Test Bank For Family Theories: An Introduction 4th Edition by James M. White , David M. Klein, Todd F. Martin

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Test Bank For Family Theories: An Introduction 4th Edition by James M. White , David M. Klein, Todd F. Martin

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WITH ANSWERS
Family Theories: An Introduction 4th Edition by James M. White , David M. Klein, Todd F. Martin  
Test Bank 

 

Ch. 2 Test Questions

 

  1. ___________ about processes and causes are inherently behind every explanatory theory.
  2. Fallacies
  3. Proofs
  4. Facts

*d. Assumptions

 

  1. Philosophy usually refers to each of the following, except
  2. values
  3. ways of thinking

*c. logic

  1. an academic discipline

 

  1. Which of the following best illustrates the work of a philosopher of science?
  2. studies how scientists behave in their endeavors

*b. explores in abstract ways what science could be like

  1. analyzes the social organization of sciences
  2. monitors the rigor of scientific procedures

 

  1. Which philosophy of science is best described as attempting to explain and predict events?

*a. positivist

  1. interpretive
  2. critical
  3. analytical

 

  1. Which philosophy of science is best described as focusing on emancipation and empowerment?
  2. positivist
  3. interpretive

*c. critical

  1. analytical

 

  1. Which philosophy of science is best described as promoting understanding and empathy?
  2. positivist

*b. interpretive

  1. critical
  2. analytical

 

  1. The idea that most family scholars today reject a highly relativistic position regarding scientific knowledge is called

*a. pragmatic positivism

  1. absolutism
  2. positive realism
  3. arelativism

 

  1. Which of the following is not a highly valued part of knowledge from a positivistic perspective?
  2. has distinct observable components
  3. general and law-like knowledge
  4. can be empirically replicated

*d. contains personal meanings

 

  1. Ideology means any of the following, except:
  2. the study of a set of beliefs

*b. empirical validation

  1. a set of beliefs
  2. visionary speculation

 

  1. When professions follow actions that are backed up by scientific findings, this is typically called
  2. proven anecdotes
  3. absolute rules

*c. best practices

  1. reasonable reactions

 

  1. A researcher hopes to discover a way to prevent divorce, hoping that fewer children will confront common challenges associated with divorce. This goal reflects which type of scientific value?
  2. epistemology

*b. teleology

  1. applicology
  2. rationology

 

  1. According to this model of scientific explanation, an explanation of something is derived from premises that include at least one general law-like statement and specific conditions.

*a. covering law

  1. universalism
  2. causal model
  3. law-based reasoning

 

  1. In which of the following eras was identifying conceptual frameworks the main theme of family theorizing?

*a. 1950-1966

  1. 1967-1979
  2. 1980-1999
  3. 2000-Present

 

  1. In which of the following eras was a mixture of consensus and conflict over theory-building methods the main theme of family theorizing?
  2. 1950-1966
  3. 1967-1979
  4. 1980-1999

*d. 2000-Present

 

  1. In which of the following eras was formal theory construction the main theme of family theorizing?
  2. 1950-1966

*b. 1967-1979

  1. 1980-1999
  2. 2000-Present

 

  1. In which of the following eras was pluralism the main theme of family theorizing?
  2. 1950-1966
  3. 1967-1979

*c. 1980-1999

  1. 2000-Present

 

  1. To help promote formal family theory construction, Wes Burr did all of the following except
  2. spearheaded two volumes based on propositions and general theories.
  3. proposed a section on theory within the National Council on Family Relations.

*c. developed a family theory that reflected what was known about families at the time.

  1. help create a workshop on theory construction at an annual conference.

 

  1. During its peak, pluralism was typically viewed as a sign of
  2. regression in scientific understanding.
  3. declining respect for a variety of perspectives and philosophies.
  4. unifying principles within family disciplines.

*d. a fragmentation and specialization of scholarly interests.

