Test Bank For Essentials of Dental Radiography 9th Edition By Evelyn Thomson,Orlen Johnson

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Test Bank For Essentials of Dental Radiography 9th Edition By Evelyn Thomson,Orlen Johnson

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WITH ANSWERS

 

Essentials of Dental Radiography 9th Edition By Evelyn Thomson,Orlen Johnson  Test Bank

 

 

Test Bank

Chapter 1

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Who was awarded the first Nobel Prize for physics in 1901, for his experimental work with radiation?
  2. W. J. Morton
  3. O. Walkhoff
  4. W. D. Coolidge
  5. W. C. Roentgen
  6. Who is credited with introducing the bitewing radiograph?
  7. F. W. McCormack
  8. H. R. Raper
  9. G. M. Fitzgerald
  10. C. E. Kells
  11. Who developed the hot cathode ray tube?
  12. W. D. Coolidge
  13. W. A. Price
  14. H. R. Raper
  15. W. H. Rollins
  16. The development of radiation protection as a science is credited to:
  17.   A. Cieszyski.
  18.   W. D. Coolidge.
  19. W. H. Rollins.
  20.    F. Mouyen.
  21. What New Orleans dentist first made practical use of x-rays in the treatment of dental patients?
  22. H. R. Raper
  23. G. M. Fitzgerald
  24. F. Mouyen
  25. C. E. Kells
  26. Early researchers working in the field of radiography were not aware that continued exposure to x-rays produced accumulations of radiation effects in the body because x-rays are invisible.
  27. Both the statement and reason are correct and related.
  28. Both the statement and reason are correct but NOT related.
  29. The statement is correct, but the reason is NOT.
  30. The statement is NOT correct, but the reason is correct.
  31. NEITHER the statement NOR the reason is correct.
  32. 7. The most significant advancement in the early days of radiography came in 1913 when W. D. Coolidge:
  33. became the first to alert the profession of the dangers of radiation exposure and advocated for the science of radiation protection.
  34. exposed a prototype of a dental radiograph, setting the stage for preventive oral health care.
  35. developed a variable, high kilovoltage x-ray machine compatible with the paralleling technique.
  36. introduced an x-ray tube that allowed for an x-ray output that could be predetermined and accurately controlled.
  37. The first dental radiograph was produced using an exposure time of:
  38.   0.5 second.
  39. 1 minute.
  40.   5 minutes.
  41.   25 minutes.
  42.    1 hour.
  43. What component of the dental x-ray machine best limits the size of the x-ray beam to the approximate size of the image receptor?
  44. A pointed cone
  45. An open round cylinder
  46. A rectangular PID
  47.    A slit collimator
  48. Panoramic radiology became popular in the:
  49. 1930s.
  50. 1940s.
  51. 1950s.
  52. 1960s.
  53.    1970s.
  54. Which of the following is NOT true regarding cone beam volumetric imaging?
  55. It images a single selected plane of tissues.
  56. It is based on computed tomography.
  57. It uses less radiation than a panoramic radiograph.
  58. It is designed specifically for imaging dental applications.
  59. It is purported to become the gold standard for imaging certain oral conditions.
  60. Early dental film required long exposure times because:
  61. it was hand-wrapped.
  62. the emulsion was only on one side.
  63. glass plates were used as the base.
  64. the packets were not moisture resistant.
  65. Each of the following is an advantage of digital imaging EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  66. It reduces radiation over film-based radiography.
  67. It eliminates the need for the darkroom and processing chemistry.
  68. It allows the use of pointed cones without radiation hazards.
  69. It avoids the need for disposal of hazardous materials such as lead foils from film packets.
  70. It produces enhanced two- and three-dimensional images.
  71. The bisecting technique was the first and earliest radiographic technique for exposing intraoral radiographs because the bisecting technique is based on the rule of isometry.
  72. Both the statement and reason are correct and related.
  73. Both the statement and reason are correct but NOT related.
  74. The statement is correct, but the reason is NOT.
  75. The statement is NOT correct, but the reason is correct.
  76. NEITHER the statement NOR the reason is correct.
  77. The parpaparalleling technique is taught in all dental assisting, dental hygiene, and dental schools because it is the technique of choice for imaging intraoral radiographs.
  78. Both the statement and reason are correct and related.
  79. Both the statement and reason are correct but NOT related.
  80. The statement is correct, but the reason is NOT.
  81. The statement is NOT correct, but the reason is correct.
  82. NEITHER the statement NOR the reason is correct.
  83. The rule of isometry is the basis for what dental radiographic technique?
  84.   Bisecting
  85.   Paralleling
  86. Panoramic
  87. Digital
  88. Computed tomography
  89. Each of the following is a potential use of dental radiographs EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  90. Diagnosing dental caries
  91.   Evaluating development of dentition
  92.   Detecting missing teeth
  93. Assessing patient self-care
  94. Evaluating trauma to teeth and supporting bone

 

 

 

  1. Producing radiographs of the teeth and/or the oral cavity is called:
  2. Radiation producing.
  3.   Radiology.
  4.   Roentgenograph.
  5. X-raying.
  6.    Radiography.
  7. Dental assistants and dental hygienists meet an important need by providing each of the following EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXEPTION?
  8. Exposing radiographs
  9. Processing radiographs
  10. Mounting radiographs
  11. Prescribing radiographs
  12. Interpreting radiographs
  13. The positioning indicating device (PID) is sometimes called a cone because the PID of early dental x-ray machines was of a pointed shape.
  14. Both the statement and reason are correct and related.
  15. Both the statement and reason are correct but NOT related.
  16. The statement is correct, but the reason is NOT.
  17. The statement is NOT correct, but the reason is correct.
  18. NEITHER the statement NOR the reason is correct.

