Test Bank For Fundamentals Nursing Active Learning 1st Edition Yoost Crawford Test Bank

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Test Bank For Fundamentals Nursing Active Learning 1st Edition Yoost Crawford Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS

 

Fundamentals Nursing Active Learning 1st Edition Yoost Crawford Test Bank

Chapter 01: Nursing, Theory, and Professional Practice

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. A group of students are discussing the impact of non-nursing theories in clinical practice. The students would be correct if they chose which theory to prioritize patient care?
a. Eriksons Psychosocial Theory
b. Pauls Critical Thinking Theory
c. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
d. Rosenstocks Health Belief Model

 

 

ANS:  C

Maslows hierarchy of needs specifies the psychological and physiologic factors that affect each persons physical and mental health. The nurses understanding of these factors helps with formulating nursing diagnoses that address the patients needs and values to prioritize care.  Eriksons Psychosocial Theory of Development and Socialization is based on individuals interacting and learning about their world. Nurses use concepts of developmental theory to critically think in providing care for their patients at various stages of their lives. Rosenstock (1974) developed the psychological Health Belief Model. The model addresses possible reasons for why a patient may not comply with recommended health promotion behaviors. This model is especially useful to nurses as they educate patients.

 

DIF:    Remembering                                 REF:   p. 8 | pp. 10-11

OBJ:   1.4                 TOP:   Planning

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

NOT:  Concepts: Care Coordination

 

  1. A nursing student is preparing study notes from a recent lecture in nursing history. The student would credit Florence Nightingale for which definition of nursing?
a. The imbalance between the patient and the environment decreases the capacity for health.
b. The nurse needs to focus on interpersonal processes between nurse and patient.
c. The nurse assists the patient with essential functions toward independence.
d. Human beings are interacting in continuous motion as energy fields.

 

 

ANS:  A

Florence Nightingales (1860) concept of the environment emphasized prevention and clean air, water, and housing. This theory states that the imbalance between the patient and the environment decreases the capacity for health and does not allow for conservation of energy. Hildegard Peplau (1952) focused on the roles played by the nurse and the interpersonal process between a nurse and a patient. Virginia Henderson described the nurses role as substitutive (doing for the person), supplementary (helping the person), or complementary (working with the person), with the ultimate goal of independence for the patient. Martha Rogers (1970) developed the Science of Unitary Human Beings. She stated that human beings and their environments are interacting in continuous motion as infinite energy fields.

 

DIF:    Understanding                                           REF:               p. 7     OBJ:    1.1

TOP:   Planning         MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

NOT:  Concepts: Health Promotion

 

  1. Which  nurse established the American Red Cross during the Civil War?
a. Dorothea Dix
b. Linda Richards
c. Lena Higbee
d. Clara Barton

 

 

ANS:  D

Clara Barton practiced nursing in the Civil War and established the American Red Cross. Dorothea Dix was the head of the U.S. Sanitary Commission, which was a forerunner of the Army Nurse Corps. Linda Richards was Americas first trained nurse, graduating from Bostons Womens Hospital in 1873, and Lena Higbee, superintendent of the U.S. Navy Nurse Corps, was awarded the Navy Cross in 1918.

 

DIF:    Remembering                                 REF:   p. 5                OBJ:   1.3

TOP:   Assessment    MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

NOT:  Concepts: Professionalism

 

  1. The nursing instructor is researching the five proficiencies regarded as essential for students and professionals. Which organization, if explored by the instructor, would be found to have added safety as a sixth competency?
a. Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN)
b. Institute of Medicine (IOM)
c. American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN)
d. National League for Nursing (NLN)

 

 

ANS:  A

The Institute of Medicine report, Health Professions Education: A Bridge to Quality (2003), outlines five core competencies. These include patient-centered care, interdisciplinary teamwork, use of evidence-based medicine, quality improvement, and use of information technology. QSEN added safety as a sixth competency. The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice are provided and updated by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) (2008). The document offers a framework for the education of professional nurses with outcomes for students to meet.  The National League for Nursing (NLN) outlines and updates competencies for practical, associate, baccalaureate, and graduate nursing education programs.