 

  1. Within this philosophy of science, it is generally accepted that objectivity is possible.

*a. positivist

  1. interpretive
  2. critical
  3. analytical

 

  1. Within this philosophy of science, subjective meaning attributed to events is central.
  2. positivist

*b. interpretive

  1. critical
  2. analytical

 

  1. Within this philosophy of science, emphasis is placed on who has control over shaping knowledge.
  2. positivist
  3. interpretive

*c. critical

  1. analytical

 

  1. Philosophers generally do not rely principally on empirical methods for giving credibility to their ideas.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Historically speaking, philosophy has influenced all sciences except the physical sciences.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Pragmatic positivism reflects the idea that most family scholars believe in absolute truth.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. The authors caution that ideologies may influence how family scholars respond to a theory but ideologies are not inherently within scientific theories themselves.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Pragmatism suggests that the assumptions one has are linked to ones purpose for scientific discovery.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. A major turning point in the development of family theory took place around 1950.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. In the modern era, the family scholarly community has become increasingly similar and is moving more and more in a single way of thinking about families.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. It is clear that trends toward pluralism in theory development and scholarship have become universally embraced today.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. If one does not fully embrace pluralism and post-modernism, one therefore assumes that absolute truth is knowable.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Briefly compare and contrast the goals of family scientists who hold each of the following philosophies of science: positivistic, interpretive, and critical.
  2. Answer should include positivism being about explanation and prediction, interpretive about understanding and empathy, and critical about emancipation and empowerment.

 

  1. Explain how a scientific theory can be useful to people with different ideologies.
  2. Answer should focus on how a theory is distinct from ideology, but can be used in a variety of ways to further differing agendas that promote specific outcomes.

 

  1. Explain why the scientific method may fall short of establishing what is actually true.
  2. Answer should include issues of disproving rather than proving hypotheses, that there is no universal scientific methodit is not completely clear what makes knowledge scientific.

 

  1. Explain why it appears that family theorizing will not result in one grand theoretical scheme to explain everything about families.
  2. Answer should include ideas about pluralism having become more popular, about the trend toward min-theories and narrowly-focused theories, about trends toward interpretive and critical philosophies over positivistic philosophy.

Ch. 9 Test Questions

 

  1. Modern approaches to the nature-nurture debate
  2. indicate that nature has the dominant influence on human behavior.
  3. are no longer pertinent to modern ecological theory.
  4. have shown that environmental influences start working at birth.

*d. appears to have moved beyond nature versus nurture.

 

  1. According to this specific assumption, humans may need the assistance of technology to survive in certain places.
  2. Human beings are social and thus are dependent on other human beings.
  3. Human behavior can be understood on several levels.
  4. Human interactions are spatially organized.

*d. Humans are dependent on their environment for sustenance.

 

  1. According to this specific assumption, the passage of time is a key constraint and resource.

*a. Human beings are social and thus are dependent on other human beings.

  1. Human behavior can be understood on several levels
  2. Human interactions are spatially organized.
  3. Humans are dependent on their environment for sustenance.

 

  1. According to this specific assumption, people have observable structure and order in their living environments.
  2. Human beings are social and thus are dependent on other human beings.
  3. Human behavior can be understood on several levels

*c. Human interactions are spatially organized.

  1. Humans are dependent on their environment for sustenance.

 

  1. According to this specific assumption, that which is good for one person might be bad for a group of people.
  2. Human beings are social and thus are dependent on other human beings.

*b. Human behavior can be understood on several levels.

  1. Human interactions are spatially organized.
  2. Humans are dependent on their environment for sustenance.

 

  1. Because humans are _____, time becomes a crucial resource for understanding behavior.

*a. finite

  1. social
  2. intelligent
  3. survivors

 

  1. The two levels of analysis most commonly used in human ecology are
  2. family and population.
  3. population and individual.
  4. family and culture.
  5. individual and family.

 

  1. This concept most directly relates to the extent to which an organism can adapt to the environment.
  2. ecological levels
  3. ecosystem

*c. adaptive range

  1. niche

 

  1. This concept most directly relates to distinct processes for a person compared to a theoretically meaningful group.

*a. ecological levels

  1. ecosystem
  2. adaptive range
  3. niche

 

  1. This concept most directly relates to activities that serve functions for the larger system.
  2. ecological levels
  3. ecosystem
  4. adaptive range

*d. niche

 

  1. This concept most directly relates to a subset of a larger environment.
  2. ecological levels

*b. ecosystem

  1. adaptive range
  2. niche

 