 

True/False

 

  1. William Herbert Rollins was awarded the first Nobel Prize for physics.
  2. C. Edmund Kells encouraged the practical use of radiographs in dentistry.
  3. The radiographer should help the patient hold the image receptor in place during exposure.
  4. In the early 1900s dental patients would have to be sent to hospitals or a physicians office to have a dental radiograph exposed.
  5. Early dental x-ray machines were an electrical hazard.
  6. Pointed cones should be used to direct radiation from the x-ray tube to the patient.
  7. Dental x-ray film available today is coated with emulsion on both sides.
  8. The bisecting technique is the technique of choice for intraoral radiography.
  9. Dental radiography supplements visual and physical examination to provide a quality evaluation of a patient.
  10. Digital imaging systems can reduce radiation dosage more than film-based radiography.
  11. A radiograph is an image produced by exposure to x-rays.
  12. Computed tomography eliminates the use of radiation to produce an image.
  13. Digital imaging replaces the conventional dental x-ray machine.
  14. The paralleling technique is based on the rule of isometry.
  15. The PID is used to direct the useful beam of radiation.
  16. X-radiation was discovered when Roentgen was working with a Crookes tube.
  17. Roentgen named his discovery the roentgen ray.
  18. The x-radiation output of the Crookes tube (named after the English chemist William Crookes) could be predetermined and accurately controlled.
  19. Early scientists and researchers working in the field of radiography were not aware that continued exposure produced accumulations of radiation effects in the body.
  20. In the early 1900s, it was common practice for the radiographer to help the patient hold the film in place while making the exposure.

 

Short Answer

 

  1. Who first determined that x-rays would play a role in dentistry?
  2. Who is considered to be the first advocate for the science of radiation protection?
  3. Who developed the hot cathode ray tube?
  4. Which radiograph displays the entire dentition and surrounding structures?
  5. What is the technique of choice for intraoral radiography?
  6. In dental digital imaging systems, what replaces film?
  7. What medical imaging modality records a selected plane of tissues?
  8. What is the name of the device that functions to direct the x-ray beam toward the patient?
  9. What is the purpose of studying the history of radiography and dental radiography?
  10. What are the two techniques for exposing intraoral dental radiographs?

 

Chapter 2

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Each of the following is a form of energy EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  2. Heat
  3. Water
  4. Light
  5. X-radiation
  6. What is the maximum number of electron shells (energy levels) an atom can have?
  7. 1
  8. 3
  9. 5
  10. 7
  11. Each of the following is a form of ionizing radiation EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  12. Cosmic rays
  13. X-rays
  14. Radio waves
  15. Gamma rays
  16. Each of the following statements about electromagnetic radiations is true EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  17. They have a negative electrical charge.
  18. They have no mass.
  19. They pass through space as particles and in a wave-like motion.
  20. They have no weight.
  21. Which of the following statements about x-rays is NOT true?
  22. They travel at the speed of light.
  23. They are invisible.
  24. They have no mass.
  25. They travel in convergent lines.
  26. Which one of these is NOT a Systme International (SI) unit of measurement?
  27. Sievert
  28. Roentgen
  29. Coulombs per kilogram
  30. Gray
  31. The Systme International unit for measuring absorbed dose is the
  32. Gray
  33. Sievert
  34. Rad
  35. Rem
  36. The greatest exposure to ionizing radiation to the population comes from
  37. Medical x-rays
  38. Occupational exposure
  39. Dental x-rays
  40. Background radiation
  41. The speed of a wave is its
  42. Wavelength
  43. Velocity
  44. Frequency
  45. Photon
  46. The majority of x-rays produced by dental x-ray machines are formed by:
  47. Characteristic radiation
  48. Radionuclide decay
  49. Bremsstrahlung radiation
  50. Coherent scattering
  51. Radiation is best described as a:
  52. substance that occupies space.
  53. resistor of heat.
  54. type of electricity.
  55. movement of energy.
  56. The smallest particle of a substance that still retains the properties of that substance is a/an:
  57. atom.
  58. electron.
  59. neutron.
  60. molecule.
  61. The emission and movement of electromagnetic or particulate energy through space is known as:
  62. ionization.
  63. radiation.
  64. radioactivity.
  65. the formation of ion pairs.
  66. The measure of the number of waves that pass a given point per unit of time is known as the:
  67. angstrom unit.
  68. wavelength.
  69. frequency.
  70. velocity.
  71. When x-rays pass through matter, which interaction results in x-rays being scattered in all directions?
  72. The coherent effect
  73. The photoelectric effect
  74. The Compton effect
  75. The amount of energy deposited in the teeth or soft tissue by any type of radiation is called the:
  76. exposure amount.
  77. absorbed dose.
  78. dose equivalent.
  79. background radiation.
  80. The units used to measure the dose equivalent of radiation is the:
  81. Gray (Gy).
  82. Sieverts (Sv).
  83. Coulombs per kilogram (C/kg).
  84. Roentgens (R).
  85. The sievert and rem are units of measurement for:
  86. the radiation exposure in the air.
  87. the amount of energy absorbed by tissues.
  88. the comparison of biological effects.
  89. All of the above.
  90. A weighting (qualifying) factor is used to determine which of the following?
  91. coulombs per kilogram
  92. sievert
  93. roentgen
  94. gray
  95. The wavelength determines the energy and penetrating power of the radiation.

The longer the wavelength, the higher the energy of the radiation.

  1. The first statement is true. The second statement is false.
  2. The first statement is false. The second statement is true.
  3. Both statements are true.
  4. Both statements are false.

True/False

 

  1. Matter is defined as the ability to do work and overcome resistance.
  2. An atom is the smallest part of an element that still retains properties of that element.
  3. Electrons have a positive charge.
  4. The inner-most electron shell in an atom is the K shell.
  5. Dental x-rays do not involve the use of radioactivity.
  6. X-rays travel at the speed of sound.
  7. Wavelength and frequency are directly related.
  8. X-rays make the materials they pass through radioactive.
  9. The photoelectric effect is an all-or-nothing energy loss.
  10. The Compton effect causes x-rays to be scattered in all directions.
  11.  The number of electrons in the nucleus of an element determines its atomic number.
  12. Background radiation includes cosmic rays from outer space, naturally occurring radiation from the earth, and radiation from radioactive materials.
  13. Kinetic energy is the internal energy within the atom that holds its components together.
  14. The total number of protons in the nucleus of an atom determines the atomic number.
  15. Energy that travels in a different direction than that of the original x-ray is collectively called secondary radiation.
  16. The majority of x-rays produced by dental x-ray machines are formed by general (bremsstrahlung) radiation.
  17. The electromagnetic spectrum arranges energy types by decay rates.
  18. X-rays of high energy and extremely short wavelengths are classified as hard radiation.
  19. Ionizing radiation is energy that is capable of producing ions.
  20. Electromagnetic radiation is propelled through space as both a particle and a wave.

 

Short Answer

 

  1. What is defined as anything that occupies space and has mass?
  2. What are the positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom called?
  3. What is the term for atoms that have gained or lost electrons and electrical neutrality?
  4. What is the name of the process in which unstable elements undergo spontaneous decay in order to become stable?
  5. What is the term for bundles of energy that travel through space at the speed of light?
  6. What is the speed of a wave called?
  7. When radiation has great penetrating power it is called what?
  8. Should you wait 30 seconds after making an exposure before entering the room?
  9. People living on the Colorado plateau receive a higher dose of what type of radiation than people living in Philadelphia?
  10. One gray equals how many rads?