 

DIF:    Remembering                                  REF:   p. 17              OBJ:   1.1

TOP:   Planning

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

NOT:  Concepts: Care Coordination

 

  1. The nurse manager is interviewing graduate nurses to fill existing staffing vacancies.  When hiring graduate nurses, the nurse manager realizes that they will probably not be considered competent until:
a. They graduate and pass NCLEX.
b. They have worked 2 to 3 years.
c. Their last year of nursing school.
d. They are actually hired.

 

 

ANS:  B

Benners model identifies five levels of proficiency: novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. The student nurse progresses from novice to advanced beginner during nursing school and attains the competent level after approximately 2 to 3 years of work experience after graduation.  To obtain the RN credential, a person must graduate from an approved school of nursing and pass a state licensing examination called the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) usually taken soon after completion of an approved nursing program.

 

DIF:    Remembering                                 REF:   p. 13              OBJ:   1.7

TOP:   Planning

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

NOT:  Concepts: Care Coordination

 

  1. The prospective student is considering options for beginning a career in nursing. Which degree would best match the students desire to conduct research at the university level?
a. Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN)
b. Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN)
c. Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)
d. Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing (PhD)

 

 

ANS:  D

Doctoral nursing education can result in a doctor of philosophy (PhD) degree. This degree prepares nurses for leadership roles in research, teaching, and administration that are essential to advancing nursing as a profession. Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN) programs usually are conducted in a community college setting. The nursing curriculum focuses on adult acute and chronic disease; maternal/child health; pediatrics; and psychiatric/mental health nursing. ADN RNs may return to school to earn a bachelors degree or higher in an RN-to-BSN or RN-to-MSN program. Bachelors degree programs include community health and management courses beyond those provided in an associate degree program. A newer practice-focused doctoral degree is the doctor of nursing practice (DNP), which concentrates on the clinical aspects of nursing. DNP specialties include the four advanced practice roles of NP, CNS, CNM, and CRNA.

 

DIF:    Remembering                                 REF:   pp. 15-16       OBJ:   1.8

TOP:   Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

NOT:  Concepts: Care Coordination

 

  1. During a staff meeting, the nurse manager announces that the hospital will be seeking Magnet status. In order to explain the requirements for this award, the nurse manager will contact the:
a. American Nurses Association (ANA).
b. American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC).
c. National League for Nursing (NLN).
d. Joint Commission.

 

 

ANS:  B

The American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) awards Magnet Recognition to hospitals that have shown excellence and innovation in nursing. The ANA is a professional organization that provides standards of nursing practice. The National League for Nursing (NLN) outlines and updates competencies for practical, associate, baccalaureate, and graduate nursing education programs. The Joint Commission is the accrediting organization for health care facilities in the United States.

 

DIF:    Remembering                                 REF:   p. 14 | pp. 16-17

OBJ:   1.9                 TOP:   Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

NOT:  Concepts: Care Coordination

 

  1. The nurse is caring for a patient who refuses two units of packed red blood cells. The nurse notifies the health care provider of the patients decision. The nurse is acting in the role of the:
a. Manager.
b. Change agent.
c. Advocate.
d. Educator.

 

 

ANS:  C

As the patients advocate, the nurse interprets information and provides the necessary education. The nurse then accepts and respects the patients decisions even if they are different from the nurses own beliefs. The nurse supports the patients wishes and communicates them to other health care providers. A nurse manages all of the activities and treatments for patients. A nurse manages all of the activities and treatments for patients. In the role of change agent, the nurse works with patients to address their health concerns and with staff members to address change in an organization or within a community. The nurse ensures that the patient receives sufficient information on which to base consent for care and related treatment. Education becomes a major focus of discharge planning so that patients will be prepared to handle their own needs at home.

 

DIF:    Applying        REF:   pp. 3-4           OBJ:   1.2                 TOP:   Implementation

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

NOT:  Concepts: Care Coordination

 

  1. The nursing student develops a plan of care based on a recently published article describing the effects of bedrest on a patients calcium blood levels. In creating the plan of care, the nursing student has the obligation to:
a. Critically appraise the evidence and determine validity.
b. Ensure that the plan of care does not alter current practice.
c. Change the process even when there is no problem identified.
d. Maintain the plan of care regardless of initial outcome.

