
  distance, CORRECTLY?        
  A) A world globe   B) Albers equal-area conic projection  
  C) Robinson projection   D) Mercator projection    
98) Where does the greatest distortion in a Mercator projection occur?   98)
  1. In the middle latitudes
    1. The equator
  2. Towards the poles
  3. There is no distortion in a Mercator projection.


99) A line of tangency (also called a standard line) is a line                                                                                          99)

  1. A) divides Earth into two equal halves. B) along which no distortion occurs.
  2. C) along which shearing occurs. D) that always corresponds to a great circle.





100) On which one of the following projections do great circle routes appear as straight lines? 100)
  A) A gnomonic projection B) Goodes homolosine projection  
  C) Any conic projection D) Mercator projection  
101) On the Mercator projection, areas at high latitudes appear 101)
  1. larger than areas of the same size nearer to the equator.
    1. the same size as areas of the same size nearer to the equator.
  2. smaller than areas of the same size nearer to the equator.


102) Which map projection is best at eliminating distortion? 102)
  A) Albers equal-area projection. B) Robinson projection.  
  C) Mercator projection. D) All map projections distort.  
103) GPS units are   103)
  1. a metric version of longitude and latitude.
    1. accurately allow determination of longitude and latitude.
  2. not available to the public; they are only available to the military.
  3. 601 th of a Greenwich Precision Second.


104) Which of the following is TRUE about Global Positioning System (GPS)? 104)
  1. GPS is the same as remote sensing.
    1. GPS helped accurately determined the height of Mt. Everest.
  2. GPS has no scientific uses, but are great for recreational purposes.
  3. GPS is used solely by the military, who share information with physical geographers.


105) Remote sensing is 105)
  1. based on the principle that surfaces must be physically handled and directly measured for study.


  1. a subjective determination of temperature.
  1. an earthbound technique not used in modern satellites.
  2. the monitoring of a distant object without physical contact.


106) Which of the following satellite remote sensing platforms was launched in 2013? 106)
  A) Topex Poseidon   B) Landsat 8    
  C) Radarsat-1   D) Goes-12    
107) A satellite imaging system that beams electromagnetic energy at a surface and then records the 107)
  energy that is reflected is classified as a(n) ________ system.    
  A) photographic B) active C) passive D) holographic  
108) Which of the following is an example of an active remote sensing device?   108)
  A) Film B) LiDAR C) Infrared sensor D) Video camera  
109) Which of the following is FALSE?     109)
  1. Satellite weather images are an example of remote sensing.
    1. GIS represents an important planning tool.
  2. GIS stands for geographic information system.
  3. A GIS model does not require the use of a map.







110) Which of the following best describes Geographic Information Systems? 110)
  1. A constellation of satellites for accurately determining location anywhere near Earths surface.


  1. Computer-based tool for management and analysis of geographic information.
  1. Acquiring information about objects without having physical contact with them.
  2. Deriving accurate measurements from photographs.


111) The adjusting of geospatial datasets in real time to make changes to maps and other visual models 111)
  is called    
  A) geovisualization. B) geographic synchronization.  
  C) global positioning. D) remote sensing.  
112) Which of the following best describes geographic information science (GISci)? 112)
  1. Deriving accurate measurements from photographs.
    1. Techniques for adjusting geospatial datasets in real time.
  2. Computer-based tool for management and analysis of geographic information.
  3. Field that develops the capabilities of GIS for use within geography and other disciplines.


TRUE/FALSE. Write T if the statement is true and F if the statement is false.


113) Geography is a discipline primarily concerned with place names. 113)
114) The essential approach in geographic studies is spatial analysis. 114)
115) The geographic theme of place refers to absolute and relative position on Earth. 115)
116) Areas that display a degree of uniformity are called regions. 116)
117) Migration and diffusion across Earths surface is described under the principal geographic theme 117)
  of movement.  
118) Conditions that change in an experiment or model are called variables. 118)
119) Photosynthesis in a plant leaf is an example of an open -system operation. 119)
120) Positive feedback tends to amplify or encourage response in system operations. 120)
121) Negative feedback tends to stabilize a system. 121)
122) The balance of nature that characterizes well-functioning ecosystems occurs because of 122)
  predominantly positive feedback mechanisms.  
123) A model is essentially a simplification of natural systems. 123)
124) Pure science frequently involves the making of value judgments about the moral or political 124)
  correctness of a fact, idea, or theory.  
125) Scientific theories are capable of generating predictions. 125)







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126) Because scientific ideas are tested, they can be corrected when they are wrong. 126)
127) Longitude measures distances east or west of a prime meridian on Earths surface. 127)
128) Latitude is the angular distance measured north or south of the equator from the center of Earth 128)
  and it describes a parallel line on the surface.  
129) Longitude is the name of an angle, and meridian is the name of an imaginary line that connects 129)
  all points along the same longitude.  
130) The Greek astronomer, geography, and mathematician Ptolemy, despite his early works in 130)
  mapping, has had little lasting impact on cartography.