 

 

Chapter 3

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Dental x-ray machines contain each of the following components EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  2. Control panel
  3. Extension arm
  4. Radioactive material
  5. Tube head
  6. Which regulating device on the control panel measures the amount of current passing through the wires of the circuit?
  7. The timer
  8. The line switch
  9. The kVp selector
  10. The mA selector
  11. Each of the following conditions must exist for x-rays to be produced EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  12. A target capable of stopping the electrons
  13. An air-filled glass tube
  14. High voltage to impart speed to the electrons
  15. A source of free electrons
  16. Which of the following is NOT a function of the tube head?
  17. It allows all radiation to exit.
  18. It provides grounding for the electrical components.
  19. It protects the x-ray tube from accidental damage.
  20. It prevents overheating of the x-ray tube.
  21. The anode is composed of the focusing cup and the filament, and must be charged negative during x-ray production.
  22. The first part of the statement is correct, the second part of the statement is NOT correct.
  23. The first part of the statement is NOT correct, the second part of the statement is correct.
  24. Both parts of the statement are correct.
  25. Both parts of the statement are NOT correct.
  26. How many electrical circuits are used in a dental x-ray machine?
  27. One
  28. Two
  29. Three
  30. Four
  31. Sixty (60) impulses is equivalent to:
  32. 1/6 second.
  33. 1/10 second.
  34. second.
  35. 1 second.
  36. The intensity of the x-ray beam is affected by each of the following EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  37. Target size
  38. Kilovoltage
  39. Exposure time
  40. Milliamperage
  41. A 1/10-second exposure equals how many impulses?
  42. 4
  43. 6
  44. 10
  45. 60
  46. Which of these statements is FALSE?
  47. The positive anode and negative cathode are sealed within the x-ray tube.
  48. The control panel may be integrated with the x-ray machine tube head support.
  49. The exposure button should be on the end of a 3-foot timer cord.
  50. The x-ray tube contains a target capable of stopping the electrons.
  51. The duration of an x-ray exposure is determined by which control?
  52. The timer
  53. The line switch
  54. The kVp selector
  55. The mA selector
  56. The filament and target are made out of tungsten because it:
  57. produces fewer electrons.
  58. prevents electrons from being liberated.
  59. withstands high temperatures.
  60. ensures that x-rays are projected in one direction.
  61. Which transformer corrects minor fluctuations in the current flowing through the wires?
  62. The step-up transformer
  63. The step-down transformer
  64. The autotransformer
  65. X-rays originate at the:
  66. cathode.
  67. port.
  68. focusing cup.
  69. focal spot.
  70. Amperage measures the electric potential or force that moves electrons along a conductor.

Increasing the force with which the electrons move increases the penetrating potential of the x-ray beam.

  1. The first statement is true. The second statement is false.
  2. The first statement is false. The second statement is true.
  3. Both statements are true.
  4. Both statements are false.
  5. Which of the following best describes how x-rays are actually produced in the dental x-ray tube?
  6. Radioactive particulate matter undergoes controlled disintegration.
  7. Electrical current passes through an oil mixture, creating minute explosions.
  8. Low milliamperage current is transformed to high kilovoltage current.
  9. High-speed electrons collide with target material electrons.
  10. What percent of the kinetic energy inside the x-ray tube is actually converted to x-radiation?
  11. 99 percent
  12. 50 percent
  13. 25 percent
  14. 1 percent
  15. Increasing which of the following would best increase the number of electrons flowing through the

dental x-ray electrical circuit?

  1. Impulses
  2. Kilovoltage
  3. Milliamperage
  4. PID length
  5. Which of the following removes the soft x-rays for the <x-ray beam as it exits the port?
  6. The positioning indicating device (PID)
  7. The collimator
  8. The filter
  9. The transformer
  10. How does the radiographer know when the x-ray exposure cycle is complete?
  11. When the deadman switch cannot be depressed
  12. When the audible beep stops
  13. When the timer dial completes the rotation
  14. When the indicator light illuminates

 

True/False

 

  1. Electricity is defined as electrons in motion.
  2. The metal housing of the tube head increases the safety of the x-ray machine.
  3. Direct current flows in pulses and changes direction.
  4. Voltage is the measurement of the number of electrons moving through a wire conductor.
  5. If the tube head is properly sealed, the port is the only place through which x-rays can escape.
  6. The x-ray beam formed at the focal spot is monochromatic.
  7. The intensity of the beam refers to the quantity and quality of the x-rays.
  8. The filament is on the negative side of the vacuum tube in the dental x-ray machine.
  9. Dental x-ray machines may have controls for manual adjustment of kVp and mA, or these controls may be preset by the manufacturer.
  10. In the ON position, the line switch on the control panel energizes the low- and high-voltage circuits.
  11. Increasing the amperage will result in a production of more x-rays.
  12. That part of the cathode designed to direct the free electrons toward the tungsten target of the anode is called the focal spot.
  13. The tungsten anode is embedded in a core of copper to conduct heat away to a radiator.
  14. A small area on the tungsten target of the anode toward which the electron beam is directed is called the focal spot.
  15. The step-down transformer corrects fluctuations in the current flowing through the x-ray machine.
  16. The anode is the negative electrode (terminal) in the x-ray tube.
  17. The collimator is a lead diaphragm that restricts the dimensions of the useful beam.
  18. Thermionic emission refers to the release of electrons from the target material during the process of incandescence.
  19. Primary beam refers to a high-energy, short wavelength x-ray beam.
  20. An x-ray beam composed of many different wavelengths is called polychromatic.

 

Short Answer

 

  1. What does adjusting the kilovolt peak (kVp) do?
  2. What is the name of the device that allows the amount of current passing through the wires of the circuit to be changed?
  3. Why are the extension arm and yoke of the x-ray machine insulated?
  4. What is the term for the measurement of the number of electrons moving through a wire conductor?
  5. Inside the dental x-ray machine, what does the speed of the electrons determine?
  6. Who is responsible for the radiation dose incurred by the patient during x-ray exposure?
  7. What does kVp measure?
  8. What is the purpose of a deadman exposure switch?
  9. What is the term for the process by which electrons are created at the filament wire of the cathode?
  10. In the cathode, the wire filament is recessed into what?