 

 

ANS:  A

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an integration of the best-available research evidence with clinical judgment about a specific patient situation. The nurse assesses current and past research, clinical guidelines, and other resources to identify relevant literature. The application of EBP includes critically appraising the evidence to assess its validity, designing a change for practice, assessing the need for change and identifying a problem, and integrating and maintaining change while monitoring process and outcomes by reevaluating the application of evidence and assessing areas for improvement.

 

DIF:    Applying        REF:   p. 4                OBJ:   1.2                 TOP:   Implementation

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

NOT:  Concepts: Care Coordination

 

  1. The nurse is delegating frequent blood pressure (BP) measurements for a patient admitted with a gunshot wound to a licensed practical nurse (LPN). When delegating, the nurse understands that:
a. He/she may assume that the LPN is able to perform this task appropriately.
b. The LPN is ultimately responsible for the patient findings and assessment.
c. The LPN may perform the tasks assigned without further supervision.
d. He/she retains ultimate responsibility for patient care and supervision is needed.

 

 

ANS:  D

The RN retains ultimate responsibility for patient care, which requires supervision of those to whom patient care is delegated. In the process of collaboration, the nurse delegates certain activities to other health care personnel. The RN needs to know the scope of practice or capabilities of each health care member. For example, UAPs are capable of performing basic care that includes providing hygienic care, taking vital signs, helping the patient ambulate, and assisting with eating.

 

DIF:    Understanding                                           REF:               p. 5     OBJ:    1.2

TOP:   Implementation

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

NOT:  Concepts: Care Coordination

 

  1. The nurse is preparing to discharge a patient admitted with fever of unknown origin. The patient states, I never got past the fifth grade in school. Dont read much.  Never saw much sense in it.  But I do OK.  I can read most stuff. But my doctor explains things good, and doesnt think that my sickness is serious.  The nurse should:
a. Provide discharge medication information from a professional source to provide the most information.
b. Expect that the patient may return to the hospital if the discharge process is poorly done.
c. Assume that the physician and the patient have a good rapport and that the physician will clarify everything.
d. Defer offering the patient the opportunity to get the influenza vaccine because of the rapport that he has with his physician.

 

 

ANS:  B

Low health literacy is associated with increased hospitalization, greater emergency care use, lower use of mammography, and lower receipt of influenza vaccine.  A goal of patient education by the nurse is to inform patients and deliver information that is understandable by examining their level of health literacy. The more understandable health information is for patients, the closer the care is coordinated with need.

 

DIF:    Applying        REF:   p. 3                OBJ:   1.2                 TOP:   Implementation

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

NOT:  Concepts: Health Promotion

 

  1. A nurse is caring for a patient who lost a large amount of blood during childbirth. The nurse provides the opportunity for the patient to maintain her activity level while providing adequate periods of rest and encouragement. Which nursing theory would the nurse most likely choose as a framework for addressing the fatigue associated with the low blood count?
a. Watson Human Caring Theory
b. Parses Theory of Human Becoming
c. Roys Adaptation Model
d. Rogers Science of Unitary Human Beings

 

 

ANS:  C

Roys Adaptation Model is based on the human being as an adaptive open system. The person adapts by meeting physiologic-physical needs, developing a positive self-conceptgroup identity, performing social role functions, and balancing dependence and independence. Stressors result in illness by disrupting the equilibrium. Nursing care is directed at altering stimuli that are stressors to the patient. The nurse helps patients strengthen their abilities to adapt to their illnesses or helps them to develop adaptive behaviors. Watsons theory is based on caring, with nurses dedicated to health and healing. The nurse functions to preserve the dignity and wholeness of humans in health or while peacefully dying. Parses theory is called the Human Becoming School of Thought. Parse formulated the Theory of Human Becoming by combining concepts from Martha Rogers Science of Unitary Human Beings with existential-phenomenologic thought. This theory looks at the person as a constantly changing being, and at nursing as a human science. Martha Rogers (1970) developed the Science of Unitary Human Beings. She stated that human beings and their environments are interacting in continuous motion as infinite energy fields.

