Test Bank For Evidence Based Practice Nurses Appraisal Application Research 2nd Schmidt Brown

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Test Bank For Evidence Based Practice Nurses Appraisal Application Research 2nd Schmidt Brown

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WITH ANSWERS

 

Evidence Based Practice Nurses Appraisal Application Research 2nd Schmidt Brown

 

CHAPTER 1

WHAT IS EVIDENCE BASED PRACTICE?

 

Multiple Choice

 

Definition of research (p. 14)

  1. Which of the following is the best definition of research?
    1. Critically thinking about problems that occur in health care to determine possible solutions.
    2. Information that is based on personal experience or tradition.
    3. Planned and systematic activity that leads to new knowledge and/or the discovery of solutions to problems or questions.
    4. Trying a variety of approaches to a clinical problem and settling on the approach that is effective more often than not.

 

Definition of research utilization (p. 4)

  1. Which of the following is the best definition of research utilization?
    1. Applying research findings from individual studies to practice.
    2. Analyzing multiple research studies to synthesize findings.
    3. Appreciating the importance of clinical decision making.
    4. Using previous personal experience to build confidence.

 

Definition of EBP (pp. 4-5)

  1. Which of the following is the best definition of evidence-based practice (EBP)?
    1. Application of research findings based on scientific theories in a clinical setting.
    2. Research studies that correspond to nationally established priorities for healthcare, conducted by experts in their fields.
    3. Use of theory-derived, research-based information in making decisions about health care delivery, with consideration of individual needs and preferences and the clinical expertise of the provider.
    4. Using the individual health care providers perception of truth without conscious attention or reasoning.

 

Difference between research utilization and EBP (pp. 4-5)

  1. Which of the following best describes the difference between research utilization and EBP?
    1. Research utilization is a process of evaluating multiple studies for the most generalizable findings; EBP is use of the most recent study on a topic.
    2. Research utilization involves changing practice based on findings of a single research study; EBP is the syntheses of findings from multiple studies to incorporate with practitioner skills and client preference to determine best care.
    3. Research utilization is the application of research findings to health care practice; EBP is considered in selecting medication options.
    4. Research utilization is review of research publications; EBP is using the healthcare providers perception of what care would be best in individual situations.

 

Evidence from other disciplines (p. 6)

  1. In what way can evidence from disciplines other than nursing be helpful?
    1. Theory based non-nursing evidence can provide a basis on which to build new evidence.
    2. Non-nursing evidence supports the use of nursing knowledge obtained by trial and error.
    3. Clinical decision making can be based on findings from single non-nursing research studies.
    4. All evidence is equally important to the practice of nursing.

 

Identification of sources of evidence (p. 6)

  1. You are a new nurse working at XYZ hospital. Your preceptor tells you to dangle Ms. Jones legs on the side of the bed before you attempt to assist her to a chair. You ask your preceptor why this is done and she answers, This is what we have always done, so go do it. This is an example of which type of evidence?
    1. Trial and error
    2. Intuition
    3. Borrowed evidence
    4. Tradition

 

Identification of sources of evidence (p. 6)

  1. You are a new nurse working at XYZ hospital. Your preceptor tells you to dangle Ms. Jones legs on the side of the bed before you attempt to assist her to a chair. You ask your preceptor why this is done and she answers, Because I said so. This is an example of which type of evidence?
    1. Intuition
    2. Tradition
    3. Authority
    4. Borrowed evidence

 

Identification of sources of evidence (p. 6)

  1. Trial and error is not a preferred approach for delivering nursing care because
    1. it is not based on systematic scientific approaches.
    2. it is not a sanctioned method by the American Nurses Association.
    3. it is based only on intuition and therefore not scientifically based.
    4. patient outcomes are always based only on level 1 evidence.

 

Identification of sources of evidence (p. 8)

  1. Many nurses in clinical settings base nursing interventions on information obtained from
    1. level 1 evidence.
    2. individual research studies.
    3. colleagues.
    4. the American Nurses Association.

 

Barriers to adopting EBP (p. 8)

  1.  Studies have shown that the reasons that nurses do not draw on research are related to
    1. communication problems.
    2. individual and organizational factors.
    3. personal disinterest.
    4. rapid organizational changes.

 

Environment for EBP to flourish (p. 11)

  1. Which of the following promotes consistent EBP practice changes in an institution?
    1. Clinical experts such as Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) should be the authority for any change in practices.
    2. Change champions are needed on each work shift to facilitate practice changes.
    3. Nurse managers must mandate research within healthcare institutions.
  1. Opinion leaders should enforce adherence to their opinions.

 

Environment for EBP to flourish (p. 10)

  1. One method for overcoming a lack of resources to access evidence is to
    1. devote 15 minutes a day to reading evidence related to a clinical problem.
    2. attend conferences where clinical research is presented..
    3. bookmark important Web sites that are sources of clinical guidelines.
    4. collaborate with a nursing program for access to resources.