 

Chapter 4

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Which of these statements is FALSE?
  2. Structures should be magnified to enhance interpretation.
  3. An area of interest must be recorded completely with sufficient surrounding structures for a frame of reference.
  4. A radiograph should be of proper density, contrast, and definition.
  5. An image should be free of errors.
  6. Each of the following is a term used to describe visual image characteristics EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  7. Sharpness
  8. Contrast
  9. Milliamperage
  10. Density
  11. Which of these statements regarding radiographic contrast is FALSE?
  12. There are few shades of gray in a radiograph with short-scale contrast.
  13. Short-scale contrast describes a radiograph in which the density differences between adjacent areas are large.
  14. There are many shades of gray in a radiograph with long-scale contrast.
  15. Long-scale contrast describes a radiograph in which the density differences between adjacent areas are large.
  16. The degree of overall blackness of a radiographic image is termed:
  17. sharpness.
  18. density.
  19. resolution.
  20. contrast.
  21. The difference in densities between adjacent areas on the radiograph is termed:
  22. sharpness.
  23. density.
  24. resolution.
  25. contrast.
  26. Which of these is NOT a shadow-casting principle?
  27. A large focal spot
  28. Long targetimage receptor distance
  29. Short objectimage receptor distance
  30. Parallel objectimage receptor relationship
  31. Which of the following statements about dental radiographic exposure variables is true?
  32. Increasing the mA darkens the radiograph.
  33. Decreasing exposure time darkens the radiograph.
  34. Exposure time is difficult to change on most machines.
  35. Milliamperage affects radiographic contrast.
  36. An original radiograph is exposed at 8 mA for 1.0 seconds. If the mA is increased to 10, which of the following exposure times would be correct to maintain radiographic density?
  37. 0.4
  38. 0.6
  39. 0.8
  40. 1.0
  41. Which of these statements is FALSE?
  42. Increasing the targetimage receptor distance reduces penumbra.
  43. Radiation intensity is directly proportional to the square of the distance from the source.
  44. A long PID increases image sharpness.
  45. A recessed tube increases the targetimage receptor distance.
  46. Which of the following is recommended for increasing radiographic contrast while maintaining radiographic density?
  47. Increase kVp and increase exposure time.
  48. Decrease kVp and decrease exposure time.
  49. Increase kVp and decrease exposure time.
  50. Decrease kVp and increase exposure time.
  51. Radiolucent images appear dark or black because:
  52. hard radiation was allowed to reach the image receptor.
  53. dense structures stopped x-rays from reaching the image receptor.
  54. soft radiation was stopped before reaching the image receptor.
  55. less dense structures permitted more x-rays to reach the image receptor.
  56. Each of the following appear radiopaque EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  57. Bone
  58. Dentin
  59. Pulp
  60. Enamel
  61. Which kVp setting produces long-scale image contrast?
  62. 65 kVp
  63. 75 kVp
  64. 85 kVp
  65. 95 kVp
  66. Each of the following results in image unsharpness EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  67. Patient movement during exposure
  68. Image receptor positioned close to the teeth
  69. A short PID
  70. The use of intensifying screens
  71. A radiographic film with a small crystal size
  72. creates sharpness.
  73. causes magnification.
  74. decreases exposure time.
  75. increases contrast.
  76. Image magnification can be decreased by:
  77. increasing the target-object distance.
  78. increasing the objectimage receptor distance.
  79. decreasing the target-surface distance.
  80. increasing the focal spot size.
  81. When changing the PID length from 8 inches (20.5 cm) to 16 inches (41 cm), what corresponding change must be made to maintain image density?
  82. Decrease exposure time.
  83. Increase exposure time.
  84. Decrease kilovoltage.
  85. Increase kilovoltage.
  86. The inverse square law states that the intensity of the radiation:
  87. increases as the distance from its source increases because the beam of radiation converges.
  88. decreases as the distance away from its source increases because the beam of radiation diverges.
  89. increases as the distance away from its source increases because the beam of radiation diverges.
  90. decreases as the distance away from its source increases because the beam of radiation converges.
  91. Which of the following refers to a radiographic image that is black and white with many shades of gray in between?
  92. Low contrast
  93. High contrast
  94. Low density
  95. High density
  96. Which of the following indicates a radiographic image that is black and white with few shades of gray in between?
  97. Short resolution
  98. Long resolution
  99. Short scale
  100. Long scale

 

True/False

 

  1. White areas on a radiographic image are termed radiolucent.
  2. Radiographic density (film darkening) is decreased when the milliamperage or exposure time is increased.
  3. The term short-scale contrast describes a radiograph in which density differences between adjacent areas are small.
  4. Increasing the kVP results in a more penetrating x-ray beam.
  5. Sharpness/definition refers to the detail and clarity of the structures on a radiograph.
  6. A small focal spot reduces penumbra.
  7. Grids absorb scattered x-rays.
  8. Theoretically, the ideal focal spot would be a point source.
  9. The targetimage receptor distance should be short to create radiographs with the best definition.
  10. The film should be in close physical contact with the intensifying screens.
  11. A radiographic image with many shades of gray is said to have low contrast.
  12. That portion of the radiographic image that appears light is called radiolucent.
  13. Penumbra is a device used in extraoral radiography to prevent scatter radiation from fogging the image receptor.
  14. Some clinicians prefer a radiographic image that is of low contrast, and others prefer a radiographic image that is of high contrast.
  15. Radiographic image unsharpness is generally caused by movement of the patient, image receptor, or tube head during exposure.
  16. Digital imaging sharpness can be affected by pixel size and distribution.
  17. Thicker intensifying screens increase the sharpness of extraoral radiographs.
  18. The target-object distance is the distance between the focal spot on the target and the skin surface of the patient.
  19. 1 Only one film should be placed in contact with the intensifying screens used for extraoral radiography.
  20. Slight movement of the tube head during exposure of a radiograph effectively increases the size of the focal spot on the target within the tube head.

 

Short Answer

 

  1. What types of tissues or structures appear radiolucent on radiographs?
  2. What types of tissues or structures appear radiopaque on radiographs?
  3. What is radiographic density?
  4. What is short-scale contrast?
  5. What is the relationship between kVp and contrast?
  6. Why should the x-ray film be placed parallel to the long axis of the tooth?
  7. The quality of the beam of radiation is determined by which exposure factor?
  8. What is radiographic contrast?
  9. What is long-scale contrast?
  10. What is penumbra?