 

DIF:    Applying        REF:   pp. 7-8           OBJ:   1.4                 TOP:   Implementation

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

NOT:  Concepts: Care Coordination

 

  1. Which nursing theorist described the relationship between the nurse and the patient as an interpersonal and therapeutic process?
a. Virginia Henderson
b. Betty Neuman
c. Imogene King
d. Hildegard Peplau

 

 

ANS:  D

Hildegard Peplau focused on the roles played by the nurse and the interpersonal process between a nurse and a patient. The interpersonal process occurs in overlapping phases: (1) orientation, (2) working, consisting of two subphases: identification and exploitation, and (3) resolution. Betty Neumans Systems Model includes a holistic concept and an open-system approach. The model identifies energy resources that provide for basic survival, with lines of resistance that are activated when a stressor invades the system. Virginia Henderson described the nurses role as substitutive (doing for the person), supplementary (helping the person), or complementary (working with the person), with the ultimate goal of independence for the patient. Imogene King developed a general systems framework that incorporates three levels of systems: (1) individual or personal, (2) group or interpersonal, and (3) society or social. The theory of goal attainment discusses the importance of interaction, perception, communication, transaction, self, role, stress, growth and development, time, and personal space. In this theory, both the nurse and the patient work together to achieve the goals in the continuous adjustment to stressors.

 

DIF:    Remembering                                 REF:   pp. 7-8           OBJ:   1.4

TOP:   Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

NOT:  Concepts: Health Promotion

 

  1. A nursing class volunteers to serve hot meals at a local homeless shelter on a Saturday afternoon. This focus on serving the community is called:
a. Altruism.
b. Accountability.
c. Autonomy.
d. Advocate.

 

 

ANS:  A

A profession provides services needed by society. Additionally, practitioners motivation is public service over personal gain (altruism). Service to the public requires intellectual activities, which include responsibility. This accountability has legal, ethical, and professional implications. Members of a profession have autonomy in decision making and practice and are self-regulating in that they develop their own policies in collaboration with one another. As the patients advocate, the nurse interprets information and provides the necessary education. The nurse then accepts and respects the patients decisions even if they are different from the nurses own beliefs.

 

DIF:    Understanding                                           REF:               p. 4 | p. 12     OBJ:    1.5

TOP:   Assessment    MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

NOT:  Concepts: Health Promotion

 

  1. A patient is being discharged from the hospital with wound care dressing changes. The nurse recommends a referral for home health nursing care. The nurse is using which standard of practice?
a. Assessment
b. Diagnosis
c. Planning
d. Implementation

 

 

ANS:  C

As a care provider, the nurse follows the Nursing Process to assess patient data, prioritize nursing diagnoses, plan the care of the patient, implement the appropriate interventions, and evaluate care in an ongoing cycle.  In recommending a referral, the nurse is, in effect, planning care.

 

DIF:    Applying        REF:   p. 3                OBJ:   1.6                 TOP:   Planning

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

NOT:  Concepts: Care Coordination

 

  1. The nurse administers a medication to the patient and then realizes that the medication had been discontinued. The error is immediately reported to the physician. The nurse is complying with the standards of professional performance known as:
a. Ethics.
b. Socialization.
c. Altruism.
d. Autonomy.

 

 

ANS:  A

Guiding the nurses professional practice are ethical behaviors. Ethics is the standards of right and wrong behavior. The main concepts in nursing ethics are accountability, advocacy, autonomy (be independent and self-motivated), beneficence (act in the best interest of the patient), confidentiality, fidelity (keep promises), justice (relate to others with fairness and equality), nonmaleficence (do no harm), responsibility, and veracity (be truthful). Ethical guidelines direct the nurses decision making in routine situations and in ethical dilemmas. Socialization to professional nursing is a process that involves learning the theory and skills necessary for the role of nurse. A profession provides services needed by society. Additionally, practitioners motivation is public service over personal gain (altruism). Members of a profession have autonomy in decision making and practice and are self-regulating in that they develop their own policies in collaboration with one another.