 

Barriers to adopting EBP (p. 9)

  1. What steps can be taken to overcome the time barrier to adopting an EBP?
    1. Devote 15 minutes a day to reading evidence related to a clinical problem.
    2. Subscribe to e-mail summaries of research studies in your area of interest.
    3. Take advantage of available technologies to provide quick and convenient access to relevant data and clinical guidelines.
    4. All of the above

 

Parts of a research article (p. 18)

  1. Which section of a research article provides an overview of the study?
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Review of literature
    4. Theoretical framework

 

Parts of a research article (pp. 18)

  1. Which section of a research article identifies the problem being studied and includes a purpose statement and background information on the topic?
    1. Discussion section
    2. Introduction
    3. Methods section
    4. Results section

 

Parts of a research article (p. 19)

  1. A major portion of a research article is the methods section, which includes a discussion of the study design, the sample, and the ____________ collected.
    1. solutions
    2. statistics
    3. data
    4. theories

 

Parts of a research article (p. 19)

  1. The ____________  section of a research article outlines the methods used to analyze the data and notes the findings.
    1. results
    2. summary
    3. introduction
    4. abstract

 

Parts of a research article (p. 20)

  1. Which section of a research article provides an interpretation of the studys results?
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Methods
    4. Discussion

 

Ethical issues (p. 24)

  1. The first regulations to protect human subjects in medical research studies were proposed by the ____________ in 1973.
    1. American Medical Association
    2. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
    3. U.S. Food and Drug Administration
    4. Association of American Universities

 

Ethical issues (p. 31)

  1. Which of the following forms the basis for ethical conduct in medical research internationally?
    1. Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital study
    2. Nuremberg Code
    3. Tuskegee studies
    4. Willowbrook studies

Short Answer/Fill-in

 

Identifying types of research

 

  1. The category of research that addresses why or how phenomena are related is ____________.

Answer: explanatory (p. 15)

 

  1. ____________ research aims to forecast when certain phenomena will occur.

Answer: predictive (p. 15)

 

  1. The type of research that analyzes words to focus on the meanings individuals give to their experiences is ____________.

Answer: qualitative (p. 17)

 

  1. Quantitative research focuses on collecting ____________ evidence, which is evidence gathered through observation using one or more of the five senses.

Answer: empirical (p. 15)

 

  1. ____________ research is concerned with providing accurate observations of phenomena in natural settings

Answer: descriptive (p. 15)

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

USING EVIDENCE THROUGH COLLABORATION TO PROMOTE EXCELLENCE IN NURSING PRACTICE

 

Multiple choice

 

EBP levels of collaboration (p. 40)

  1. What are the five EBP levels of collaboration?
    1. Organizational, societal, fraternal, national, and international
    2. Individual, organizational, regional, national, and international
    3. Professional, educational, organizational, regional, and national
    4. Individual, organizational, societal, regional, and international

 

 EBP levels of collaboration (p. 40)

  1. Of the situations listed, which is the best example of collaboration between the levels described in the model of EBP collaboration?
  1. A health care organization funds a group of nurses to attend a research conference related to practice areas that have had less than desirable outcomes in the past year.
  2. An individual nurse searches databases for the best evidence to support practice with a population of clients on a particular unit.
  3. A participant at a national nursing organization conference listens attentively to presenters related to the most relevant topics for the population served.
  4. A staff nurse uses findings from the Joanna Briggs Institute to support an EBP project, evaluates outcomes, and reports the findings at an international conference.

 

Individual nurse level (pp. 40-41)

  1. What is one step a staff nurse can take to advance EBP at the point of care?
    1. Establish the culture for EBP in institutional settings.
    2. Identify clinical questions related to current nursing practice.
    3. Promote consistent practice changes among different shifts.
    4. Reward nurses involved in EBP and help those who lack involvement.

 

Individual nurse level (p.  41)

  1. As a staff nurse, what steps can you take to advance EBP as part of your team or unit?
  1. Participate in implementing practice changes based on evidence.
  2. Participate as a member of an EBP project team.
  3. Participate in QI initiatives
  4. All of the above.

 

Individual nurse level (p.  41)

  1. As a staff nurse, how can you further educate yourself about EBP?
  1. Read evidence related to your area of practice on a regular basis.
  2. Watch what other nurses do.
  3. Follow the example of your supervisor.
  4. Act as a role model for younger staff.

 

Nurse manager level (p.  41)

  1. How can a nurse manager advance EBP as part of evaluating his or her staff?
  1. Set a good example with own behavior.
  2. Clearly outline goals for the team.
  3. Use performance criteria related to EBP.
  4. Participate in QI initiatives.