 

Chapter 5

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the biological effect mechanisms of the direct theory is FALSE?
  2. Most dental x-ray photons pass through the cell, causing no damage.
  3. X-ray photons may collide with important cell chemicals and break them apart.
  4. Ionization can cause critical damage to large molecules.
  5. Irradiated cells cannot be repaired.
  6. Which of the following statements regarding the biological effect mechanisms of the indirect effect is FALSE?
  7. Ionization dissociates water into hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals.
  8. Ions have a strong tendency to seek out new combinations.
  9. New chemicals, such as hydrogen peroxide, can form from hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals.
  10. Radiation must be massive to destroy entire body tissues that result in death.
  11. Which of the following is most sensitive to damage from radiation?
  12. Bone cells
  13. Epithelial cells
  14. White blood cells
  15. Muscle cells
  16. Which of the following statements about radiation repair is FALSE?
  17. Somatic cells cannot repair radiation damage.
  18. Scientists believe that some radiation effects are cumulative.
  19. Ions have a strong tendency to recombine immediately to form water again.
  20. The quantity, duration, and body area irradiated determine the amount of damage inflicted by the radiation.
  21. Which of the following statements regarding the theory established by a threshold dose-response curve is true?
  22. There is a dose below which no biological response would be expected.
  23. It predicts the effects of very low levels of radiation exposure.
  24. It indicates that any amount of radiation has the potential to cause a biological response.
  25. It has been adopted by the radiation protection community as the conservative approach to radiation exposure.
  26. Each of the following is a potential effect of a low dose of radiation EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  27. No cell response.
  28. Cell repairs itself and functions at pre-exposure levels.
  29. Cell repairs itself abnormally.
  30. Cell becomes radioactive.
  31. Which of the following statements regarding radiation injury is FALSE?
  32. The smaller the area of tissue exposure, the greater damage to the individual.
  33. The greater the dose, the more severe the probable biological event.
  34. The rate at which the radiation is absorbed may determine which biological effects occur.
  35. A given dose may produce fewer biologic effects if the cells have a chance to recover.
  36. Which of the following statements regarding radiation injury is FALSE?
  37. The amount of injury to an individual depends on the volume of tissue radiated.
  38. The lethal dose (LD 50/30) for humans is 1.5 grays.
  39. Younger, more rapidly dividing cells are more likely to incur damage.
  40. Individuals vary in radiation sensitivity within the same species.
  41. The lethal dose (LD 50/30) of radiation for humans is estimated to be:
  42. 4,500 grays.
  43. 450 grays.
  44. 45 grays.
  45. 4.5 grays.
  46. Which of these is NOT a symptom of acute radiation syndrome.
  47. Constipation
  48. Nausea
  49. Hemorrhage
  50. Hair loss
  51. Which of the following is NOT a component of the Law of Bergoni and Tribondeau?
  52. Actively dividing cells are less sensitive.
  53. Immature cells are more sensitive.
  54. More specialized cells are more radioresistant.
  55. Cells are most susceptible to injury during cell division.
  56. Which of the following groups of cells are correctly ranked in order of radiosensitivity beginning with the most sensitive?
  57. Muscle, brain, red blood, white blood
  58. Reproductive, bone, nerve, muscle
  59. Brain, bone, connective tissue, white blood
  60. Red blood, bone, muscle, epithelial
  61. Continued exposure to radiation over prolonged periods may result in each of the following EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  62. It may alter the ability of genetic cells to reproduce normally.
  63. It may affect the ability of genetic cells to repair damage.
  64. It may produce offspring with increased resistance to radiation exposure.
  65. It may result in cumulative chromosome damage.
  66. What is the approximate surface (skin) dose of radiation from a full mouth series of 18 F-speed films, exposed at 90 kVp with a 16-inch (41-cm)-length PID?
  67. 30 mSv
  68. 50 mSv
  69. 75 mSv
  70. 100 mSv
  71. Which of these periods immediately follows radiation exposure?
  72. The period of injury
  73. The latent period
  74. The reparable damage period
  75. The recovery period
  76. When the severity of change is dependent on the radiation dose, the effect is called a/an:
  77. stochastic effect.
  78. deterministic effect.
  79. acute radiation effect.
  80. lethal dose effect.
  81. At what dose of whole-body radiation would an observable short-term effect of acute radiation syndrome result?
  82. 0.01 Gy
  83. 0.25 Gy
  84. 0.50 Gy
  85. 1.0 Gy
  86. Tissues have the capacity to repair radiation damage to a certain degree. However, some damage

cannot be repaired and remains weakened, especially with repeated exposures. This is called:

  1. a long-term effect.
  2. radioresistant tissue.
  3. a cumulative effect.
  4. a stochastic effect.
  5. What theory of radiation damage to cells results from free radicals combining to form toxins such as hydrogen peroxide?
  6. Primary
  7. Secondary
  8. Indirect
  9. Direct
  10. A threshold dose-response relationship indicates that any dose, regardless of amount, can be expected

to produce a biologic response.

A linear dose-response relationship indicates that the biologic response is directly proportional to the

dose.

  1. The first statement is true. The second statement is false.
  2. The first statement is false. The second statement is true.
  3. Both statements are true.
  4. Both statements are false.

True/False

 

  1. Scientists do not know whether low levels of radiation exposure carry health risks.
  2. A less specialized cell is more radioresistant.
  3. A nonthreshold dose-response curve indicates that there is a certain level of radiation below which no biological response should be anticipated.
  4. The ALARA concept means As Low As Reasonably Achievable.
  5. The effects of irradiation depend on the type of energy and duration of the exposure.
  6. All humans have the same sensitivity to radiation.
  7. All cells in the human body have the same sensitivity to radiation.
  8. X-rays have been shown to have carcinogenic effects.
  9. The structures of the oral and facial regions are relatively radioresistant.
  10. The Law of Bergoni and Tribondeau states that cells are most sensitive to radiation injury during mitosis (cell division).
  11. The biological effects of very low levels of radiation cannot be predicted.

1       2.  Radioresistant refers to those tissues that are protected by the lead apron and thyroid collar during a dental x-ray exposure.

1       3.  The latent period refers to the time between exposure to radiation and the ionization of molecules.

1       4.  When radiation affects any cells of the body except the reproductive cells, the effect is called indirect.

  1. A stochastic effect is when a biological response is based on the probability of occurrence rather than the severity of the change..

1       6.  Cancer is a stochastic effect of exposure to radiation.

1       7.  Erythema is a stochastic effect of exposure to radiation.