 

DIF:    Applying        REF:   pp. 12-13       OBJ:   1.6                 TOP:   Implementation

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control  NOT:           Concepts: Ethics

 

  1. A newly licensed registered nurse is curious about the scope of care that she has in caring for patients undergoing conscious sedation. Which would be the best source of information?
a. National Student Nurses Association
b. Nurse Practice Act
c. ANA Standards of Professional Performance
d. National League for Nursing

 

 

ANS:  B

Nurse practice acts provide the scope of practice defined by each state or jurisdiction and set forth the legal limits of nursing practice. Nursing organizations enable the nurse to have access to current information and resources as well as a voice in the profession. Nursing organizations include the ANA, the NLN, the ICN, Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing, and the National Student Nurses Association (NSNA).

 

DIF:    Remembering                                 REF:   p. 13 | p. 16    OBJ:   1.6

TOP:   Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

NOT:  Concepts: Health Care Law

 

  1. The nursing student is writing a paper about the direct patient care role of advanced practice nurses.  Which of the following advanced practice roles would the student include in the report?
a. Nurse Administrator
b. Clinical Nurse Leader
c. Clinical Nurse Specialist
d. Nurse Educator

 

 

ANS:  C

There are four specialties in which nurses provide direct patient care in advanced practice roles: certified nurse midwife (CNM), nurse practitioner (NP), clinical nurse specialist (CNS), and certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA). Four additional advanced practice roles that do not always involve direct patient care are clinical nurse leader (CNL), nurse educator, nurse researcher, and nurse administrator.

 

DIF:    Remembering                                 REF:   p. 15              OBJ:   1.8

TOP:   Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

NOT:  Concepts: Health Care Law

 

  1. The nurse is determining the patient care assignments for a nursing unit. Which of the following responsibilities may be delegated to the licensed practical nurse?
a. Initiating the nursing care plans
b. Formulating nursing diagnoses
c. Assessing a newly admitted patient
d. Administering oral medications

 

 

ANS:  D

LPNs, or LVNs in California and Texas, are not RNs. They complete an educational program consisting of 12 to 18 months of training, and then they must pass the National Council Licensure Examination for Practical Nurses (NCLEX-PN) to practice as an LPN/LVN. They are under the supervision of an RN in most institutions and are able to collect data but cannot perform an assessment requiring decision making, cannot formulate a nursing diagnosis, and cannot initiate a care plan. They may update care plans and administer medications with the exception of certain IV medications.

 

DIF:    Applying        REF:   p. 15              OBJ:   1.8                 TOP:   Implementation

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

NOT:  Concepts: Health Care Law

 

  1. The nursing student is taking a class in Nursing Research.  In class she has learned that the most abstract level of knowledge is the:
a. Metaparadigm.
b. Philosophy.
c. Conceptual framework.
d. Nursing theory.

 

 

ANS:  A

A metaparadigm, as the most abstract level of knowledge, is defined as a global set of concepts that identify and describe the central phenomena of the discipline and explain the relationship between those concepts. For example, the metaparadigm for nursing focuses on the concepts of person, environment, health, and nursing. The next level of knowledge is a philosophy, which is a statement about the beliefs and values of nursing in relation to a specific phenomenon such as health. The third level of knowledge is a nursing conceptual framework, or model, which is a collection of interrelated concepts that provides direction for nursing practice, research, and education. The fourth level of nursing knowledge is a nursing theory, which represents a group of concepts that can be tested in practice and can be derived from a conceptual model.

 

DIF:    Remembering                                 REF:   p. 6                OBJ:   1.4

TOP:   Assessment    MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

NOT:  Concepts: Professionalism

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. Which statement contributes to the understanding that nursing is considered a profession? (Select all that apply.)
a. Nursing requires specialized training.
b. Nursing has a specialized body of knowledge.
c. The ANA regulates nursing practice.
d. Nurses make independent decisions within their scope of practice.
e. Once licensure is complete, no further education is required.

 

 

ANS:  A, B, D

A profession is an occupation that requires at a minimum specialized training and a specialized body of knowledge. Nursing meets these minimum requirements. Thus nursing is considered to be a profession. Members of a profession have autonomy in decision making and practice and are self-regulating in that they develop their own policies in collaboration with one another. Nursing professionals make independent decisions within their scope of practice and are responsible for the results and consequences of those decisions. A profession is committed to competence and has a legally recognized license. Members are accountable for continuing their education. The ANA is a professional organization that provides standards (not regulation) of nursing practice.