 

Advanced practice nurse level (p.  41)

  1. The advanced practice nurse can work to implement EBP by
  1. Serving as a coach and mentor in EBP.
  2. Locates relevant evidence and synthesizes evidence for practice.
  3. Uses evidence to writes and modify practice standards.
  4. All of the above.

 

Organizational level (p.  43)

  1. Creating an EBP culture is an example of contribution at the
  1. organizational level.
  2. individual nurse level.
  3. regional level.
  4. international level.

 

International level (p. 48)

  1. The Cochrane Collaboration and the Joanna Briggs Institute are examples of which EBP collaboration level?
  1. Individual
  2. International
  3. Organizational
  4. Regional

 

National level (p.  46)

  1. What national organizations can nurses use to locate EBP resources and EBP-based clinical guidelines?
  1. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, National Institute of Nursing Research, National Nursing Practice Network, and specialty nursing organizations.
  2. National Institutes of Health and regional resource centers.
  3. American Nurses Credentialing Center and the American Nurses Association.
  4. Department of Health and Human Services, Sigma Theta Tau International, and the Joanna Briggs Institute.

 

Ethical guidelines (pp. 50-51)

  1.  Which international code for ethical conduct by physicians conducting biomedical  research followed the Nuremberg Code and provides more specific guidelines?
    1. ANA Code of Ethics
    2. Belmont Report
    3. Code of Federal Regulations
    4. Declaration of Helsinki

 

Ethical guidelines (p. 52)

  1. Federal regulations mandate the establishment of institutional review boards whose purpose is to
    1. develop guidelines for conducting research.
    2. identify basic ethical principles in conducting research.
    3. review and approve research studies.
    4. provide a code of ethics for conducting research.

 

Institutional review board (p. 56)

  1. Which type of IRB review is required for research involving vulnerable populations or when there are substantial risks to participants?
    1. Special review
    2. Full review
    3. Expanded review
    4. Expedited review

 

Institutional review board (p. 56)

  1. A nurse researcher wants to interview parents and their autistic children regarding the childrens sleep patterns.  This study would require which type of IRB review?
    1. Expedited review
    2. Full review
    3. Special review
    4. Exempt from review

 

Institutional review board (pp. 57-58)

  1. A nurse educator is planning a research study related to experiential learning activities regarding caring for older adults with cognitive changes.  Which type of IRB review is needed?
  1. Exempt from review
  2. Expedited review
  3. Expanded review
  4. Full review

 

Institutional review board (p. 56)

  1. Research proposals may be eligible for an expedited review by the IRB if they involve minimal risk to participants. This means that
  1. there is a very low risk of harm or discomfort to study participants, no more than that involved in daily life or routine physical or psychological exams.
  2. the study will be based on the analysis of existing specimens or data only.
  3. there is some chance of harm to study participants due to invasive procedures.
  4. the study will only involve subject 18 years or older who have given consent.

 

Ethical issues (p. 52)

  1. The Belmont Report, issued in 1979, identified the following three ethical principles:
    1. confidentiality, consent, and justice.
    2. autonomy, social justice, and respect for persons.
    3. beneficence, respect for persons, and justice.
    4. altruism, confidentiality, and consent.

 

Institutional review board (p. 49)

  1. In regard to IRB criteria, which of the following are included in the category of vulnerable populations?
  1. Fetuses, infants, children, pregnant women
  2. Prisoners, students, females, African Americans
  3. Residents of long-term care facilities, students under the age of 18, infants
  4. Hospitalized adults, illegal aliens, premature infants, children

 

Nurses as patient advocates (p. 59)

  1. A nurse has agreed to assist in collecting data from patients in a primary care setting as part of a research study on grieving and coping skills.  What would be the most appropriate action by the nurse when a patient becomes visibly upset after relating that his son was recently killed in an automobile accident and that he does not want to talk further about it?
  1. Sympathize and explain how his answers will help many others.
  2. Weigh the potential greater good for a greater number of people and continue.
  3. Support the patient receiving care by ceasing further questioning.
  4. Consider the primary duty to advance nursing knowledge and continue questioning after a brief break.

 

Ethical issues (pp. 51, 54)

  1. A nurse has agreed to assist in collecting data from clients in a long-term-care setting.  The nurse becomes concerned upon realizing that many of the clients participating in the study have documented cognitive impairments.  Which ethical responsibility is being violated?
  1. Beneficence
  2. Confidentiality
  3. Voluntary participation
  4. Informed consent

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

IDENTIFYING RESEARCH QUESTIONS

 

Multiple choice

 

Research question (p. 68)

  1. An area of concern due to a gap in knowledge that requires a solution that can be described, explained, or predicted to improve practice is a
  1. research problem.
  2. purpose statement.
  3. null hypothesis.
  4. research hypothesis.