  1. Because they do not divide and are very specialized, reproductive cells are radioresistant.

1       9.  White blood cells (lymphocytes) and reproductive cells (oocytes) are two exceptions to the Law of Bergoni and Tribondeau, which states cells that do not divide and are very specialized are radioresistant.

  1. The average effective dose equivalent from naturally occuring background radiation to the population of the United States is approximately 8 Sv (microsieverts) per day.

Short Answer

 

  1. What is the difference between the effects of irradiation to somatic cells compared to reproductive cells?
  2. What do scientists believe about radiation damage to somatic cells from repetitive exposures?
  3. Do scientists believe that radiation damage to reproductive cells is cumulative?
  4. What is the LD 50/30 for humans?
  5. Why are children more susceptible to radiation than adults?
  6. When do the effects of irradiation occur?
  7. When the dose of radiation is increased, does the severity of a stochastic effect increase?
  8. When is the developing fetus most susceptible to the damaging effects of radiation, and why?
  9. Can dental x-rays cause cataracts in the lens of the eye?
  10. In addition to x-radiation, list other causes of changes to the genetic material of cells.

 

 Chapter 6

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Each of the following statements regarding radiation protection measures for the patient is correct EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  2. The oral health care team should embrace the ALARA concept.
  3. Radiographs must be taken on all new patients.
  4. Evidence-based selection criteria should be used when determining which patients need radiographs.
  5. The radiographer should possess a working knowledge of appropriate exposure factors.
  6. Each of the following statements regarding the technical ability of radiographers is correct EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  7. They have the ability to communicate clear and concise instructions to the patient.
  8. They possess a thorough understanding of how to produce quality images
  9. They understand how to perform dental x-ray machine inspections
  10. They participate in continuing education
  11. The federal performance standard for diagnostic x-ray equipment requires that all x-ray equipment meet each of the following radiation safety requirements EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  12. Collimators may be round or rectangular.
  13. Both inherent and added filtration is usually required.
  14. Aluminum filters are required to remove long wavelength x-rays from the beam.
  15. A pointed, closed-end PID is acceptable.
  16. Which of the following statements regarding x-ray equipment is FALSE?
  17. A short (8 in/20.5 cm) PID delivers less radiation to the patient.
  18. Total filtration is the sum of inherent and added filtration.
  19. A filter placed in the path of the x-ray beam reduces patient radiation exposure.
  20. An external collimator can be attached to the PID to achieve rectangular collimation.
  21. Which of the following statements about the position indicating device (PID) is correct?
  22. The shorter the PID, the less divergent the beam.
  23. The longer the PID, the greater the radiation dose to the patient.
  24. Pointed, closed-end plastic cone PIDs should no longer be used.
  25. A recessed PID creates a shorter target-surface distance.
  26. Which of the following statements regarding lead aprons is FALSE?
  27. They are fabricated of 0.25-mm lead or lead-equivalent materials.
  28. They should be folded and stored when not in use.
  29. They provide a protective barrier against scatter radiation.
  30. Their use is in keeping with the ALARA concept.
  31. Which film speed requires the least amount of radiation exposure to produce a diagnostic-quality image?
  32. D
  33. E
  34. F
  35. G

 

  1. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
  2. Processing errors increase patient radiation exposure by resulting in retake radiographs.
  3. Following the time-temperature method of processing radiographs produces images of ideal quality.
  4. Careful attention to chemical replenishment avoids retakes.
  5. It is acceptable to increase the dose while underdeveloping the film if time is short.
  6. Which of the following statements regarding protection measures for the operator during exposure is FALSE?
  7. The ideal angle to stand from the path of the exiting x-ray beam is 180 degrees.
  8. A drifting tube head should not be held in place by the radiographer or the patient.
  9. The radiographer should stand at least 6 feet from the head of the patient.
  10. A structural barrier provides adequate protection during exposure.
  11. Which of the following statements regarding radiation monitoring is FALSE?
  12. Area monitoring measures output of the x-ray machine.
  13. A radiation monitoring service provides a reliable record of occupational radiation exposure.
  14. Personnel monitoring devices protect the wearers from scatter radiation.
  15. TLDs and OSLs are examples of personnel monitoring devices.
  16. Dental radiation exposure to the patient can be reduced by each of the following EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  17. Using the fastest speed film currently available
  18. Prescribing exams based on evidence-based selection criteria
  19. Holding the image receptor in the patients mouth
  20. Restricting the size and shape of the x-ray beam
  21. The ALARA concept implies that:
  22.   any radiation dose that can be reduced without major difficulty, great expense, or inconvenience, should be reduced or eliminated.
  23. if a radiation dose cannot be reduced without major difficulty, great expense, or inconvenience, then no radiographs should be exposed.
  24. radiation dosages slightly above the acceptable level of risk are acceptable only in emergency treatment situations.
  25. fewer radiographs should be taken only if a radiation dose cannot be reduced due to major difficulty, inconvenience, and great expense.
  26. The best way to reduce patient radiation exposure is to:
  27. expose routine radiographs.
  28. determine the risk/benefit ratio prior to exposure.
  29. develop office policy for the maximum number of exposures permissible per patient.
  30. use evidence-based selection criteria for prescribing radiographs.
  31. Guidelines for prescribing radiographs are based on:
  32. medical and dental histories.
  33. clinical examination.
  34. signs and symptoms.
  35. All of the above.
  36. The function of the collimator in the dental x-ray machine is to:
  37. eliminate secondary sources of radiation.
  38. reduce the size of the x-ray beam.
  39. eliminate primary sources of radiation.
  40. allow for faster exposure times.
  41. The purpose of aluminum filtration is to:
  42. absorb the penetrating short wavelengths that fog films unnecessarily.
  43. reduce the radiation to the patient by reducing the volume of tissue exposed.
  44. eliminate the sources of scatter or secondary radiation to the patient.
  45. absorb the less penetrating long wavelengths to reduce radiation exposure.
  46. A less divergent x-ray beam will:
  47. increase the radiation dose to the patient.
  48. result in lower-quality radiographic images.
  49. create a smaller diameter of exposure.
  50. require added filtration.
  51. Which of the following will reduce radiation to the patient the most?
  52. Fast film speeds.
  53. Thyroid collars.
  54. Image receptor holders.
  55. Rectangular PIDs.
  56. Each of the following protects the radiographer from radiation EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  57. Wearing a personnel-monitoring device
  58. Increased distance from the source of radiation
  59. Standing behind protective shielding during exposure
  60. Spending less time near radiation-producing equipment
  61. A personnel monitoring device can NOT:
  62. record the amount of radiation received.
  63. measure the amount of radiation received.
  64. protect the operator from receiving radiation.
  65. indicate the type of radiation received.