 

DIF:    Remembering                                 REF:   p. 3 | p. 12      OBJ:   1.5

TOP:   Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

NOT:  Concepts: Professionalism

 

  1. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) Report identified several goals for nursing in the United States. The IOM suggested that: (Select all that apply.)
a. Nurses should practice to the full extent of their education.
b. Nursing education should demonstrate seamless progression.
c. Nurses should continue to be subservient to physicians in the hospital setting.
d. Policy making requires better data collection and information infrastructure.
e. Higher levels of education should not be sought by practicing nurses.

 

 

ANS:  A, B, D

The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health (IOM, 2011) identified several goals for nursing in the United States: Nurses should practice to the full extent of their education and training; Nurses should achieve higher levels of education and training through an improved education system that promotes seamless academic progression; Nurses should be full partners with physicians and other health care professionals in redesigning health care in the United States; and Effective workforce planning and policy making require better data collection and an improved information infrastructure.

 

DIF:    Remembering                                 REF:   p. 17              OBJ:   1.1

TOP:   Assessment    MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

NOT:  Concepts: Professionalism

 

  1. The nurse is caring for a patient admitted for the removal of an infected appendix. Which  actions by the nurse would indicate an understanding of the 2012 hospital safety goals? (Select all that apply.)
a. Places an identification band on the right arm
b. Marks the surgical site with a black-felt pen
c. Checks medications three times before administration.
d. Washes hands between patients and/or when soiled.
e. Removes allergy bands prior to transfer to surgery.

 

 

ANS:  A, B, C, D

The 2012 hospital goals include the following broad categories: Identify patients correctly (Placing an ID band on the right are), improve staff communication, use medicines safely (Check medications three times before administration), prevent infection (Washing hands), identify patient safety risks, and prevent mistakes in surgery (Mark the surgical site with a black-felt pen). Removing allergy bands would prevent identification of that patients safety risk.

 

DIF:    Applying        REF:   p. 14 | pp. 16-18                             OBJ:   1.1

TOP:   Implementation

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control  NOT:           Concepts: Care Coordination

 

  1. The nurse is conducting a health assessment on a patient from a foreign country. Which of the following should be addressed during the interview? (Select all that apply.)
a. Food preferences
b. Religious practices
c. Health beliefs
d. Family orientation
e. Politics

 

 

ANS:  A, B, C, D

Culture is the integrated patterns of human behavior that include the language, thoughts, communications, actions, customs, beliefs, values, and institutions of racial, ethnic, religious, or social groups.

 

DIF:    Applying        REF:   p. 13              OBJ:   1.5                 TOP:   Implementation

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity   NOT:  Concepts: Care Coordination

 

  1. The nurse documents that patient laboratory results often take 4 hours to populate into the electronic medical record. The lengthy time frame has contributed to delayed antibiotic administration. From this point, what should the nurse do to produce change using the evidence-based process? (Select all that apply.)
a. Assess the need for change and identify a problem.
b. Reconstruct the information into an answerable question.
c. Review pertinent journal articles from the literature search.
d. Apply the findings to clinical practice through collaboration.

 

 

ANS:  B, C, D

The application of EBP includes the following basic components: Assessing the need for change and identifying a problem, linking the problem with interventions and outcomes by formulating a well-built question to search the literature, identifying articles and other evidence-based resources that answer the question, critically appraising the evidence to assess its validity, synthesizing the best evidence, designing a change for practice, implementing and evaluating the change by applying the synthesized evidence, and integrating and maintaining change while monitoring process and outcomes by reevaluating the application of evidence and assessing areas for improvement. By identifying the problem, assessing the need for change and identifying the problem has already been completed.

 

DIF:    Analyzing      REF:   p. 4                OBJ:   1.2                 TOP:   Analysis

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

NOT:  Concepts: Evidence

Chapter 03: Communication

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The nurse is caring for an adult patient with a recent below-the-knee amputation. During shift report, the nurse reports that the patient has urinated in the bed multiple times since the surgery. Which defense mechanism best describes this behavior?
a. compensation
b. denial
c. rationalization
d. regression

 

 

ANS:  D

Regression is the return to an earlier developmental stage as a means of avoiding unpleasant or unacceptable thoughts. The adult patient recently lost a limb and reverted to bedwetting as a coping mechanism. Compensation refers to a strategy that uses a personal strength to counterbalance a weakness or a feeling of inadequacy. Refusing to accept a fact or reality as truth is termed denial. Rationalization is the act of suggesting a different explanation for one that is painful, negative, or unacceptable.