 

Research question (p. 68)

  1. Which one of the following could form the basis for a potential research study?
  2. The majority of patients are admitted between the hours of midnight and 4:00 a.m.
  3. The majority of nurses do not want to work the night shift.
  4. The majority of patient falls occur on the evening shift.
  5. The nurses who work the evening shift are not attentive to their patients.

 

Research process (pp. 72-73)

  1. An example of a ____________ is: The use of alcohol by freshman at XYZ State University contributes to alcohol-related injuries and increasing numbers of visits to the local emergency room.
  2. purpose statement.
  3. problem statement.
  4. research problem.

 

Research process (pp. 72-73)

  1. An example of a ____________ is: To determine if brief screening for alcohol use and nursing intervention during orientation reduces self-reported alcohol use, alcohol-related injuries, and visits to the emergency room by college students during their freshman year.
    1. problem statement
    2. purpose statement
    3. research question
    4. research hypothesis

 

Research process (p. 74)

  1. The following statement: There will be a change in nursing practice of nurses after completion of an EBP mentorship program as compared to before the mentorship program, is an example of a
  1. problem statement.
  2. purpose statement.
  3. research hypothesis.

 

Research process (p. 71)

  1. Once an idea is generated for a research problem, what is the next step?
  2. Identify variables to be studied.
  3. Perform a review of the literature.
  4. Conduct a survey to ascertain if the problem really exists.
  5. Formulate a hypothesis.

 

Hypothesis (p. 76)

  1. A simple hypothesis
  2. describes the associative or causal relationship between three or more variables.
  3. predicts how strong the relationship is between the variables.
  4. predicts an inverse relationship between the variables.
  5. describes the associative or causal relationship between two variables.

 

Hypothesis (p. 77)

  1. The following statement: There will be no difference in practice of nurses after completion of an EBP mentorship program as compared to before the mentorship program, is an example of a
  2. problem statement.
  3. purpose statement.
  4. directional hypothesis.
  5. null hypothesis.

 

Hypothesis (pp. 74-75)

  1. What is the purpose of formulating a hypothesis or hypotheses?
  2. To validate the research problem
  3. To provide direction for the research study by identifying possible outcomes
  4. To identify the independent variable
  5. To identify the dependent variable

 

Variables (p. 80)

  1. There will be a change in nursing practice after completion of an EBP mentorship program as compared to before the mentorship program. In the preceding statement, completion of an EBP mentorship program represents the
  2. confounding variable.
  3. dependent variable.
  4. extraneous variable.
  5. independent variable.

 

 

 

 

 

Variables (p. 80)

  1. Variables that confuse the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable, so that the research results do not really reflect a true relationship between the independent and dependent variables are
  2. extraneous variables.
  3. random variables.
  4. within-group variables.
  5. control variables.

 

Hypotheses (p. 75)

  1. A relationship between variables so that when one variable changes, the other variable changes is a(n)
  2. associative relationship.
  3. causal relationship.
  4. indirect relationship.
  5. predictive relationship.

 

Formulating EBP questions (p. 81)

  1. A widely used EBP model consisting of four components for identifying clinical questions for specific patient problems is known as the ____________ model.
  2. AHRQ
  3. PICO
  4. intervention
  5. comparison

 

Formulating EBP questions (p. 82)

  1. There is a study being conducted of adults over the age of 65 to investigate the effect of caregiver education on calming communication techniques in comparison to sedative medications on the agitation level of clients experiencing stage 2 dementia. In this study, the clients level of agitation would be the measured
  2. intervention.
  3. association.
  4. variable.
  5. outcome.

 

Short Answer/Fill-in

 

Dependent and independent variables (p. 80)

 

  1. In a study investigating the effect of eating a bowl of oatmeal every day for 30 days and serum cholesterol levels, ____________ is the independent variable.

Answer: oatmeal

 

  1. In a study investigating the effect of eating a bowl of oatmeal every day for 30 days and serum cholesterol levels, ____________ is the dependent variable.

Answer: serum cholesterol levels

 

  1. In a study designed to determine if exposure to x-rays during pregnancy increases the likelihood of birth defects, x-ray exposure is the ____________ variable.

Answer: independent

 

  1. In a study designed to determine if exposure to x-rays during pregnancy increases the likelihood of birth defects, birth defects are the ____________ variable.

Answer: dependent

 

  1. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which sex, age, height, and weight predict selected physiologic outcomes: namely, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV), hemoglobin concentration, food intake, serum glucose concentration, total serum cholesterol concentration, and cancer-related weight change (Brown et al., 1997). In this study, the ____________ variable is the physiologic outcomes.

Answer: dependent

 

  1. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which sex, age, height, and weight predict selected physiologic outcomes: namely, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV), hemoglobin concentration, food intake, serum glucose concentration, total serum cholesterol concentration, and cancer-related weight change (Brown et al., 1997). In this study, the ____________ variables are: sex, age, height, and weight.

Answer: independent

 

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