 

 

True/False

 

  1. The best way to reduce patient risk from radiation exposure is to keep exposures ALARA.
  2. Guidance for deciding when, what type, and how many radiographs to expose on a patient have been developed and should be followed.
  3. A rectangular PID requires a larger dose of radiation to produce a diagnostic-quality radiograph than a circular PID.
  4. Pure aluminum will not hinder the passage of high-energy x-rays.
  5. Fast film requires less radiation for exposure and is essential for reducing radiation to the patient.
  6. Increasing the dose of radiation is a recommended method to compensate for weak processing solutions.
  7. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) contain crystals that absorb energy when exposed to radiation.
  8. The maximum permissible dose (MPD) for oral health care professionals is 50 mSv/year.
  9. Medical, dental, and therapeutic radiation is included in the MPD.
  10. Regulations governing the use of radiation-producing equipment include federal, state, and some local laws.
  11. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed dose limits for radiographers and patients.
  12. The National Committee on Radiation Protection principle to keep exposure down, based on the idea

that all radiation, no matter how small the dose, may cause adverse biological effects, is called ALARA.

  1. Federal regulations require that the intraoral x-ray beam be collimated to a diameter of 3.75 inches

at the patients skin.

  1. If the tube head support arm drifts from its appropriate position when taking a radiograph, the radiographer should ask the patient to hold the PID stable during the exposure.
  2. If the area of interest is imaged correctly on an adjacent radiograph, it is possible that an undiagnostic radiograph may not need to be retaken.
  3. The bisecting technique should be the radiographers first choice in exposing periapical radiographs.
  4. Based on evidence-based selection criteria for keeping radiation exposure ALARA, an adult recall patient with no risk factors for caries would most likely be assessed for bitewing radiographs annually.
  5. Based on evidence-based selection criteria for keeping radiation exposure ALARA, a child recall patient with several risk factors for caries would most likely be assessed for bitewing radiographs every 6 to 12 months.
  6. Based on evidence-based selection criteria for keeping radiation exposure ALARA, a high level of caries experience or demineralization increases a patients risk for future caries.
  7. High-energy x-rays are the most harmful to the patient because they easily penetrate to the deep tissues of the body.

Short Answer

 

  1. Which intraoral technique should be the radiographers first choice when exposing periapical radiographs?
  2. What undesirable effect does collimation reduce?
  3. Absorption of the long wavelength, less penetrating x-rays of the polychromatic beam occurs by passage of the beam through a sheet of aluminum called a .
  4. The sum of inherent and added filtration is called .
  5. What is the term given to the walls or partitions around the dental x-ray machine that protect the radiographer against scatter radiation?
  6. What are the three categories of methods for protecting oral health care personnel from radiation exposure?
  7. Some dental x-ray machines appear to have a short PID when in fact the target surface distance is long. Why?
  8. Should the patient wear a thyroid collar during panoramic radiography?
  9. Currently, what film speed is recommended to reduce radiation exposure?
  10. Should image receptor holding devices be recommended to reduce radiation exposure?

 

Chapter 7

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Which of these is NOT a component of dental x-ray film?
  2. Protective layer
  3. Base
  4. Phosphor crystals
  5. Emulsion
  6. Which of these is NOT a component of the dental x-ray film packet?
  7. Black paper wrapping
  8. One or two films
  9. Moisture-resistant outer wrapping
  10. Aluminum foil
  11. Each of the following statements regarding dental x-ray film speed is true EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  12. E-speed film is the fastest film speed currently available.
  13. Film speed is printed on the back side of each individual film packet.
  14. Trademark names like Super or Ultra are not film speeds.
  15. Film speeds slower than D are no longer used.
  16. Which of the following radiographs gets its name from the Greek word that means around and the Latin word for apex that refers to the root tip?
  17. Bitewing
  18. Periapical
  19. Occlusal
  20. Panoramic
  21. Which of these intraoral dental films is 2.25 inches 3 inches?
  22. Size #1
  23. Size #2
  24. Size #3
  25. Size #4
  26. Each of the following statements regarding duplication of radiographs is correct EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  27. The emulsion side of duplicating film contains an antihalation coating.
  28. The solarized emulsion records the copy of the image.
  29. The emulsion side of duplicating film is placed against the original radiograph.
  30. The antihalation coating prevents back-scattered light from re-exposing the film.
  31. Which of the following statements regarding extraoral film is FALSE?
  32. It is used outside the mouth.
  33. It comes individually wrapped in protective paper.
  34. It is called a screen film.
  35. It uses intensifying screens.
  36. Which of the following statements regarding film storage and protection is FALSE?
  37. It is light-sensitive.
  38. It has a shelf life.
  39. It is affected by high heat and humidity.
  40. It should be stored in the darkroom.
  41. Extraoral film is used for ALL of the following projections EXCEPTone. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
  42. Lateral jaw radiographs
  43. Occlusal radiographs
  44. Cephalometric radiographs
  45. Panoramic radiographs
  46. Each of the following statements is true EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  47. During exposure, the x-rays strike and ionize all silver halide crystals on the film.
  48. The invisible image on an x-ray film is called the latent image.
  49. The function of the gelatin in film emulsion is to keep the silver halide crystals evenly suspended over the base.
  50. Silver halide in the emulsion is primarily silver bromide.
  51. Dental film has a polyester base for the purpose of:
  52. increasing the contrast and image quality.
  53. providing support for the emulsion.
  54. producing the latent (invisible) image.
  55. preventing scatter radiation from exposing the film.
  56. Which portion of the dental film retains the latent image?
  57. The protective layer
  58. The gelatin
  59. The silver halide crystals
  60. The adhesive
  61. Which structure is most likely to absorb or stop more of the x-rays from reaching the film?
  62. The enamel
  63. The bone
  64. The pulp
  65. The soft tissue (cheek)
  66. Which of these protects the film from white-light exposure?
  67. Antihalation coating
  68. Solarized emulsion
  69. Lead foil
  70. Black paper
  71. The purpose of the embossed dot on the film packet is to:
  72. identify which side of the film contains the emulsion.
  73. determine if the film packet contains one or two films.
  74. distinguish the patients right from left on the developed radiograph.
  75. locate the edge of the packet that should be positioned toward the apices.
  76. Which of the following indicates the correct placement of an intraoral film?
  77. The back side faces the buccal surfaces of the teeth and away from the source of radiation.
  78. The back side faces the lingual surfaces of the teeth and is facing the source of radiation.
  79. The tube side faces the buccal surfaces of the teeth and faces the source of radiation.
  80. The tube side faces the lingual surfaces of the teeth and faces the source of radiation.