 

DIF:    Understanding                                           REF:               p. 51   OBJ:    3.8

TOP:   Assessment    MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

NOT:  Concepts: Coping

 

  1. A female patient is admitted to the emergency department after being raped by a neighbor. The patient refuses to discuss the circumstances surrounding the event with the sexual assault nurse examiner. This patient is most likely using the defense mechanism of:
a. suppression
b. sublimation
c. displacement
d. rationalization

 

 

ANS:  A

Suppression is the conscious decision to conceal unacceptable or painful thoughts. The patient refuses to talk about the rape possibly because of the emotional and physical pain associated with the act. Sublimation is the rechanneling of unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable activities. Displacement is an unconscious defense mechanism used to avoid conflict and anxiety by transferring emotions from one object to another object that produces less anxiety.  Rationalization is the act of suggesting a different explanation for one that is painful, negative, or unacceptable.

 

DIF:    Understanding                                           REF:               p. 51   OBJ:    3.8

TOP:   Assessment    MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

NOT:  Concepts: Coping

 

  1. A patient calls the nurse to report the smell of cigarette smoke in the bathroom. The event which triggers this communication process is referred to as the:
a. channel.
b. referent.
c. message.
d. feedback.

 

 

ANS:  B

The elements of the communication process include a referent (i.e., event or thought initiating the communication), a sender (i.e., person who initiates and encodes the communication), a receiver (i.e., person who receives and decodes, or interprets, the communication), the message (i.e., information that is communicated), the channel (i.e., method of communication), and feedback (i.e. response of the receiver).

 

DIF:    Understanding                                           REF:               pp. 38-39       OBJ:    3.1

TOP:   Assessment    MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

NOT:  Concepts: Communication

 

  1. The nurse manager sends an e-mail to the nursing staff as a reminder for a scheduled monthly meeting. In doing so, the nurse manager understands that e-mail:
a. is usually slower than other methods to disseminate knowledge.
b. has the potential for miscommunication.
c. cannot be used to deliver vital information.
d. is especially effective because of the use of nonverbal cues.

 

 

ANS:  B

A message is the content transmitted during communication. Messages are transmitted through all forms of communication, including spoken, written, and nonverbal modalities. Electronic communication in the form of information referencing, e-mail, social networking, and blogging can quickly contribute to a persons knowledge, providing patients and health care professionals with vital information. However, the potential for miscommunication exists, in part because nonverbal cues are not apparent.

 

DIF:    Understanding                                           REF:               p. 39 | p. 42   OBJ:    3.1

TOP:   Assessment    MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

NOT:  Concepts: Communication

 

  1. The nursing student has been assigned to help feed patients at lunch time. Which of these nursing interventions would be most effective when assisting a blind patient to eat a meal?
a. Speak loudly to ensure that the patient understands.
b. Describe the food arrangement using the numbers on a clock.
c. Tell the patient what is on the plate, assuming he has lost the sense of smell.
d. Encourage the patient to eat faster so that the task will be done.

 

 

ANS:  B

An important factor to remember when caring for visually impaired or blind patients is that they are rarely hearing impaired. Typically, blind patients have heightened auditory and olfactory senses. Communication with blind patients can be characterized as anticipatory in nature, meaning that the nurse should alert visually impaired patients of potential hazards or object locations to provide necessary information and safe care. For example, the nurse may inform the visually impaired patient that the meat entre is in the 6 oclock position and the coffee cup is at 2 oclock on the tray. This system may be helpful in orienting blind patients to their hospital rooms. For example, from the vantage point of lying in bed, the bathroom may be at the 10 oclock position and the phone at 5 oclock on the bedside cabinet.  Communication with sensory-impaired patients requires patience, creativity, and adaptation to ensure that patient needs are met.