  1. Growing up during the sexual revolution would be an example of which ecosystem?
  2. microsystem
  3. mesosystem
  4. exosystem

*d. macrosystem

 

  1. Teaming up with a classmate to complete an assignment would be an example of which ecosystem?

*a. microsystem

  1. mesosystem
  2. exosystem
  3. macrosystem

 

  1. Working together to develop family rituals that are consistent with ones religious community would be an example of which ecosystem?
  2. microsystem

*b. mesosystem

  1. exosystem
  2. macrosystem

 

  1. The most important social part of internal development is
  2. ageing.
  3. ontogenetic development.
  4. time.

*d. maturation.

 

  1. Which of the following is an evolutionary example of an organism being selected in the sense of natural selection and adaptation?
  2. a more tame breed of dog being preferred by families with small children
  3. grasshoppers with longer legs being able to flee from birds

*c. the larger deer within a population that were too large to hide from wolves

  1. flowers being bread for their longer lasting aroma

 

  1. Consistent with the propositions stated by Bronfenbrenner, a childs development

*a. is inherently an interactional process beginning at conception.

  1. over time becomes less interdependent with parents.
  2. is more corporate than commenalistic when the child is young.
  3. leads to a decreasing specialization of roles.

 

  1. Which variation of ecology is most closely aligned to the study of group adaptation through the use of a technique called population analysis?
  2. Human Developmental Ecology
  3. Sociobiology and Bioecology of the Family

*c. Family Demography and Ecology

  1. Human Ecology, Family and Consumer Sciences

 

  1. Which variation of ecology is most closely aligned to applying scientific knowledge and principles to home management?
  2. Human Developmental Ecology
  3. Sociobiology and Bioecology of the Family
  4. Family Demography and Ecology

*d. Human Ecology, Family and Consumer Sciences

 

  1. Which variation of ecology is most closely aligned to viewing behavior as an interaction between ones traits and ones environment that includes several ecological levels?

*a. Human Developmental Ecology

  1. Sociobiology and Bioecology of the Family
  2. Family Demography and Ecology
  3. Human Ecology, Family and Consumer Sciences

 

  1. Which variation of ecology is most closely aligned to focusing on how inclusive fitness influences reproductive strategies?
  2. Human Developmental Ecology

*b. Sociobiology and Bioecology of the Family

  1. Family Demography and Ecology
  2. Human Ecology, Family and Consumer Sciences

 

  1. Based on common critiques of the ecological framework, one of its particular strengths is
  2. a clear independence from a value-laden orientation toward families and society.

*b. including biological and social influences to account for internal and external dynamics of change.

  1. how well concepts are applied to both development and decline or decay.
  2. its clear guidelines on the appropriate usage of each level of analysis.

 

  1. The ecological perspective clearly argues that human behavior is rooted socially, not biologically.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. According to the ecological framework, a negative outcome for a family could still be seen as a positive outcome.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. Technology inherently lessens the adaptive range of humans.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Bronfenbrenner argued that development is best understood as being of two distinct types, the biological and the social.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Natural selection and adaptation are just different sides of the same process.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. According to the propositions by Bronfenbrenner, in the study of development, the individual is the smallest unit of analysis.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Bronfenbrenner refined his theory by adding the element of time, incorporated into the concept of the chronosystem.

*a. True

  1. False

 

  1. The concept of inclusive fitness would predict that cousins would work harder to support one another than would siblings.
  2. True

*b. False

 

  1. Explain how analyzing humans at more than one level can add insight into judging the value of a behavior.
  2. Answer should include that something that could be hurtful to a particular individual or group could be functional for a group or a larger society; without analyzing the behavior on the societal level, the individual behavior may appear to be nonsensical.

 

  1. Describe the contemporary discussion of nature and nurture as they apply to behavior.
  2. Answer should include that we have largely moved beyond natures versus nurture to understanding that in many complex ways they interact with one another to influence behavior.

 

  1. Explain how a childs relationship to the family changes as a child ages, consistent with the propositions of Bronfenbrenner.
  2. Answer should include that as children age their functions in the family change from being supported and maintained to becoming more interdependent; children take on increasingly specialized roles that match their maturation and age-graded norms.

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