 

  1. Each of the following affects film speed EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  2. Emulsion thickness
  3. Crystal size
  4. Film packet size
  5. Special dyes
  6. Graininess of a radiographic image results from:
  7. large silver halide crystals.
  8. the addition of radiosensitive dyes.
  9. a decrease in film speed.
  10. film packets that contain two films.
  11. Which of the following is NOT an intraoral projection?
  12. Periapical
  13. Occlusal
  14. Panoramic
  15. Bitewing
  16. Which film size is ideal for positioning a periapical radiograph in the narrow canine region on an adult patient?
  17. Size #0
  18. Size #1
  19. Size #2
  20. Size #3

 

True/False

 

  1. Film used for dental radiography is very similar to photographic film.
  2. Intraoral films are designed for use outside the oral cavity.
  3. Dental x-ray film is surrounded by a sheet of white paper inside the film packet.
  4. Film packets may contain one or two films.
  5. The tab for opening the film packet is on the tube side of the packet.
  6. During periapical radiograph film packet placement, the embossed dot should be positioned toward the apices of the teeth.
  7. Bitewing radiographs image the entire tooth, from crown to root tip.
  8. Pedodontic films are usually size #2 films.
  9. The radiation exposure needed for extraoral film projections is higher than that needed for intraoral projections.
  10. The same film type used for exposing dental radiographs can be used to duplicate them.
  11. A fast speed film requires more radiation exposure to record a diagnostic image.
  12. The latent image is an image that is slow in its formation, especially when using slow speed film.
  13. The purpose of the lead foil in the film packet is to absorb back-scattered x-rays to reduce film fog.
  14. Dental film emulsion is about 90 to 99 percent silver bromide and 1 to 10 percent silver iodide.
  15. The appearance of clear/white or radiopaque structures on the radiograph is a result of the developer step during film processing.
  16. Intraoral film emulsion is composed of a gelatin and silver halide crystals.
  17. The white, unprinted side of an intraoral film packet is the back side.
  18. A pedodontic film is any film used to radiograph a childs teeth.
  19. Duplicating film gets lighter the longer the exposure to light.
  20. Film should be stored in its original packaging in an area shielded from radiation.

 

 

 

Short Answer

 

  1. The invisible image present on a dental x-ray film that does not become visible until after processing is called what?
  2. What is placed in the film packet by the manufacturer to absorb scattered radiation?
  3. What is the color of the tube side of the film packet?
  4. What number is given to occlusal film to indicate its size?
  5. What type of film is needed to copy a dental radiograph?
  6. Silver halide crystals suspended in gelatin form which part of dental x-ray film?
  7. For what is the embossed dot in one corner of intraoral dental x-ray film used?
  8. Which side of the film packet faces the source of radiation?
  9. The sensitivity of a given type of dental x-ray film is known as its what?
  10. Extraoral radiographs require the use of a cassette and what else?

 

Chapter 8

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Which of these is NOT part of the developer solution?
  2. Reducing agent
  3. Clearing agent
  4. Activator
  5. Restrainer
  6. Which of the following statements regarding developer chemistry is FALSE?
  7. Sodium sulfite slows down the oxidation rate.
  8. Sodium carbonate provides the alkaline medium.
  9. Potassium bromide restrains development of unexposed silver halide crystals.
  10. Potassium alum swells the gelatin.
  11. Each of the following statements is true regarding the darkroom EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  12. It should be located near where radiographs will be exposed.
  13. It should be well ventilated.
  14. It should have adequate space to store unexposed film.
  15. It should be equipped with safelighting.
  16. Which of these is NOT a component of fixer?
  17. Sodium thiosulfate
  18. Preservative
  19. Activator
  20. Acidifier
  21. Each of the following statements regarding darkroom safelighting is true EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  22. Walls should be painted black.
  23. You should allow longer wavelength red-orange light to pass through the safelight filter.
  24. Shorter wavelength blue-green light is removed by the safelight filter.
  25. Four feet is the minimum distance between the safelight and the countertop.
  26. Which of the following statements regarding manual film processing is FALSE?
  27. A visual inspection of the image will determine the length of time the film stays in the developer.
  28. A film holder clip is used to transport films to and from each of the processing solutions.
  29. The optimum temperature for manual processing is 68 degrees F.
  30. Cleansing powders should not be used to clean processing tank inserts.
  31. Each of the following statements regarding automatic film processing is correct EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
  32. It requires diligent care for optimal performance.
  33. Chemical solutions are heated to match the temperature used in manual processing.
  34. If processor rollers are not kept clean, films can emerge streaked.
  35. It uses a roller transport system to move the film through the processing cycle.
  36. Which of the following statements regarding automatic processors is FALSE?
  37. Depending on the workload, cleaning must be done approximately every 6 months.
  38. The roller assembly should be cleaned in warm running water with special cleansers.
  39. Chemistry should be replenished or changed as necessary.
  40. Roller transports squeeze excess solution from film surfaces.
  41. Which of the following statements regarding rapid processing of dental radiographs is FALSE?
  42. It can be accomplished in 30 seconds with special, fast-acting chemicals.
  43. It provides archival, permanent quality radiographs.
  44. Four cups are set up inside the box containing developer, rinse water, fixer, and wash water.
  45. A light-tight countertop box contains two openings that allow light-tight access of the radiographers hands.
  46. Which of the following statements regarding automatic processing is correct?
  47. No water is required.
  48. Processing is accomplished under normal white-light conditions.
  49. The chemistry in automatic processors is heated to 68 degrees F.
  50. Unwrapped film is fed into the film feed slot on the outside of the processor.
  51. The purpose of the developing step is to:
  52. remove unexposed silver halide crystals from the film emulsion.
  53. neutralize the alkalinity prior to the film progressing to the fixer.
  54. reduce exposed silver halide crystals to black metallic silver.
  55. prevent the rapid buildup of image contrast.
  56. Which ingredient slows down the oxidation rate of the developing solution?
  57. Sodium sulfite
  58. Sodium carbonate
  59. Potassium bromide
  60. Hydroquinone
  61. Potassium alum in the fixer serves to:
  62. neutralize the alkali of the developer.
  63. act as a preservative.

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