 

DIF:    Applying        REF:   p. 49 | p. 52   OBJ:   3.9                 TOP:   Implementation

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity   NOT:  Concepts: Caregiving

 

  1. The nurse observes a confused patient pacing back and forth in the dining room. The patient yells, The doctor is going to make us all drink poison! The most appropriate intervention at this time would be to:
a. ask the patient why he would say something like that.
b. change the subject to disrupt the patients thought process.
c. tell the patient that he should probably think of something else.
d. quietly ask the patient to explain the statement.

 

 

ANS:  D

Seeking clarification encourages the patient to expand on a topic that may be confusing or that seems contradictory. Asking why questions implies criticism, may make the patient defensive, tends to limit conversation, requires justification of actions, and focuses on a problem rather than a possible solution. Changing the subject avoids exploration of the topic raised by the patient, and demonstrates the nurses discomfort with the topic introduced by the patient. Giving advice implies a lack of confidence in the patient to make a healthy decision

 

DIF:    Applying        REF:   pp. 47-48 | pp. 50-51                                OBJ:    3.9

TOP:   Implementation

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity   NOT:  Concepts: Caregiving

 

  1. A patient with an inoperable brain tumor says to the nurse, I just want to die now. Its going to happen soon anyway. Which of the following would be the most appropriate response?
a. Dont worry about that right now. Itll be OK.
b. I disagree with what you just said!
c. Honey, now dont you talk like that.
d. Tell me why you are saying that.

 

 

ANS:  D

Using open-ended questions or comments gives the patient the opportunity to share freely on a subject, avoids interjection of feelings or assumptions by the nurse, and provides for patient elaboration on important topics when the nurse wants to collect a breadth of information. Giving false reassurance discounts the patients feelings, cuts off conversation about legitimate concerns of the patient, and demonstrates a need by the nurse to fix something that the patient just wants to discuss. Showing agreement or disagreement discontinues patient reflection on an introduced topic, and implies a lack of value for the thoughts, feelings, or concerns of patients. Using personal terms of endearment, such as Honey, demonstrates disrespect for the individual, diminishes the dignity of a unique patient, and may indicate that the nurse did not take the time or care enough to learn or remember the patients name

 

DIF:    Applying        REF:   pp. 47-48 | pp. 50-51                                OBJ:    3.7

TOP:   Implementation

MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity   NOT:  Concepts: Communication

 

  1. The nurse is caring for a patient with chronic lung disease. The patient demands a cigarette after eating breakfast. The nurse responds, If that was me, I wouldnt be asking for a cigarette. That is what has made you so sick in the first place. This nontherapeutic communication response is an example of:
a. changing the subject.
b. giving advice.
c. a stereotypical response.
d. defensiveness.

 

 

ANS:  B

Giving advice implies that the patient cannot make his or her own decisions and the nurse accepts the responsibility for the action. Changing the subject ignores the patients concerns. Stereotypical or generalized responses such as, Dont cry over spilled milk may be seen as judgmental. A defensive response such as, The nurses work very hard to take care of you moves the focus of the conversation from the patient and limits further discussion.

 

DIF:    Remembering                                 REF:   pp. 50-51       OBJ:   3.7

TOP:   Assessment    MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

NOT:  Concepts: Communication

 

  1. What would be an acceptable personal space distance for most English-speaking persons?
a. 14 inches
b. 18 inches
c. 21 inches
d. 24 inches

 

 

ANS:  B

Proxemics refers to the amount of space or distance acceptable to two or more individuals based on cultural standards and personal preferences. Most English-speaking persons consider 18 inches to be an acceptable distance for communication. In general, intimate space is 0 to 1.5 feet; personal space is 1.5 to 4 feet; social space is 4 to 12 feet; and public space is 12 to 25 feet or more.

 

DIF:    Remembering                                 REF:   p. 40              OBJ:   3.2

TOP:   Assessment    MSC:  NCLEX Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

NOT:  Concepts: Communication

 

  1. Based on a patients perception of professional competence and caring, the nurse should wear:
a. large, dangling, hoop earrings
b. bright red, acrylic fingernails
c. a clean, neatly pressed uniform
d. offensive tattoos that cannot be covered

 

 

ANS:  C

Professional symbolic expressions often communicate self-worth and pride. A clean uniform demonstrates a competent and caring demeanor. Patients consistently judge health care professionals by their appearance. The

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